Publish Your Data with ORNL DAAC
The ORNL DAAC manages scientific data in order to make these data accessible and useful to researchers, today and tomorrow. This document outlines our data publication policies and standards. The content here is a guide for data providers and authors of data.
There are many benefits to publishing your data in an open data repository. You get credit for archived data products and their subsequent use. The DAAC's process of QA and documentation adds value and may catch errors in your data. Collaborators can readily understand and use your data both in the near future and in the long-term. Sponsors protect their investment. And scientists outside your project can find, understand, and use your data to address broad questions.
Start here to submit your dataset to the ORNL DAAC:Submit Data Form
The ORNL DAAC archives data and model products that were generated with funding from the NASA Terrestrial Ecology program and other programs within the NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Focus area. Priority data include:
- Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment
- Carbon Monitoring System (as funding allows)
- North American Carbon Program
- Earth Ventures-Suborbital 2 missions: ACT-America and ATom
- Other products funded by NASA Terrestrial Ecology program
- Validation of Earth Observing System data products
- Other products from Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus area will be accepted on a case-by-case basis
All submitted data are reviewed based on the priority areas listed above, the scientific impact and community need, and appropriate use of DAAC resources before being accepted into the archive. The ORNL DAAC User Working Group, ESDIS , and DAAC staff review may recommend a different data archive center.
Other data archives include:
- NASA EOSDIS DAAC data centers
- Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office ( BCO-DMO )
- Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science ( CUAHSI )
- USA National Phenology Network
- NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information
- U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Catalog
- Dept. of Energy Earth Science and Environmental Data Archive ( ESS-DIVE )
- NSF Environmental Data Initiative
- NSF Arctic Data Center
- Dryad Digital Repository
Data to accompany a journal publication
Many journals now require that data associated with a manuscript be archived before the manuscript can be published. The ORNL DAAC will work with authors to archive their data so that it will be available upon publication of the manuscript. We offer a data publication embargo period of up to three months.
In order to publish data in conjunction with the release of a paper, you can request that the DAAC hold your data for an embargo period of up to 3 months. However, we cannot extend this embargo period indefinitely. NASA has a Data & Information Policy of free and open data availability with no period of exclusive access. In addition, the DAAC staff receive credit for their work within a reasonable timeframe, and data providers also receive credit for their work through the data DOI and citation.
We consider a data publication to be a first-class research product. As such, the author list should include anyone who contributed substantially to the data collection, processing, and analysis. The data author list may not necessarily be the same as a related journal publication. A person who made a minimal contribution to the data, or who contributed only to a paper that used or analyzed the data, should not be listed as an author. Gathering funds for the project, paying salaries, providing a conducive environment, or being the spokesperson are not activities that warrant authorship without a significant contribution to the scientific content of the data. The ORNL DAAC will provide an acknowledgement in the dataset documentation in these cases.
Read more about scientific authorship:
McNutt, M.K, et al. 2018. Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication. PNAS. 115(11): 2557-2560. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1715374115
1. Start your data submission
If you are interested in archiving data products, start here: Submit Data Form. Data inquiries will be reviewed and a decision will be sent to you by email within a few days.
2. Submit your data and documentation
You will receive an email from our data submission system with instructions on how to upload your data files and supplemental files, including description documents and any associated papers, to the ORNL DAAC system. Please follow the Detailed Submission Guidelines . You will also be asked to answer a few Data Provider Questions about the data.
Please provide a full list of the data authors following ORNL DAAC Data Authorship Policy .
Submission Help is available for in progress submissions.
3. DAAC performs data quality review and writes documentation
DAAC staff will review the submitted data using our Data Quality Review Checklist.
DAAC staff will also prepare metadata and comprehensive documentation about your data. Spatial data may be added to our Spatial Data Access Tool, and NetCDF-format data may be added to our OPeNDAP data service. ORNL DAAC also generates a citation and registers a DOI for the dataset.
If any questions arise during the QA and documentation of your dataset, you must respond to inquiries in a timely manner. If you do not respond, the DAAC will place the data submission on hold.
4. Review the data and documentation
When the data and documentation are ready, you will be asked to review and approve the final data package before it is released online.
The DAAC will publish the data package and distribute metadata to the NASA EOSDIS clearinghouse and other relevant data catalogues. The ORNL DAAC also advertises the data online through email, social media, and the DAAC website.
6. Long-term data stewardship
Over the longer-term, the ORNL DAAC also:
- Provides tools to explore, access, and extract data
- Provides long-term, secure archiving (back-up and recovery)
- Addresses user questions, and serves as a buffer between users and data contributors
- Provides usage & download statistics and data citation statistics
Files expected in a dataset submission:
- Data files
- Supplemental files (including photos, reports, or metadata)
- Code (if applicable)
- Published paper or manuscript draft (if applicable)
Include all the files representing a complete, and reproducible, body of work. When possible, field or input data should be included alongside higher-level, derived products. Uncertainty estimates (such as standard deviation or confidence estimates) should be included with the data, if available. Datasets consisting of summary statistics only will not be accepted.
The ORNL DAAC accepts data in the following formats:
- Spatial data: GeoTIFF, NetCDF, HDF, shapefile, or KML/KMZ
- Tabular data: comma-separated values (CSV) format. Excel files will not be accepted.
During the QA process, DAAC staff may recommend that you convert your data into another format to take advantage of data tools and services offered by the DAAC. Use a consistent system of data organization throughout the entire dataset and follow standards and best practices.
- ORNL DAAC CSV Standards
- NetCDF Data Requirements
- NASA Recommendations for NetCDF & HDF Data Interoperability
Include any additional files that are associated with your dataset, such as photos, reports, Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD), or metadata files.
Data documentation should be uploaded with the data files. Documentation should include:
- Name of the dataset
- What data were collected and the scientific reason why the data were collected
- Who collected the data and whom to contact with questions (include email and website if appropriate)
- Who funded the investigation (award/grant numbers)
- When and how frequently the data were collected
- Where and with what spatial resolution the data were collected
- Name(s) of the data file(s) or explanation of the file-naming convention
- Definition of all parameters, variables, abbreviations, and missing or no-data values
- Date the dataset was last modified
- Methods: How each parameter was measured or produced, units of measure, data format, precision and accuracy, and relationship to other data in the dataset
- What instruments, standards or calibrations were used
- The data processing that was performed, including screening
- The lineage (provenance) of the data, if it was derived from existing data
- Describe the quality assurance and quality control that have been applied
- Known problems that limit the data's use (e.g., uncertainty, sampling problems, blanks, QC samples)
- References to published papers, including DOI where available, describing the collection and/or analysis of the data
We recommend using our Data Provider Documentation Template.
Code or Scripts
You may wish to archive scripts designed to operate on your data. The ORNL DAAC also archives model products that contain the methodological detail of numerical modeling studies. Because numerical models evolve continuously over time, an archived version of a model should include:
- Model code
- Documentation including model name and version, model process representation and, as appropriate, a description of model lineage
- Sample input & output
Published paper or manuscript draft
Publication of a paper is not required for data archival at ORNL DAAC. However, if your data were used in a paper, including it in the data submission will help our staff to understand and document your data. We will not share the paper or post it online.
Submission Help is available for in progress submissions.