This data set reports the results of a study to measure soil emissions of the carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) throughout an entire cropping cycle in (1) slash-and-burn and (2) chop-and-mulch prepared agricultural fields from 2001-2004. An adjacent 15-year-old fallow field with secondary forest vegetation served as the control. The study site is within the municipality of Igarape Acu, Para, Brazil, at the Experimental Farm of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia. Flux data are reported in one comma-separated file.
Cite this data set as follows:
Davidson, E.A., T.D. de Abreu Sa, C.J.R. de Carvalho, R.O. Figueiredo. 2009. LBA-ECO ND-02 Agricultural and Secondary Forest Soil Trace Gas Flux, Para: 2001-2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi: 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/950
The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.
This data set was archived in December of 2009. Users who download the data between December 2009 and November 2014 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.
Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.
Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.
Activity: Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands
LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics
Team ID: ND-02 (Davidson / Carvalho / Dias-Filho / Moutinho / Sa / Vieira)
The investigators were Davidson, Eric A.;
Carvalho, Claudio Jose Reis de; Moutinho, Paulo Roberto de Souza;
Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira and Sa, Tatiana .
You may contact Davidson, Eric A. (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Figueiredo,
LBA Data Set Inventory ID: ND02_Mulching_Experiment
This data set reports the results of a study to measure soil emissions of the carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) throughout an entire cropping cycle in slash-and-burn and chop-and-mulch agricultural fields and in an adjacent 15-year-old fallow field with secondary forest vegetation. Fires set for slash-and-burn agriculture contribute to the current unsustainable accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and they also deplete the soil of essential nutrients, which compromises agricultural sustainability at local scales.
Flux data for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) are reported in one comma-separated file. Note that positive values indicate emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate net uptake by the soils of atmospheric gases.
Data File Description: Igarape_Acu_Mulching_Experiment.csv
|Column Number||Column Heading||Units / Format||Description|
|1||Site||Study Site (Igarape Acu)|
|2||Date||Mon-YY||Sample month and year|
|3||Year||YYYY||Sample year (2001-2004)|
|4||Month||MM||Sample month (1-12)|
|5||Treatment||Treatment class: burned, forest, mulched|
|6||Plot||Plot: a, b|
|7||Chamber||Chamber Number: 1-8|
|8||CO2||g C/m2/h||Carbon dioxide flux|
|9||CH4||mg CH4/m2/d||Methane flux|
|10||N2O||ng N/cm2/h||Nitrous oxide flux|
|11||NO||ng N/cm2/h||Nitric oxide flux|
Example data record:
|Header records omitted
Igarape Acu,Mon-YY,YYYY,MM,,,,g C/m2/h,mg CH4/m2/d,ng N/cm2/h,ng N/cm2/h
Site boundaries:(All latitude and longitude given in degrees and fractions)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude||GeodeticDatum|
|Para Eastern (Belem) - Igarape Acu (Para Eastern (Belem))||- 47.60000||-47.60000||-1.10000||- 1.10000||World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)|
Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:
Effects of slash-and-mulch and slash-and-burn agriculture on emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane from soil were investigated. Fires set for slash-and-burn agriculture contribute to the current unsustainable accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and they also deplete the soil of essential nutrients, which compromises agricultural sustainability at local scales. Integrated assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have compared intensive cropping systems in industrialized countries, but such assessments have not been applied to common cropping systems of small holder farmers in developing countries. These data support an integrated assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in slash-and-burn agriculture and an alternative chop-and-mulch system in the Amazon Basin.
Measurement quality control procedures are described in Davidson et al., 2008.
Study Site and Agricultural Practices:
study site is within the municipality of
Igarape Acu, Para, where small-holder agriculture is the dominant land
use. At the Experimental Farm of the Federal Rural University of
Amazonia, a 15-year-old fallow field was prepared for planting during
the dry season of 2001. One field (2 ha) was cut and burned in November
2001 and another field (2 ha) was chopped and mulched in December,
2001. Both fields were planted in maize in January 2002. The mulched
plot was fertilized with 60 kg N, 60 kg P, and 30 kg K per hectare (as
urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride) at time of planting
of corn. In addition, 30 kg N ha-1 as urea was added in the mulched
fields 45 days after germination of the corn. Cassava was
planted under the maize in February
2002, and the maize was harvested in May 2002. The plots were weeded,
and leguminous trees Acacia mangium, Willd, and Sclerolobium
paniculatum, Vogel, were planted in 2 m x 2 m spacing in June 2002. The
cassava was harvested in June 2003, and the site was allowed to return
to fallow, enriched with the planted N-fixing trees.
Experimental and Control Plots and Measurement Frequency:
Each field was subdivided into plots, and two 10 x 10 m plots were selected within each of the two fields for trace gas measurements. Eight chamber bases, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rings (20cm diameter), were inserted about 2 cm into the soil in each of these four plots. An additional eight rings were installed in the adjacent fallow field with 15-year-old second growth (capoeira) vegetation. It was necessary to remove the rings before the burning and mulching treatments and to reinstall them afterwards. Otherwise, the rings were left in place throughout the measurement period. Measurements were begun prior to treatment in November, 2001, and were repeated once every one to three months thereafter, and sometimes more frequently to capture the effects of management operations until June 2004.
Fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured using a static chamber technique (Verchot et al., 1999) using the chamber bases described above. At each measurement date, a 20 mL sample of headspace gas was collected by syringe at 0, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after placing a vented PVC chamber over each ring. These gas samples were analyzed in a laboratory in Belem by gas chromatography within 48 hours, using an electron capture detector for N2O analysis and a flame ionization detector for CH4 analysis. Fluxes were calculated from the rate of concentration change, determined by linear regression. A few data gaps resulted from occasional failure of the gas chromatographs.
Fluxes of NO
and CO2 were measured in the field from the same PVC
rings using portable gas analyzers. A dynamic chamber method
was used for measuring fluxes of NO and CO2 (Verchot
et al., 1999). A vented PVC cover made from an end cap of a 20-cm
diameter PVC pipe was placed over a PVC ring to make a flux
measurement. Air drawn from the chamber was circulated through a nafion
gas sample dryer, a Scintrex LMA 3 NO2 analyzer (Scintrex Limited,
Concord Ontario, Canada), and a LiCor infrared gas analyzer
and then back to the chamber, using teflon
tubing and a battery operated pump, at a flow rate of 0.5 L min 1.
Varying the flow rate from 0.4 to 1.2 L min-1 had no detectable effect
on measured flux rates. NO is converted to NO2 by a CrO3 converter, and
the NO2 is detected by chemiluminescent reaction with Luminol. Fluxes
were calculated from the rate of increase of NO and CO2 concentrations,
recorded by a datalogger at 12-s intervals between 1 and 3 minutes
placing the cover over the ring. The instrument was calibrated twice
daily in the field. An instrument failure prevented NO measurements
after May 2003.
measuring these four gases are described in Cattanio et al. (2002).
Both dynamic and static
chamber flux measurements were made on the same day and, in most cases,
within 90 minutes of each other.
Sensors used include:
This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Cattanio, J.H., E.A. Davidson, D.C. Nepstad, L.V. Verchot, and I.L. Ackerman. 2002. Unexpected results of a pilot throughfall exclusion experiment on soil emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, and NO in eastern Amazonia. Biology and Fertility of Soils 36:102-108. doi:10.1007/s00374-002-0517-x
Davidson, E.A., T.D. de A. Sa, C. J.R
Figueiredo, M.S.A. Kato, O.R. Kato, F.Y. Ishida. 2008. An integrated
greenhouse gas assessment of an alternative to slash-and-burn
agriculture in eastern Amazonia. Global Change Biology, 14,
SA, Kato OR, Denich M, Vlek PLG. 1999. Fire-free alternatives
slash-and-burn for shifting cultivation in the eastern Amazon region:
The role of fertilizers. Field Crops Research, 62, 225-237. doi:10.1016/S0378-4290(99)00021-0
LV, Davidson EA, Cattanio JH, Ackerman IL, Erickson HE, Keller M
1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen
oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical
Cycles, 13, 31-46. doi:10.1029/1998GB900019