This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 80 km south of the city of Santarem, Para, Brazil. The collections were between October 1999 and June 2003 from tower sites accessed via the km 67 forest entrance. There are 2 comma-delimited ASCII data files with this data set, and 1 companion data file which provides site descriptions.
Cite this data set as follows:
Ehleringer, J., L.A. Martinelli and J.P. Ometto. 2011. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1009
The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.
This data set was archived in May of 2011. Users who download the data between May 2011 and April 2016 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.
Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.
Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.
Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)
LBA Science Component: Carbon Dynamics
Team ID: CD-02 (Ehleringer / Martinelli)
The investigators were Cook, Craig; Domingues, Tomas Ferreira; Ehleringer, James; Flanagan, Lawrence; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Ometto, Jean Pierre H.B. and Berry, Joseph. You may contact Ehleringer, Jim (firstname.lastname@example.org)
LBA Data Set Inventory ID: CD02_Forest_Canopy_Structure
This data set reports Specific Leaf Area (SLA) of samples collected from 1999-2003 and Leaf Area Index (LAI) measured in 2003 on forest towers and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 80 km south of the city of Santarem, Para, Brazil. The collections were from sites accessed via the km 67 forest entrance. Specific sites are identified in the data files.
Related data sets:
Data are presented in two comma-delimited ASCII files. File #1: CD02_LAI_measurements_TNF.csv,
and File #2: CD02_SLA_measurements_TNF.csv.
Site location information is also provided in one companion, comma-delimited ASCII file: CD02_LAI_Forest_Site_Descriptions.csv.
File #1: CD02_LAI_measurements_TNF.csv
|1||Sample_date||yyyy/mm/dd||Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)|
|2||Site_ID||Sampling site (see accompanying Study Site Description file)|
|3||File_ID||LAI 2000 file identification|
|4||Height||m||Height at which the measurements were taken, reported in meters (m) above the ground|
|5||Orientation||The direction the sensor was pointing during measurement 1 = north 2 = northwest 3 = west 4 = south 5 = southeast 6 = east|
|6||LAI||m2/m2||Leaf area index measured using a LAI 2000|
|7||DIFN||Diffuse non-interceptance, or visible fraction of the sky|
|8||MTA||degrees||Mean foliage tilt angle in degrees|
|Note: there are no missing values in this data file|
Example data records
2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,1,36,1,0.45,0.694,0
2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,2,36,2,0.41,0.701,45
2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,3,36,3,0,1.001,57
2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),14,4,3.25,0.069,45
2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),15,2,3.51,0.059,50
2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),16,0,4.48,0.023,43
File #2: CD02_SLA_measurements_TNF.csv
|1||Sample_ID||Sample identification number used for linking field measurements to lab analyses; sample IDs in some cases were repeated across sites|
|2||Sample_date||yyyy/mm/dd||Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)|
|3||Site_ID||Site identification code|
|4||Latitude||degrees||Latitide in decimal degrees; negative values indicate south|
|5||Longitude||degrees||Longitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate west|
|6||Season||Season: Wet or Dry|
|7||Species||Scientific name in the format Genus species, where determined, otherwise not provided|
|8||Common_name||Local name, if recorded, otherwise not provided|
|9||Height||m||The distance in meters from the ground to the canopy where the leaf was collected|
|10||Functional_group||Vegetation type (Liana, Tree, Sapling or Grass) Note sapling refers to any non-grass life form in the pasture and can include shrubs, young trees and/or young lianas|
|11||Position||Canopy position (for forest sites only): Understory, Mid-canopy, Upper-canopy (top canopy layer), or not provided; for pasture site, canopy position is indicated as not applicable|
|12||Leaf_area||m^2||Leaf area measured by tracing leaf contour on paper sheet while in the field. In the lab, areas were determined using NIH 1.63 software after scanning drawings|
|13||Leaf_weight||g||Leaf dry weight (in grams) after leaves were dried in 65C ovens for 48 hours|
|14||SLA||m^2 g-1||Specific leaf area: the ratio of leaf area to its dry weight, reported as m^2 g-1|
|Missing numeric data values are indicated by -9999; missing character values are indicated as not provided.|
Example data records
178,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Murta,
177,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Murta,
176,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Not provided,
5,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control), -2.89833,-54.95583,Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila,Not provided,
4,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control),-2.89833,-54.95583,Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila, Not provided,
27, Tree,Upper-canopy, 0.0068,-9999, -9999
3,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control),-2.89833,-54.95583, Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila,Not provided,
27, Tree,Upper-canopy, 0.007, -9999, -9999
Companion file: CD02_LAI_Forest_Site_Descriptions.csv
|1||Site_ID||Site Identification code|
|2||Site_description||Study site description|
|3||Tower_height||m||Tower height in meters, if applicable; pasture site samples were not collected from the tower|
|4||Latitude||degrees||Site location latitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate south|
|5||Longitude||degrees||Site location longitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate west|
|6||In_LAI||Indicates whether LAI was measured at this site|
|7||In_SLA||Indicates whether SLA was measured at this site|
Example data records
Tower_height, Latitude, Longitude, In_LAI, In_SLA
km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,km 67 - Primary Forest - Tower Site; collections were done from the walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower,
km 83 - Forest Tower (before logging),km 83 - Forest Tower Site - collections were done from the walk up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 forest entrance; collections of the area surrounding the tower were conducted both prior to and after reduced-impact logging that occurred between March-October 2001
km 67 - Seca-Floresta T4 (Treatment),Seca-Floresta - Tower 4 (Rainfall Exclusion Experiment Treatment Plot),
Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude||Geodetic Datum|
|Para Western (Santarem) - km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem))||-54.95900||-54.95900||-2.85700||-2.85700||World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)|
|Para Western (Santarem) - km 67 Seca-Floresta Tower (Para Western (Santarem))||-55.00000||-55.00000||-2.75000||-2.75000||World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)|
|Para Western (Santarem) - km 83 Logged Forest Tower (Para Western (Santarem))||-54.97070||-54.97070||- 3.01700||- 3.01700||World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)|
|Para Western (Santarem) - km 77 Pasture Tower Tower (Para Western (Santarem))||-54.88850||-54.88850||-3.02020||-3.02020||World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)|
Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:
These data can be used for the computation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and for the evaluation of the biological control exerted by local vegetation over carbon and water fluxes.
The data have been reviewed and there are no known problems at this time.
The LAI-2000 assumes a random distribution of leaves and cannot distinguish leaf area from non-leaf area (stems and branches); therefore it measures plant area index (Weiss et al. 2004)
All measurements were done in or near the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 80 km south of the city of Santarem in the state of Para.
LAI measurement sites:
Leaf area indices were measured throughout the canopy profile from four walk-up towers.
The accumulation of leaf area index (LAI) through the forest canopy profile was determined in June 2003. LAI estimates were derived from the differences between simultaneous readings from two LAI-2000 sensors (Licor). One of the sensors was fixed at the top of the canopy, while the other was carried through the canopy.
Measurements were taken every 1.5 meter at the rainfall exclusion towers and every 2 meters at the km 67 tower.
1. The first tower was 40 m tall, located adjacent to the eddy flux tower and is identified as km 67 tower; Site_ID: km 67 - Primary Forest Tower.
2. The second and third towers were located approximately 10 km southeast of the first tower in the rainfall exclusion experiment control plots (Control plot at Seca-Floresta site towers 1 and 2; Nepstad et al. 2002) and were 25 meters tall; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control) km 67 - Seca-Floresta T2 (Control).
3. The fourth tower was located in the rainfall exclusion experiment dry-down treatment plot at Seca-Floresta site (tower 4) and was also 25 meters tall; Site_ID: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T4 (Treatment).
For the leaf mass and specific leaf area measurements collections were taken from walk-up towers to allow access to the full canopy in the forest sites.
Leaves from all branches within reach of the towers were sampled for leaf mass per unit area (LMA) determination. For LMA determination contours of individual leaves were traced on paper sheets immediately upon collection. Paper sheets with leaf tracings were scanned in the laboratory and the area of individual leaves was determined with National Institute of Health (NIH)-Image software version 1.6. The actual leaves collected were taken to the laboratory for weight determination
after being dried for 24 hours at 65 degrees C in convection ovens.
Eight locations within or near the TNF were included:
1. Towers 1 and 3 in the rainfall exclusion experiment control plot; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control) and km 67 - Seca-Floresta T3 (Control).
2. Towers 1, 2 and 3 in the rainfall exclusion experiment dry-down treatment plot at km 67; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Treatment), km 67 - Seca-Floresta T2 (Treatment), and km 67 - Seca-Floresta T3 (Treatment).
3. The walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at km 67; Site_ID: km 67 - Primary Forest Tower.
4. The walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 forest entrance. Collections were done both prior to and after reduced impact logging that occurred between March-October 2001 in the area surrounding the tower; Site_IDs: km 83 - Forest Tower (before logging) and km 83 - Forest Tower (after logging).
5. Location in a pasture adjacent to the eddy flux tower at km 77 and did not require a tower for canopy access; Site_ID: km 77
For the leaf mass and specific leaf area measurement samples, grasses and sapling leaves were collected and taken to the laboratory for weight determination after being dried for 24 hours at 65 degrees C in convection ovens. There were no pasture LAI measurements.
This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Nepstad D.C. et al. 2002. The effects of partial throughfall exclusion on canopy processes, aboveground production and biogeochemistry of an Amazon forest. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8085, doi:10.1029/2001JD000360
Weiss, M., F. Baret, G.J. Smith, I. Jonckheere and P. Copin. 2004. Review of methods for in situ leaf area index (LAI) determination. Part II. Estimation of LAI, errors and sampling. Agric. For. Meteor. 121 37-53. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.08.001