The BigFoot Project compiled daily meteorological measurements for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 1991 to 2004. Each site is representative of one or two distinct biomes, including the Arctic tundra; boreal evergreen needleleaf forest; temperate cropland, grassland, evergreen needleleaf forest, and deciduous broadleaf forest; desert grassland and shrubland; and tropical evergreen broadleaf forest.
The BigFoot Project needed meteorological data to run ecosystem process models used for scaling GPP and NPP products, for monitoring interannual variability, and for model testing. Meteorological data were obtained from various agencies collecting data in the vicinity of the BigFoot sites and, for more recent years, collected on co-located CO2 flux measurement towers. A comparable set of original measurements from all sites were aggregated to a common daily time step for use in the BIOME-BGC model.
Additional information about the BigFoot Project and access to other validation products for land cover, leaf area index (LAI), net primary production (NPP), and gross primary production (GPP) may be obtained at BigFoot Project page at the ORNL DAAC [ http://daac.ornl.gov/BIGFOOT_VAL/bigfoot.html ].
The companion document (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/bigfoot_val/Meteorological/comp/BIGFOOT_met_companion.doc) identifies the sources of the meteorological data compiled for each BigFoot site and the processing performed by the BigFoot project to aggregate the data to a daily time step for use in the BIOME-BGC model. The meteorological data file format and content are also described.
We are archiving daily meteorological data for the following sites and years. The annual data files for each site are combined in a single compressed file (e.g., nobs.zip). The individual data files are in ASCII comma separated format (e.g., bigfoot_nobs_met_2002.csv).
|NOBS||BOREAS NSA, Canada||boreal forest||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|AGRO||Bondville, Illinois, USA||cropland (corn and soybean)||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|HARV||Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA||temperate mixed forest||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|KONZ||Konza Prairie LTER, Kansas, USA||tallgrass prairie||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|CHEQ||Park Falls, Wisconsin, USA||temperate mixed forest||X||X||X|
|METL||Cascades, Oregon, USA||temperate needleleaf forest||X|
|SEVI||Sevilleta LTER, New Mexico, USA||desert||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|TAPA||Tapajos, Brazil||tropical broadleaf evergreen forest||X||X||X|
|TUND||Barrow, AK, USA||arctic tundra||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
BigFoot Project Background:
Reflectance data from MODIS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra (http://landval.gsfc.nasa.gov), are used to produce several science products including land cover, leaf area index (LAI), gross primary production (GPP), and net primary production (NPP). The overall goal of the BigFoot Project was to provide validation of these products. To do this, BigFoot combined ground measurements, additional high-resolution remote-sensing data, and ecosystem process models at nine flux tower sites representing different biomes to evaluate the effects of the spatial and temporal patterns of ecosystem characteristics on MODIS products. BigFoot characterized up to a 7 x 7 km area (49 1-km MODIS pixels) surrounding the CO2 flux towers located at each of the nine sites. We collected multi-year, in situ measurements of ecosystem structure and functional characteristics related to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Our sampling design allowed us to examine scales and spatial pattern of these properties, the inter-annual variability and validity of MODIS products, and provided for a field-based ecological characterization of the flux tower footprint. BigFoot was funded by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program.
The BigFoot Field Manual (Campbell et al., 1999) provides background information on site and plot locations and measurements. (BigFoot_Field_Manual_1999.pdf )
For more details on the BigFoot Project, please visit the website: (http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/index.html).
Additional site characteristics information is available on the ORNL DAAC FLUXNET web site (http://www.fluxnet.ornl.gov/fluxnet/index.cfm).
Carbon and energy flux data may be available for selected sites on the AmeriFlux Network web site (http://public.ornl.gov/ameriflux/index.html).
Cite this data set as follows:
Turner, D.P., M.J. Gregory, and W.D. Ritts. 2012. BIGFOOT Meteorological Data for North and South American Sites, 1991-2004. Data set. Available on-line (http://daac.ornl.gov/) from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1065
BigFoot Data Policy: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/data_data.html
Please notify the appropriate PIs of how the data will be used and of any publication plans. If the PIs feel that they should be acknowledged or offered participation as authors, they will let you know and we assume that an agreement on such matters will be reached prior to publishing and/or use of the data for publication. If your work directly competes with the PIs analysis they may ask that they have the opportunity to submit a manuscript before you submit one that uses their data. In addition, when publishing, please cite the data source (as given in the metadata that accompanies the data set).
Principal Investigators Contact Link: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/people.html
Related Data Sets: (http://daac.ornl.gov/BIGFOOT_VAL/bigfoot.shtml )
The companion document (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/bigfoot_val/Meteorological/comp/BIGFOOT_met_companion.doc) identifies the sources of the meteorological data compiled for each BIGFOOT site and the processing performed by the BIGFOOT project to aggregate the data to a daily time step for use in the BIOME-BGC model.
The annual data files for each site are combined in a single compressed file (e.g., konz.zip). The individual data files are in ASCII comma separated format (*.csv).
Data File Contents:
|Column Names (Row 1)||Units (Row 2)||Variable Description|
|SITE||location||BigFoot Site Name|
|DAY||day||Day of Year|
|TMAX||deg C||Maximum Daily Temperature (deg C)|
|TMIN||deg C||Minimum Daily Temperature (deg C)|
|VPD||Pa||Daily Average Vapor Pressure Deficit (Pa)|
|SWAVGFD||W m^-2||Daily Average Instantaneous Shortwave Flux Density (W/m2)|
|PAR||W m^-2||Daily Average Instantaneous Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) (W/m2)|
BIGFOOT Site Abbreviations and Locations:
|Site||Site Location||Fluxnet Site Code||Biome|
|NOBS||BOREAS NSA, Canada||CA-Man||boreal forest|
|AGRO||Bondville, Illinois, USA||US-Bo1||cropland (corn and soybean)|
|HARV||Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA||US-Ha1||temperate mixed forest|
|KONZ||Konza Prairie LTER, Kansas, USA||US-Kon||tallgrass prairie|
|CHEQ||Park Falls, Wisconsin, USA||US-PFa||temperate mixed forest|
|METL||Cascades, Oregon, USA||Old Pine:
|temperate needleleaf forest|
|METL||Cascades, Oregon, USA||First Young Pine:
|temperate needleleaf forest|
|SEVI||Sevilleta LTER, New Mexico, USA||US-Seg||desert|
|TAPA||Tapajos, Brazil||BR-Sa1||tropical broadleaf evergreen forest|
|TUND||Barrow, AK, USA||US-Brw||arctic tundra|
Example data file (e.g., bigfoot_konz_met_2001.csv):
location,day,cm,deg C,deg C,Pa,W m^-2,W m^-2,s
BigFoot Site Center and Tower Locations
|Site Name||Latitude||Longitude||UTM X Coord||UTM Y Coord||UTM Zone|
|METL Tower, Old Pine||44.499166||-121.622369||609520||4928239||10N|
|METL Tower, Young Pine||44.437189||-121.566756||614062||4921431||10N|
This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Thorton, P.E. and Running, S.W. 1999. An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 93:211-228.
Turner, D.P., W.D. Ritts, W.B. Cohen, S.T. Gower, M. Zhao, S.W. Running, S.C. Wofsy, S. Urbanski, A. Dunn, and J.W. Munger. 2003. Scaling gross primary production (GPP) over boreal and deciduous forest landscapes in support of MODIS GPP product validation. Remote Sensing of Environment 88:256-270.