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The Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) was a multi-institutional, international effort that addressed the response of biogeography and biogeochemistry to environmental variability in climate and other drivers in both space and time domains. The objectives of VEMAP were to study the intercomparison of biogeochemistry models and vegetationtype distribution models (biogeography models) and determine their sensitivity to changing climate, elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and other sources of altered forcing.

Site files contain monthly climate and scenario data in column format. This time-sequential format was developed to facilitate the extraction of data for individual stations. README files included under the /siteFiles directory give instructions on how to find a particular grid cell. Site files omit background grid cells, with a new line for each grid cell (3261 data records). Each file lists 12 monthly values (January-December) as a single record. A record also contains geographic information about the associated grid point such as latitude, longitude, elevation, state identification number, and Kuchler and VEMAP vveg.v2 vegetation types.

A complete user's guide to the VEMAP Phase 1 database, which includes more information about this data set, can be found at

The ORNL DAAC maintains additional information associated with the VEMAP Project.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows (data citation revised on December 18, 2002):

Kittel, T. G. F., N. A. Rosenbloom, T. H. Painter, D. S. Schimel, H. H. Fisher, A. Grimsdell, VEMAP Participants, C. Daly, and E. R. Hunt, Jr. 1998. VEMAP 1: U.S. Site Files. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.


Kittel, T. G. F., N. A. Rosenbloom, T. H. Painter, D. S. Schimel, and VEMAP Modeling Participants. 1995. The VEMAP integrated database for modeling United States ecosystem/vegetation sensitivity to climate change. Journal of Biogeography 22:857-862.

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