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SAFARI 2000 Surface Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART), Dry Season 2000


Surface-sensing Measurements for Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) consist of a suite of instruments that measure (both in-situ and by remote sensing) parameters that characterize, as completely as possible, constituents of the atmosphere at a given location. SMART and COMMIT are mobile systems that can be deployed to locations that exhibit interesting atmospheric phenomena. This allows investigators to participate in coordinated measurement campaigns, such as SAFARI 2000.

The SMART instruments were deployed to the Skukuza Airport from August 15 to September 17, 2000 to take part in the SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Aircraft Campaign. The SMART-COMMIT mission is designed to pursue the following goals: Earth Observing System (EOS) validation, innovative investigations, and long-term atmospheric monitoring.

The results reported in this data set are for the following SMART instruments deployed and measurements recorded at the Skukuza Airport site within the Kruger National Park:

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Tsay S. C., and J. Q. Li. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Surface Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART), Dry Season 2000. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/727.


Campbell, J. R., E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben. 2003. Lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002563.

Christopher, S. A., J. Wang, Q. Ji, and S. C. Tsay. 2003. Estimation of diurnal shortwave dust aerosol radiative forcing during PRIDE. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002787.

Hansell, R., S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, K. N. Liou, and S. Ou. 2003. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations during PRIDE, SAFARI, and ACE-Asia. Appl. Opt., 42(27): 5533-5544.

Hsu, N. C., J. R. Herman, and S. C. Tsay. 2003. Radiative impacts from biomass burning in the presence of clouds during boreal spring in Southeast Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016485.

Ji, Q. and S. C. Tsay. 2000. On the dome effect of Eppley pyrgeometers and pyranometers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27: 971-974.

Ji, Q. and S. C. Tsay. 2003 (submitted). Thermal Dome Effect Considered in Pyranometer Calibration. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.

Reid, J. S., H. H. Jonsson, H. B. Maring, A. A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S. C. Tsay. 2003. Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.

Reid, J. S., J. E. Kinney, D. L. Westphal, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, S. C. Tsay, D. P. Eleuterio, J. Campbell, S. A. Christopher, H. H. Jonsson, J. M. Livingston, H. B. Maring, M. M. Meier, P. Pilewskie, J. Prospero, E. A. Reid, L. A. Remer, P. B. Russell, D. L. Savoie, A. A. Smirnov, and D. Tanre. 2003. Measurements of Saharan dust by airborne and ground-based remote sensing methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002493.

Tsay, S. C., Q. Ji, J. R. Campbell, S. Gasso, B. Holben, N. C. Hsu, M. D. King, G. I. Molnar, and C. Seftor. 2003 (submitted). SMART-COMMIT investigations to enrich NASA Earth Observing Systems Research. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

Data Format:

The data files are stored as ASCII text files, one file per site, in comma-separated-value (csv) format, with column headers. The data files are:


Each file contains the following parameters. The first record in each file contains the column names defined below, followed by subsequent records of data values.

File "smart_met_parameters_2000.csv" Description

Column Name
Date Date of data collection mm/dd/yy
Time Time of data collection HHMM UTC
Pressure Atmospheric Pressure H Pa
Temperature Air Temperature K
Humidity Relative humidity %
Wind Speed Measured wind speed m/s

File "smart_direct_diffuse_2000.csv" Description

Column Name
Date Date of data collection mm/dd/yy
Time Time of data collection HHMM UTC
Direct Solar Irradiance The solar radiation that passes directly though the atmosphere from the sun. W/m2
Diffuse Sky Solar Irradiance The solar irradiance that reaches the ground after scattering by atmospheric constituents such as air molecules, dust, or clouds. W/m2

File "smart_incoming_rad_2000.csv" Description

Column Name
Date Date of data collection mm/dd/yy
Time Time of data collection HHMM UTC
Downward Longwave Irradiance The amount of thermal irradiance emitted from the sky on an upward-facing horizontal surface. W/m2
Downward Total Solar Irradiance The total amount of solar irradiance on an upward-facing horizontal surface (the sum of the vertical component of the direct solar irradiance and the diffuse sky irradiance). W/m2

Additonal information about the instrumentation, parameters measured, and data format is found in the companion file:

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