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SAFARI 2000 Atmospheric Aerosol Measurements, Handheld Hazemeters, Zambia


In conjunction with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) participation in SAFARI 2000, the USDA Forest Service deployed handheld hazemeters in western Zambia from mid-June to late September 2000. Thirty-eight hazemeters were deployed within a 900 km x 900 km region in western Zambia to verify and study the aerosol properties in MODIS data. The handheld measurements were compared with satellite measurements. The hazemeter data were used to examine the effects of inhomogeneous atmosphere on MODIS aerosol product validation and to investigate the dependency of MODIS aerosol measurements on look angle and ground vegetation.

Data presented in this data set were measured with handheld 4-band hazemeters and do not always meet the high standards of quality associated with automatic sunphotometers.

SAFARI 2000 data are available for the following local measurement sites: Alene_High_School, Chililabombwe, Forestry_Kaoma, Itezhi_Tezhi_Basic, Kafue_Hydrologic, Kalongola, Kananja_Chilanda, Kangaya_Basic, Kapiri_Basic, Kasalu_Basic_School, Kasapa_Basic_School, Kashinakaji_School, Kisasa_Basic, Kitima_Basic_School, Litoya, Livingstone_Met_Dpt, Lubu_Basic_Middle, Lukulu_basic, Lusaka_Met_HQ, Makotolo_School, Met_Kaoma, Miombe, Misamfu_Research, Mongu, Mwayasunka, Mwinilunga, Nalusanga_School, Ndola_Meteorology, Saluzhinka_Basic, Senanga, Shamputa_School, Shikoswe_Basic, Sichili_Primary, Sikufele_School, Sioma_Basic_School, Sitaka, St_Marys, St_Patrics, and Zambezi_Met_Office.

More information can be found at:

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Ward, D., B. N. Holben, D. M. Giles, and W. M. Hao. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Atmospheric Aerosol Measurements, Hand-held Hazemeters, Zambia. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/708.


Brooks, D. R., F. M. Mims, III. 2001. Development of an Inexpensive Handheld LED-Based Sun Photometer for the Globe Program, Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 4733-4740.

Chu, D. A., Y. J. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, L. A. Remmer, D. Tanre, and B. N. Holben. 2002. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Over Land. Geophysical Research Letters (in press).

Dwyer, E., S. Pinnock, S., J.-M. Gregoire, and J. M. C. Pereira. 2000. Global Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Vegetation Fire as Determined from Satellite Observations, International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 1289-1302.

Eck, T. F., B. N. Holben, D. E. Ward, M. M. Mukelabai, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, J. S. Schafer, N. C. Hsu, S. J. Piketh, A. Queface, J. Le Roux, R. J. Swap, and I. Slutsker. 2003. Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements, J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13): 8477, doi:10.1029/2002JD002321.

Ichoku, C., Remer, L. A., Y. J. Kaufman, R. Levy, D. A. Chu, D. Tanre, D., and B. N. Holben. 2003. MODIS observation of aerosols and estimation of aerosol radiative forcing over southern Africa during SAFARI 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8499, doi:10.1029/2002JD002366.

Kaufman, Y. J., C. Ichoku, L. Giglio, S. Korontzi, D. A. Chu, W. M. Hao, R.-R. Li, and C. O. Justice. 2002. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument - Products, Validation, and Operational Use, International Journal of Remote Sensing (in press).

Schmid, B., J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D. L. Hlavka, M. Mcgill, W. Hart, B. N. Holben, E. J. Welton, J. Campbell, O. Torres, R. Kahn, D. Diner, M. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, L.A. Remer, C. Robles Gonzalez, and G. De Leeuw. 2003. Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa, J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13): 8496, doi:10.1029/2002JD002297.

Data Format:

The data set contains numeric aerosol values at various wavelengths. The data files are stored as ASCII table files, one file per site per year, in comma-separated-value (.csv) format.

Hazemeter Data Description


Header Parameter Description
Site The site name
Lat Site latitude in degrees
Long Site longitude in degrees
PI Site principal investigator(s)
His/Her e-mail Site principal investigator(s) email address(es)
t0 Initial starting point of data period (used with time_offset to plot time more effectively in spreadsheet)
Column Parameter Description
Date Date of measurement
Time Time of measurement (GMT)
Time_offset Time offset from t0
AOT_XXX Aerosol optical thickness for wavelength channel XXX (-100 = data not available)
Water Water Vapor measurement in centimeters (0 = data not available)
Air Mass Optical airmass

Example of data file format:

Data presented in this database are the result of Hand Held Sun photometers and do not always satisfy to the high standards of quality associated with Automatic Sun Photometers.

Site : Alene_High_School,Lat=-11.173000,Long=24.190000
t0: 2000-08-10,00:00:00









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