This data set provides species distribution, basal area, height, and crown cover of woody stems at ten sites along the Kalahari Transect, where a large gradient in both the mean and variation of annual rainfall results in dramatic changes in vegetation structure. Some of the data were collected during earlier Kalahari Transect projects in 1995 and 1997 at Vastrap, South Africa; Sandveld and Sachinga, Namibia; and Maziba, Senanga, and Lukulu, Zambia. The rest of the data were collected at Mongu, Zambia; and Pandamatenga, Maun, and Tshane, Botswana during the February-March 2000 wet season field campaign of SAFARI 2000.
Stem maps were generated at each site using a variable-width belt-transect approach. Tree location, species, diameter, height, and major and minor axis of crown dimensions were measured for each individual taller than 1.5 meters. For multi-stemmed individuals, the diameter of each stem was recorded separately. Canopy area was calculated to be an ellipse defined by the two major axes of measurement. Canopy height was estimated using a clinometer. Biomass was calculated following Goodman (1990) as modified by Dowty (1999).
There are two ASCII data files in comma-delimited format. The stem map file contains records of living, dead, and cut stem allometry; canopy geometry; and biomass at the SAFARI sites. The species list file provides plant family, genus, and species names; numerical codes that correspond to the stem map file; and species common names in English and Africaans.
Cite this data set as follows:
Caylor, K. 2005. SAFARI 2000 Stem and Canopy Characterization, Kalahari Transect, 1995-2000. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov/] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/775.
Caylor, K., H. Shugart, and T. M. Smith. 2003. Tree spacing along the Kalahari Transect. Journal of Arid Environments, 54(2): 281-296.
Dowty, P. R. 1999. Modeling Biophysical Processes in the Savannas of Southern Africa. Ph D. dissertation. Environmental Sciences. Charlottesville, University of Virginia, 228 pages.
Goodman, P. S. 1990. Soil, Vegetation and Large Hebivore Relations in Mkuzi Game Reserve, Natal. Ph D. dissertation. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
The data files associated with this data set are listed below. The primary data file is the kt_stem_map_data_S2K.csv file, with the kt_species_list_S2K.csv file providing supplementary information.
The primary data file, kt_stem_map_data_2000.csv, contains records of living, dead, and cut stem allometry; canopy geometry; and biomass at the SAFARI sites.
Stem Map File Column Descriptions
|Data Type||Column Name||Description||Units/ |
|Site Information||SITE||Place name of the site. (See Site Information Table below)||ASCII|
|SITE_NUM||Number of the site (increases from north to south).||numeric|
|NUMBER||A number assigned to individual trees at a given site.||numeric|
|X_METERS||X location in meters (from SW corner of plot).||meters|
|Y_METERS||Y location in meters (from SW corner of plot).||meters|
|SPECIES_CODE||Species code - corresponds to SPECIES (TRANSECT) in species_list file.||ASCII|
|Living Stems||L1NUM||L1NUM to L7NUM are the number of LIVING stems of a given size (L1DBH to L7DBH) for each individual tree.||numeric|
|L1DBH||L1DBH to L7DBH are the sizes of LIVING stems measured as the diameter of the stem at breast height (~1.37 m).||cm|
|TOTLDBH||Total DBH for all live stems (measured at top of basal swelling) for each tree.||cm|
|TOTLSTEM||Total number of live stems for each tree.||numeric|
|TOTLBA||Total living basal area for each tree.||cm2|
|Dead Stems||D1NUM||D1NUM to D7NUM are the number of dead stems of a given size (D1DBH-D7DBH) for each individual tree.||numeric|
|D1DBH||Diameter of dead stems (repeated for number of different sized stems - max is D7NUM & D7DBH).||cm|
|TOTDDBH||Total DBH for all dead stems (measured at top of basal swelling) for each tree.||cm|
|TOTDSTEM||Total number of dead stems for each tree.||numeric|
|TOTDBA||Total dead basal area for each tree.||cm2|
|Cut (or harvested) |
|C1NUM||C1NUM to C7NUM are the number of cut stems (i.e., wood harvested) of size C1DBH-C3DBH for each individual tree. These occur primarily at the Maun site.||numeric|
|C1DBH||Diameter of cut (harvested) stems (repeated for the number of stems of different sizes - max is C3NUM & C3DBH).||cm|
|TOTCDBH||Total DBH for all cut (harvested) stems (measured at top of basal swelling).||cm|
|TOTCSTEM||Total number of cut (harvested) stems.||numeric|
|TOTCBA||Total basal area of the individual.||cm2|
|Canopy Geometry||HEIGHT_1||Height to bottom of the tree canopy (where measurements were taken).||m|
|HEIGHT_2||Height in to the top of tree canopy.||m|
|CANOPY_M||Canopy width along X-dimension (E-W).||m|
|CANOPY2_M||Canopy width along Y-dimension (N-S).||m|
|AREAC||Area of canopy, assuming CANOPY_M and CANOPY2_M are axes of an ellipse.||m2|
|Status Flags||COPICE||Flag (0/1) indicating presence of coppiced tree (regrowth from cut stem). These occur when harvesting or fire has cut back the tree from original growth.||0 - False |
1 - True
|DEAD||Flag (0/1) to indicate tree is dead (may still be identified by species when possible), species code=99 is given if identification was not possible.||0 - False |
1 - True
|Biomass||TOT_BIOM||Total individual biomass for each tree based on allometric equations in Goodman 1990.||kg|
|LEAF_BIOM||Leaf biomass based on allometric equations in Goodman 1990.||kg|
Details regarding the species code column in the data file (described above) can be found in the kt_species_list file described below.
Site Information Table
(S2K Site Name)
|Location, Country||Time Period Visited|
Lishuwa Communal Forest
|Lukulu, Zambia||Feb-Mar 1997|
Kataba Forest Reserve
|Mongu, Zambia||March 2000|
Liangati Forest Reserve
|Senanga, Zambia||Feb-Mar 1997|
Maziba Bay Forest
|Sioma, Zambia||Feb-Mar 1997|
Sachinga Agricultural Station
|Katima Mulilo, Namibia||Feb-Mar 1995|
Pandamatenga Agricultural Station
|Pandamatenga, Botswana||March 2000|
Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre
|Maun, Botswana||March 2000|
Sandveld Research Station
|Gobabis, Namibia||Feb-Mar 1995|
|Tshane, Botswana||March 2000|
Vastrap Weapons Range
(Vasred and Vasdune)
|Upington, South Africa||Feb-Mar 1995|
Species File Column Descriptions
|NAME||Scientific genus and species name|
|SPECIES (TRANSECT)||Code corresponds to SPEC_CODE column in stem map data file|
|FAMILY||Plant family name|
|GENUS||Plant genus name|
|SPECIES||Plant species name|
|COMMON_NAME||Species common name in English|
|AFRICAANS||Species common name in Africaans|
Additional information about the study sites, survey methods, and data format is found in the companion file: http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/safari2k/field_campaign/kt_stem_map/comp/kt_stem_map_readme.pdf.