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The goal of this study was to understand the change in reflectance caused by the action of fire and the heterogeneity of fire effects (i.e., the fraction of the observation that burned and the combustion completeness of that observation). A spectral mixture model and field and satellite observations were used to compare changes in Landsat reflectance associated with fire and combustion completeness derived from field measurements at prescribed fire sites in South Africa and to substantiate and illustrate the model findings.

Fire residue samples were collected from experimental burn plots in Kruger National Park during the SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Campaign in August-September of 2000. The residues include 3 different ash types: pure white ash; black ash; and residual non-photosynthetic fuel biomass (senescent grass, twigs, leaves, and bark). The samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine their multi-spectral reflectance using an Analytic Spectral Devices (ASD) radiometer, which measures spectral reflectance in the range 0.45-2.2 um (micrometer) at intervals of 0.01 um. The ASD measurements were made under diffuse illumination conditions in the spectral range of 350 um to 2500 um, with the ASD radiometer aligned perpendicular to the samples to simulate nadir remote sensing conditions.

The data file contains reflectance measurements (fraction, 0-1) for replicate samples of 3 different ash types (white ash, black ash, and non-photosynthetic vegetation) recorded at 10 um intervals over the wavelength spectral range of 350 um to 2500 um. The data are stored in a single ASCII file in comma-separated-value format (.csv).

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Landmann, T., and D. P. Roy. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Reflectance of Fire Residue, Kruger National Park, Dry Season 2000. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/751.


Clark, R. N., G. A. Swayze, A. J. Gallagher, T. V. V. King, and W. M. Calvin. 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library, Version 1: 0.2 to 3.0 microns. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 93-592, 1340 pp. [].

Gertenbach, W. P. D. 1983. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 26: 9-121.

Landmann, T. 2003. Characterizing sub-pixel Landsat ETM plus fire severity on experimental fires in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99(7-8): 357-360.

Roy, D. P. and T. Landmann. 2003. Characterizing the surface heterogeneity of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, in press.

Shea, R. W., B. W. Shea, J. B. Kauffman, D. E. Ward, C. I. Haskins, and M. Scholes. 1996. Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101: 23,551-23,568.

Trollope, W. S. W. and A. L. F. Potgieter. 1986. Estimating grass fuel loads with a disc pasture meter in the Kruger National Park. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 3: 148-152.

Data Format:

The data file contains reflectance spectra measurements (as fractions 0-1) for 3 different ash types (white ash, black ash, and non-photosynthetic vegetation) every 10 nm from 350 nm to 2500 nm for samples collected within Kruger National Park. The data are stored in an ASCII file in comma-separate-value format (.csv).

Data file information for knp_ash_spectra.csv is provided below:

Column Number Column Name Definition Units/Format
1 Wavelength Wavelength of measurement, every 10 nm nm
2-11 KPW1, KPW2, KPW3,...KPW10 Reflectance of replicate samples of white ash from KNP fires fraction (0-1)
12-21 KPA1, KPA2, KPA3,...KPA10 Reflectance of replicate samples of black ash from KNP fires fraction (0-1)
22-31 KPC1, KPC2, KPC3,...KPC10 Reflectance of replicate samples of residual senescent leaf, twig and grass litter on KNP
burned areas (non-
fraction (0-1)

Additional information about the study area, reflectance spectra measurements, and data format is found in the companion file:

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