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As part of SAFARI 2000, the University of Montana participated in both ground-based and airborne campaigns during the southern African dry season of 2000 to measure trace gas emissions from biofuel production and use and savanna fires, respectively. 

During the airborne campaign, stable and reactive trace gases were measured over southern Africa with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR) onboard the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft in August-September of 2000. The measurements included vertical profiles of CO2, CO, H2O, and CH4 up to 5.5 km on six occasions above instrumented ground sites and below the TERRA satellite and ER-2 high-flying research aircraft as well as trace gas emissions from ten African savanna fires. These measurements are the first broad characterization of the most abundant trace gases in nascent smoke from African savanna fires (i.e., including oxygen- and nitrogen-containing species).  The measurements are used to calculate emission factors for savanna fires that can be used for regional emissions estimates. 

This data set provides emission ratios and emission factors from the aircraft sampling effort for the following trace gases: carbon dioxide (CO2); carbon monoxide (CO); methane (CH4); acetylene (C2H2); ethene (C2H4); acetic acid (CH3COOH); methanol (CH3OH); formaldehyde (HCHO); hydrogen cyanide (HCN); formic acid (HCOOH); ammonia (NH3); nitric oxide (NO); and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The file is an ASCII text file in comma-separated-value format. All emission factor units are grams of compound emitted per kilogram of fuel burned (g/kg) for the savanna fires investigated.  Emission ratios are dimensionless.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Yokelson, R. J. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Fire Emission Data, Dry Season 2000. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/724.


Yokelson, R. J., I. T. Bertschi, T. J. Christian, P. V. Hobbs, D. E. Ward, and W. M. Hao. 2003. Trace gas measurements in nascent, aged, and cloud-processed smoke from African savanna fires by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR). J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8478, doi:10.1029/2002JD002322.

Bertschi, I. T., R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, T. J. Christian, and W. M. Hao. 2003. Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8469, doi:10.1029/2002JD002158.

Bertschi, I. T., R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, R. E. Babbitt, R. A. Susott, J. G. Goode, and W. M. Hao. 2003. Trace gas and particle emissions from fires in large-diameter and belowground biomass fuels. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8472, doi:10.1029/2002JD002100.

Hobbs, P. V., P. Sinha, R. J. Yokelson, T. J. Christian, D. R. Blake, S. Gao, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. Pilewskie. 2003. Evolution of gases and particles from a savanna fire in South Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8485, doi:10.1029/2002JD002352.

Sinha, P., P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Yokelson, I. T. Bertschi, D. R. Blake, I. J. Simpson, S. Gao, T. W. Kirchstetter, and T. Novakov. 2003. Emissions of trace gases and particles from savanna fires in southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8487, doi:10.1029/2002JD002325.

McMillan, W. W., M. L. McCourt, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, T. J. Christian, B. G. Doddridge, P. V. Hobbs, J. V. Lukovich, P. C. Novelli, S. J. Piketh, L. Sparling, D. Stein, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Yokelson. 2003. Tropospheric carbon monoxide measurements from the Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder on 7 September 2000 in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8492, doi:10.1029/2002JD002335.

Swap, R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, J. Haywood, M. C. Helmlinger, C. Hely, P. V. Hobbs, B. N. Holben, J. Ji, M. King, T. Landmann, W. Maenhaut, L. Otter, B. Pak, S. J. Piketh, S. Platnick, J. Privette, D. Roy, A. M. Thompson, D. Ward, and R. Yokelson. 2002. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Dry-Season Field Campaign: An Overview. S. Afr. J. Sci., 98, 125-130.

Data Format:

The data file from the CV-580 aircraft sampling effort is available in a single comma-delimited spreadsheet formatted file: savanna_fire_emiss_aftir.csv. Data file information for savanna_fire_emiss_aftir.csv is provided below:

Column Name
UW Flight Number UW CV-580 flight number numeric
Date Date of flight ddmmyyyy
Fire The name or location of the fire none
CO2 EF CO2 Emission Factor g/kg
CO/CO2 ER CO Emission Ratio dimensionless
CO EF CO2 Emission Factor g/kg
MCE Modified Combustion Efficiency DCO2/(DCO2+DCO) dimensionless
NO/CO2 ER NO Emission Ratio dimensionless
NO2/CO2 ER NO2 Emission Ratio dimensionless
NO2 as NO EF NO2 Emission Factor g/kg
CH4/CO ER CH4 Emission Ratio dimensionless
CH4 EF CH4 Emission Factor g/kg
C2H4/CO ER C2H4 Emission Ratio dimensionless
C2H4 EF C2H4 Emission Factor g/kg
C2H2/CO ER C2H2 Emission Ratio dimensionless
C2H2 EF C2H2 Emission Factor g/kg
HCHO/CO ER HCHO Emission Ratio dimensionless
HCHO EF HCHO Emission Factor g/kg
CH3OH/CO ER CH3OH Emission Ratio dimensionless
CH3OH EF CH3OH Emission Factor g/kg
CH3COOH/CO ER CH3COOH Emission Ratio dimensionless
CH3COOH EF CH3COOH Emission Factor g/kg
HCOOH/CO ER HCOOH Emission Ratio dimensionless
HCOOH EF HCOOH Emission Factor g/kg
NH3/CO ER NH3 Emission Ratio dimensionless
NH3 EF NH3 Emission Factor g/kg
HCN/CO ER HCN Emission Ratio dimensionless
HCN EF HCN Emission Factor g/kg

Additional information about the data format, instrumentation, and parameters measured is found in the companion file: Photographs taken during the mission are available on the S2K Photo Gallery pages.

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