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As part of the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), the University of Montana participated in both ground-based and airborne campaigns during the southern African dry season of 2000 to measure trace gas emissions from biofuel production and use and savanna fires, respectively.

In September of 2000, ground-based, open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) was used to quantify 18 of the most abundant trace gases emitted by wood and charcoal cooking fires and an earthen, charcoal-making kiln in Zambia. These are the first, in-situ measurements of an extensive suite of trace gases emitted by tropical biofuel burning.

This data set provides biofuel burning emission ratios and emission factors from field measurements for the following trace gases (in order of abundance): carbon dioxide (CO2); carbon monoxide (CO); methane (CH4); acetic acid (CH3COOH); methanol (CH3OH); formaldehyde (HCHO); ethene (C2H4); ammonia (NH3); acetylene (C2H2); nitric oxide (NO); ethane (C2H6); phenol (C6H5OH); propene (C3H6); formic acid (HCOOH); nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydroxyacetaldehyde (HOCH2COH); and furan (C4H4O). The files are ASCII text files in comma-separated-value format. All emission factors units are grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel. Emission ratios are dimensionless.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Yokelson, R. J. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Gas Emissions from Biofuel Use and Production, September 2000. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/753.


Bertschi, I. T., R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, T. J. Christian, and W. M. Hao. 2003a. Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8469, doi:10.1029/2002JD002158.

Bertschi, I. T., R. J. Yokelson, D. E. Ward, R. E. Babbitt, R. A. Susott, J. G. Goode, and W. M. Hao. 2003b. Trace gas and particle emissions from fires in large-diameter and belowground biomass fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8472, doi:10.1029/2002JD002100.

Hobbs, P. V., P. Sinha, R. J. Yokelson, T. J. Christian, D. R. Blake, S. Gao, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and P. Pilewskie. 2003. Evolution of gases and particles from a savanna fire in South Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8485, doi:10.1029/2002JD002352.

Kituyi, E., L. Marufu, S. O. Wandiga, I. O. Jumba, M. O. Andreae, and G. Helas. 2001. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya. Energy Conversion and Management, 42: 1517-1542.

McMillan, W. W., M. L. McCourt, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, T. J. Christian, B. G. Doddridge, P. V. Hobbs, J. V. Lukovich, P. C. Novelli, S. J. Piketh, L. Sparling, D. Stein, R. J. Swap, and R. J. Yokelson. 2003. Tropospheric carbon monoxide measurements from the Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder on 7 September 2000 in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000. J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8492, doi:10.1029/2002JD002335.

Sinha, P., P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Yokelson, I. T. Bertschi, D. R. Blake, I. J. Simpson, S. Gao, T. W. Kirchstetter, and T. Novakov. 2003. Emissions of trace gases and particles from savanna fires in southern Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8487, doi:10.1029/2002JD002325.

Swap, R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, J. Haywood, M. C. Helmlinger, C. Hely, P. V. Hobbs, B. N. Holben, J. Ji, M. King, T. Landmann, W. Maenhaut, L. Otter, B. Pak, S. J. Piketh, S. Platnick, J. Privette, D. Roy, A. M. Thompson, D. E. Ward, and R. J. Yokelson. 2002. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) Dry-Season Field Campaign: An Overview. S. Afr. J. Sci., 98: 125-130.

Yokelson, R. J., I. T. Bertschi, T. J. Christian, P. V. Hobbs, D. E. Ward, and W. M. Hao. 2003. Trace gas measurements in nascent, aged, and cloud-processed smoke from African savanna fires by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR). J. Geophys. Res., 108, NO. D13, 8478, doi:10.1029/2002JD002322.

Data Format:

The ground-based campaign measured trace gas emissions from the production and use of biofuels. The data files from the ground sampling efforts are listed below:


The units of emission factors are grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel. Emission ratios are unitless.

The files are ASCII text files in comma-separated-value format. The columns are individual fires from this study, or published values from previous studies. The number of fires from this study and previous studies vary for each biofuel type, but the rows, which are the measured constituents from each, are mostly of a common set. The definitions for these constituents can be found in the table of chemical formulas listed in the companion file. Note that the delta symbol in the parameter fields for emission ratios has been replaced by 'D's in the text files. Blank fields in the data files indicate the measurements were below the detection limit for the FTIR data. Note, however, that blank fields for other related studies reported in the data files only indicate that the constituent was not part of that particular study.

Additional information about the field investigations, calculations of emission factors and emission ratios, chemical formulas and names used in the data files, and data format is found in the companion file:

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