This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that is known as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) data set. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) for 16 globally distributed field sites that represent a wide range of terrestrial biomes, tundra to tropical forest, but exclude wetlands. The net primary productivity (NPP) data were extracted from the literature. They were not previously widely available to the ecosystem modeling community in electronic form until this data set and additional NPP data sets were published by the ORNL DAAC. The data were used to calibrate the ecosystem process-based TEM.
The TEM was developed by staff at the Ecosystem Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of major carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes and pool sizes at continental to global scales (resolution: 0.5 degrees latitude x 0.5 degrees longitude).
Eight of the TEM calibration sites are also included in the ORNL DAAC NPP data collection as individual site NPP data sets.
Revision Notes: Only the documentation for this data set has been modified. The data files have been checked for accuracy and are identical to those originally published in 1999.
NPP data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, temperate forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored by the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visit the NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html.
Cite this data set as follows:
Kicklighter, D. W. 2013. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/471
This data set was originally published as:
Kicklighter, D. W. 1999. NPP Multi-Biome: TEM Calibration Data, 1992. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
The TEM is a process-level ecosystem simulation model that uses spatially referenced information on soils, vegetation, and climate to estimate important C and N pool sizes and fluxes at continental to global scales, with a time step of 1 month. The model is grid cell based, each grid cell being 0.5 degrees latitude x 0.5 degrees longitude (3,090 km at the equator). TEM was developed by staff at the Ecosystem Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA.
Eight of the TEM calibration sites are also part of the NPP data collection at the ORNL DAAC. Some of the NPP values provided herein do not agree with values published in the 8 individual NPP data sets, source publications, and Glower et al. ( 2013) and Olson (2013a, b) because of rounding and different calculation methods.
Table 1. TEM calibration sites
|Site Number||Site Name||Country||Vegetation Type||NPP Data Set ID|
|A1||Toolik Lake, Alaska||USA||Polar Desert/Alpine Tundra||581|
|A2||Toolik Lake, Alaska||USA||Wet/Moist Tundra||581|
|A3||Schefferville, Quebec||Canada||Boreal Woodland||573|
|A4||Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska||USA||Boreal Forest||611|
|A5||Andrews Experimental Forest Watershed 10, Oregon||USA||Temperate Coniferous Forest||NA|
|A6||Curlew Valley, Utah||USA||Arid Shrubland||NA|
|A7||Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado||USA||Short Grassland||145|
|A8||Osage Prairie, Oklahoma||USA||Tall Grassland||211|
|A9||Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Minnesota||USA||Temperate Savanna||NA|
|A10||Harvard Forest Hardwood Site, Massachusetts||USA||Temperate Deciduous Forest||NA|
|A11||Harvard Forest Mixed Forest Site, Massachusetts||USA||Temperate Mixed Forest||NA|
|A12||Taita Experimental Station, North Island||New Zealand||Temperate Broadleaved Evergreen Forest||NA|
|A13||Nylsvley Nature Reserve||South Africa||Tropical Savanna||194|
|A14||Guanica State Forest||Puerto Rico||Xeromorphic Forest||NA|
|A15||Chakia||India||Tropical Deciduous Forest||NA|
|A16||Ducke Forest, Manaus||Brazil||Tropical Evergreen Forest||579|
This data set contains one data file, in comma-separated-value (csv) format. The data provide pool sizes and fluxes of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) for 16 globally distributed field sites that represent a wide range of terrestrial biomes.
Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude|
Data from 16 non-wetland intensively studied field sites (Table 1) were collated from the literature for calibration of the TEM. The study sites represent a wide range of terrestrial biomes ranging from tundra to tropical forest. McGuire et al. (1992) and Raich et al. (1991) provide brief site descriptions of the sites used to calibrate the model. For more site details, please consult the published literature and the individual NPP data sets for each study site, where applicable.
The TEM has a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees latitude x 0.5 degrees longitude. Please consult original data sources and individual NPP data sets, where applicable, for information on spatial resolution of individual field study sites.
Mean annual values of carbon in vegetation (CV), nitrogen in vegetation (NV), carbon in soils (CS), nitrogen in soils (NS), and inorganic nitrogen in soils (NAV) are in g/m2 of either carbon or nitrogen. Values of gross primary productivity (GPP) and NPP are in gC/m2/yr. Nitrogen uptake by vegetation (NUPTAKE), saturation response of NPP to nitrogen fertilization (NPPSAT), and the annual amount of nitrogen mobilized for production via recycling (NMOBIL) are in gN/m2/yr.
Data File Information
Table 2. Data files in this data set archive
|FILE NAME||TEMPORAL COVERAGE||FILE CONTENTS|
|NPP_TEM.csv||1960/01/01-1992/12/31||TEM calibration data. Pool sizes and fluxes of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) extracted from the literature for 16 globally diverse field sites.|
NPP Data. Pool sizes and fluxes of C and N for 16 globally distributed field sites are provided in one file in .csv format (Table 2). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. There are no missing values. GPP and NPP are expressed as gC/m2/yr. Nitrogen uptake by vegetation, saturation response of NPP to nitrogen fertilization, and nitrogen mobilization are expressed as gN/m2/yr (dry matter weight).
Table 3. Column headings in NPP file
|TEM Sites||Intensively studied field sites from which data was gathered and used to calibrate some of the vegetation-specific parameters in TEM||Text|
|Vegetation Type||Non-wetland biome classification for each field site|
|Site Name||Site name and location|
|Country||Country where field site is located|
|Latitude||Latitude of field site||Decimal degrees|
|Longitude||Longitude of field site|
|CV||Mean annual carbon in vegetation (using a conversion factor of 0.475 or 0.5 to determine carbon content of living above + below-ground biomass)||gC/m2|
|NV||Mean annual nitrogen in vegetation (based on laboratory analyses)||gN/m2|
|CS||Mean annual carbon in soil (derived from estimates of detritus production). Soil organic matter is assumed to be 58% C.||gC/m2|
|NS||Mean annual nitrogen in soils (based on laboratory analyses)||gN/m2|
|NAV||Mean annual inorganic nitrogen in soils (based on laboratory analyses)|
|GPP||Gross primary productivity||gC/m2/year|
|NPP||Net primary productivity. NPP = carbon in litter production = carbon in heterotrophic respiration.|
|NPPSAT||Saturation response of NPP to nitrogen fertilization|
|NUPTAKE||Annual N uptake by vegetation. NUPTAKE = nitrogen in litter production = net nitrogen mineralization.||gN/m2/year|
|NMOBILE||Annual amount of nitrogen mobilized for production via recycling|
|Comments||Comments and assumptions about the data||Text|
Sample NPP Data Record
|TEM Sites, Vegetation Type, Site Name, Country, Latitude, Longitude, CV, NV, CS, NS, NAV, GPP, NPP, NPPSAT, NUPTAKE, NMOBILE, Comments
,,,, South is negative, West is negative, carbon in vegetation, nitrogen in vegetation, carbon in soil, nitrogen in soil, inorganic nitrogen in soil, gross primary productivity, net primary productivity, NPP saturation response, N uptake by vegetation, N mobilisation,
,,,, decimal degrees, decimal degrees, g C/ m2, g N/ m2, g C/ m2, g N/ m2, g N/ m2, g C/ m2/ year, g C/ m2/ year, g C/ m2/ year, g N/ m2/ year, g N/ m2/ year,
A1, Polar Desert/Alpine Tundra, Toolik Lake, Alaska, USA, 65.43, -145.50, 450, 6.5, 6000, 260, 0.4, 255, 65, 130, 0.5, 1.3, Data are based on vegetation in the heath site.
A2, Wet/Moist Tundra, Toolik Lake, Alaska, USA, 65.43, -145.50, 750, 15, 18000, 1100, 0.4, 440, 120, 225, 0.8, 3.2, Assumes that vegetation typical of the tussock site, wet site, heath site, and shrub site covers 40%, 40%, 15%, and 5% of the landscape, respectively.
This data set was used to calibrate the TEM for each vegetation type in Table 1.
Please consult original data sources and individual NPP data sets, where applicable, for information on the quality of field measurements.
Sources of Error
Information not available.
TEM calibration data were extracted from published literature. McGuire et al. (1992) and Raich et al. (1991) provide brief site descriptions of the methods used to derive data values and source publications. For more site details, please consult the published literature and the individual NPP data sets for each study site, where applicable.
This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Gower, S.T., O. Krankina, R.J. Olson, M. Apps, S. Linder, and C. Wang. 2013. NPP Boreal Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1965-1995, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/611
McGuire, A.D., J.M. Melillo, L.A. Joyce, D.W. Kicklighter, A.L. Grace, B. Moore III, and C.J. Vorosmarty. 1992. Interactions between carbon and nitrogen dynamics in estimating net primary productivity for potential vegetation in North America, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6(2): 101–124. doi:10.1029/92GB00219.
Olson, R. J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615
Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, B J. Peterson, A L. Grace, B. Moore, and C.J. Vorosmarty. 1991. Potential Net Primary Productivity in South America: Application of a Global Model. Ecological Applications 1: 399–429. doi:10.2307/1941899
Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2012. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653