This data set provides two data files in text format (.txt). One file contains a long time series of biomass measurements made between 1955 and 1989 on a semi-desert steppe at the Dzhanybek Research Station in Kazakhstan. The second file contains monthly and annual climate data for the study site for the period 1953-1989.
Peak live biomass measurements were made from 1955 to 1989 (excluding 1976) and additional measurements of above-ground live biomass and dead matter were made seasonally from 1985 to 1989. Averaged over the time series, above-ground live phytomass and standing dead were estimated to be 137 g/m2 and 32 g/m2 (dry matter weight), respectively, while below-ground phytomass dry weight was 1,750 g/m2. ANPP was estimated to be 201 g/m2/yr. BNPP and TNPP were not estimated.
The study site is one of eight major grassland types of Eurasia which encompass an extremely wide climatic gradient in the direction of increasing maximum summer temperatures and continentality and decreasing precipitation in a north-west to the south-east band of steppes in the European and Asian parts of the former USSR (Commonwealth of Independent States). Dzhanybek, on heavy light-chestnut soil, is a continental steppe with annual mean maximum/minimum temperatures of 37.4/-27.4 degrees C and annual mean precipitation of 283.3 mm for the period 1953-1989.
Revision Notes: Only the documentation for this data set has been modified. The data files have been checked for accuracy and are identical to those originally published in 1997.
Figure 1. Termite mound at the Dzhanybek grassland site, Kazakhstan. (Prof. Roman Zlotin is demonstrating the internal structure of the mound, which has been cut open with a shovel. Photograph taken November 1987 by Dr. Yasny, Institute of Geography, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow).
The NPP data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, temperate forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored by the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visit the NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.shtml
Cite this data set as follows:
Gilmanov, T.G. 2015. NPP Grassland: Dzhanybek, Kazakhstan, 1955-1989, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/192
This data set was originally published as:
Gilmanov, T.G. 1997. NPP Grassland: Dzhanybek, Kazakhstan, 1955-1989. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
Long-term ecological research at grasslands within the former USSR collected a large amount of data on phytomass, productivity and element cycling, together with climatic and soil regimes for various types of grassland ecosystems. These grasslands are found in different natural "continentality" climatic zones in the direction of increasing maximum summer temperatures, decreasing precipitation north-west to the south-east. The grassland types range from the luxuriant highly productive meadow-steppes of Central Russia to the ultra continental steppes of Central Asia and the arid ephemeral grasslands in the Middle-Asian republics of the former USSR.
The results of the USSR studies are mostly reported in the Russian literature but were summarized and used more recently by Gilmanov et al. (1997) to assess grassland differences and CENTURY model robustness across this wide environmental gradient.
The Dzhanybek data set contains biomass measurements made between 1955 and 1989. Peak live biomass measurements are presented for mid May of each year 1955 to 1989 (excluding 1976) while seasonal dynamics of above-ground live biomass + dead matter are available for 1985-1989. Climate data for Dzhanybek are also available for the period 1953-1989. Data for the Dzhanybek site were originally reported [in Russian] in Gordeeva and Larin (1965); Olovyannikova (1976); Rohde (1974); Abaturov (1984); and Gilmanov and Ivaschenko (1990).
Averaged over the time series, above-ground live phytomass and standing dead at Dzhanybek were estimated to be 137 g/m2 and 32 g/m2 (dry matter weight), respectively, while below-ground phytomass dry weight was 1,750 g/m2 (Table 1, Gilmanov et al., 1997). ANPP was estimated to be 201 g/m2/yr (Table 1, Gilmanov et al., 1997) which agrees with values published in Olson et al. (2013a, b) and Scurlock and Olson (2013). BNPP and TNPP were not estimated.
Site: Dzhanybek, Kazakhstan
Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude||Elevation (m)|
Information not available
May 1955 to August 1989 (excluding 1976)
Peak live above-ground biomass was harvested in mid May of each year from 1955 to 1989 (excluding 1976). Additional seasonal harvests of above-ground live and standing dead biomass were made at biweekly to monthly intervals from 1985 to 1989. Climate data are from 1953-1989.
Data File Information
There are two data files in text format (.txt) with this data set; one file provides biomass estimates and the other file provides climate data.
Table 1. Data file descriptions
|FILE NAME||TEMPORAL COVERAGE||FILE CONTENTS|
|dzh_npp.txt||1955/05/15-1989/08/08||Above-ground biomass data for the Dzhanybek grassland site|
|dzh_cli.txt||1953/01/01-1989/12/31||Climate data from a weather station near the Dzhanybek grassland site|
NPP Data. Biomass estimates are provided in one text file (.txt format) (Table 2). The variable values are delimited by semicolons. The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. Data for 1976 are missing. All biomass units are expressed in g/m2 (dry matter weight).
Table 2. Column headings in NPP file
|Site||Site where data were gathered (code refers to site identification)||text|
|Treatmt||Long term management of site (code refers to treatment described in metadata in data file)|
|Year||Year in which data were collected||yyyy|
|Mn||Month in which data were collected||mm|
|Dy||Day on which data were collected||dd|
|Tyear||Date in decimal year (year plus the Julian date divided by 365)||numeric|
|AGbiomass||Above-ground biomass. Peak live above-ground biomass are provided for mid May of each year from 1955 to 1989 (excluding 1976). Above-ground live + standing dead biomass are provided for the other sampling dates.||g/m2|
Sample NPP Data Record
|Site;Treatmt;Year;Mn;Dy;Tyear; AGbiomass [units g/m2]
dzh;lngtrm ;1955;05;15;1955.370; 65.0
dzh;lngtrm ;1956;05;15;1956.373; 185.0
dzh;lngtrm ;1957;05;15;1957.370; 72.0
dzh;lngtrm ;1958;05;15;1958.370; 167.0
dzh;lngtrm ;1959;05;15;1959.370; 148.0
dzh;lngtrm ;1960;05;15;1960.373; 127.0
Climate Data. Climate data are provided in one text file (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semicolons. There are no missing values.
Sample Climate Data Record
|Site;Temp;Parm; Jan; Feb; Mar; Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep; Oct; Nov; Dec; Year
dzh ;mean;prec; 24.8; 19.9; 19.2; 20.9; 21.4; 30.1; 26.5; 23.9; 24.0; 21.1; 26.8; 24.7; 283.3
dzh ;mean;tmax; 0.4; 0.5; 8.1; 22.8; 30.4; 34.5; 36.3; 34.8; 29.4; 19.8; 9.8; 3.7; 37.4
dzh ;mean;tmin; -24.0;-24.2;-17.7; -3.1; 3.5; 8.2; 11.7; 9.1; 1.8; -4.6;-13.1;-20.3; -27.4
dzh ;numb;prec; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0
dzh ;numb;tmax; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0
dzh ;numb;tmin; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0; 37.0
dzh ;stdv;prec; 14.1; 14.3; 13.1; 14.5; 22.0; 26.1; 21.0; 18.7; 21.2; 13.8; 19.4; 13.4; 74.0
dzh ;stdv;tmax; 3.2; 4.5; 6.2; 4.1; 3.8; 3.2; 3.3; 2.4; 3.8; 4.2; 3.9; 3.5; 2.7
dzh ;stdv;tmin; 6.7; 7.0; 5.8; 3.2; 3.4; 3.4; 2.6; 3.4; 3.0; 4.5; 5.1; 5.9; 5.5
dzh ;1953;prec; 29.9; 43.2; 28.0; 25.0; 11.0; 0.6; 16.7; 13.7; 31.2; 4.9; 11.9; 9.1; 225.2
dzh ;1953;tmax; 1.2; 1.4; 2.0; 21.8; 32.7; 33.9; 41.8; 38.5; 30.9; 20.9; 4.9; 5.0; 41.8
dzh ;1953;tmin;-29.7;-25.6;-21.5;-11.2; -1.1; 4.6; 6.6; 11.4; 2.1;-13.2;-30.1;-26.9; -30.1
Temp (temporal) - specific year or long-term statistic:
mean = mean based on all years
numb = number of years
stdv = standard deviation based on all years
prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
tmax = mean maximum temperature for month or year (C)
tmin = mean minimum temperature for month or year (C)
Data on biomass dynamics and productivity were recently assembled and checked as part of a series of grassland data sets covering a wide range of climate and "continentality" (increasing maximum summer temperatures, decreasing precipitation) from the north-west to the south-east in the Commonwealth of Independent States (former USSR) (Gilmanov et al., 1997). These grasslands represent a wide environmental gradient from the luxuriant highly productive meadow-steppes of Central Russia to the ultra continental steppes of Central Asia and the arid ephemeral grasslands in the Middle-Asian republics of the former USSR. The field data from these study sites were used by Gilmanov et al. (1997) to assess grassland differences and CENTURY model robustness.
Grassland biomass dynamics data are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.
NPP of grasslands is subject to a number of different methods of estimation from biomass data, some of which may be inappropriate for particular biome types. Methodology of estimation/calculation needs to be taken into account, as well as methodology of measurement, when making comparisons between different regions. Errors in biomass measurement may also occur between different study sites. For short time series of data it may be assumed that measurement methodology remains consistent; however, over very long time series changes in staff, tools, etc. may lead to "calibration" errors.
The Dzhanybek site has a uniquely long and detailed time series of phytomass observations. The agreement between the field data and the CENTURY model seems satisfactory.
The Dzhanybek study site is a semi-desert continental steppe on the heavy light-chestnut soils (Table 3) located across the Russia/Kazakh border from Volgograd on the Caspian Sea Lowlands. The most abundant species of the zonal ecosystem of this landscape are Agropyron desertorum, Tanacetum achilleifolium, Poa bulbosa, Festuca valesiaca, and Kochia prostrata. The total species richness of the community is high (Gordeeva and Larin, 1965; Olovyannikova, 1976; Rohde, 1974; Abaturov, 1984; Gilmanov and Ivaschenko, 1990). In a collective study of the local vegetation carried out at the Dzhanybek field station in 1950-1959, Gordeeva and Larin (1965) found 110 species of flowering plants, including 13 species of Gramineae, in the natural flora. This semidesert ecosystem is noted by its highly irregular pattern of precipitation.
Table 3. Site characteristics
|mean annual precipitation||274 mm|
|mean monthly minimum temperature||-20.7 (C) (Feb)|
|mean monthly maximum temperature||29.7 (C) (July)|
|vegetation type||semi-desert steppe|
|dominant species||Agropyron desertorum (C3)|
|historical long-term management regime||not known|
|max above-ground live biomass (typical month)||137 g/m2 (July)|
|soil type||heavy light-chestnut|
|soil texture (sand/ silt/ clay)||0.28 / 0.28 / 0.44|
|soil carbon content||3,150 g/m2 (0-20 cm)|
|soil nitrogen content||340 g/m2 (0-20 cm)|
Methodological aspects of field experimental studies of biomass and production of grassland ecosystems in the Commonwealth of Independent States (former USSR) were summarized by Titlyanova (1988) [in Russian]. The methods of field measurements of above-ground and below-ground biomass in Russian grasslands are based on the harvest technique and with respect to sampling area, replication, etc., are very close to the methods used by western ecologists during the International Biological Programme (IBP) studies (e.g., Milner and Hughes, 1968; Sims and Coupland, 1979). The Russian approach to estimation of the annual production of grassland plant communities (with subdivision on above- and below-ground components) is based on a calculation procedure utilizing data of repeated sampling (usually biweekly) during the season of live, standing dead and litter fractions of phytomass. This method of calculation gives the estimates of production which are 1.6 to 2.0 times higher than the seasonal maximum of the standing crop of the corresponding phytomass fraction (Titlyanova, 1988).
This data set is part of a series of grassland data sets assembled and checked by Dr. Tagir Gilmanov (Gilmanov et al., 1997) from primary sources originally reported [in Russian] in Gordeeva and Larin (1965); Olovyannikova (1976); Rohde (1974); Abaturov (1984); and Gilmanov and Ivaschenko (1990).
This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Abaturov, B.D. 1984. Mammals as a component of ecosystems. Nauka, Moscow. 288 pp. (in Russian).
Gilmanov, T.G,. and A.I. Ivaschenko.1990. Primary biological productivity of ecosystems of the alkali complex of the clay semidesert of the North Transkaspian area. Izvestia Akademii Nauk SSSR. Ser. Biol. 4: 600-611. (in Russian).
Gilmanov, T.G., W.J. Parton and D.S. Ojima. 1997. Testing the CENTURY ecosystem level model on data sets from eight grassland sites in the former USSR representing a wide climatic/soil gradient. Ecological Modelling 96: 191-210.
Gordeeva, T.K., and V.I. Larin. 1965. Natural vegetation of the semi-desert of the Near Caspian Lowland as the forage basis for livestock farming. Moscow-Leningrad, 160 pp. (in Russian).
Milner, C., and R.E. Hughes. 1968. Methods for the Measurement of the Primary Production of Grassland. IBP Handbook No.6. Blackwell, Oxford.
Nechaeva, N.T., S. Ya Prikhod'ko, and K.F. Shuravin. 1971. Net primary production for Dzhanybek (Kazakhstan) grassland site dataset. IN: Gilmanov, T.G., and A.I. Ivaschenko (ed.). Primary biological productivity of ecosystems of the alkali complex of the clay semidesert of the North Transkaspian area. Izvestia Akademii Nauk SSSR. Ser. Biol. 4: 600-611. (in Russian).
Olovyannikova, I.N. 1976. Influence of the forest "kolocks" on the solonchak solonezs. Nauka, Moscow. 124 pp. (In Russian).
Olson, R.J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615
Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2013. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653
Sims, P.L., and R.T. Coupland. 1979. Producers, pp. 49-72. IN: Coupland, R.T. (ed.). Grassland Ecosystems of the World: Analysis of Grassland and Their Uses. Cambridge University Press. 432 pp.
Rohde, A.A. (ed.). 1974. Biogeocoenotical fundamentals of the exploitation of the semi-desert of the Northern Near Caspian. Nauka, Moscow. 360 pp. (In Russian).
Titlyanova, A.A. 1988. Methodology and methods of studying of the production-destruction processes in herbaceous ecosystems, pp. 3-10. IN: Ilyin, V.B. (ed.). Biologicheskaya produktivnost' travyanykh ecosistem [Biological productivity of herbaceous ecosystems]. Nauka, Novosibirsk. (in Russian).