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MASTER (MODIS-ASTER) Airborne Simulator Campaign, SARP, California, USA, 2016

Documentation Revision Date: 2021-07-21

Dataset Version: 1

Summary

This dataset includes Level 1B (L1B) and Level 2 (L2) data products from the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) instrument collected and developed by the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The raw spectral data were collected from flights flown on 2016-06-17 over the region impacted by the Sherpa Fire (2016-06-15) near Bakersfield and Santa Barbara, California. Data products include L1B multispectral imagery in 50 bands covering wavelengths of 0.460 to 12.879 micrometers at approximately 19 to 50 meter resolution. Derived L2 products include estimates of emissivity in 5 bands and land surface temperature.

The MASTER instrument is a modified Daedalus Wildfire scanning spectrometer that flies on a variety of multi-altitude research aircraft and provides spectral information similar to that provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which are aboard two NASA Earth Observing System satellites: Terra and Aqua. 

SARP was an eight-week summer program for junior and senior undergraduate students to acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of a scientific campaign using airborne science laboratories. The SARP 2016 campaign included one mission with 16 flight tracks. L2 data were generated for 7 flight tracks.

This dataset includes a total of 65 data files; 16 files in Hierarchical Data Format (*.hdf) format, 14 files in Keyhole Markup Language Zipped (*.kmz) format, 35 files in compressed (*.zip) format containing ENVI raster files (*.env and *.dat), and 7 files in compressed (*.zip) format that contain files in Portable Network Graphics (*.png) format. There are also 24 companion files containing a variety of supplementary information.

Figure 1. Single-band images and a RGB composite image from flight track 6 as acquired on 17 June 2016 near Santa Barbara, California. Source: companion file 1662900_06.jpg

Citation

Green, R.O., S.J. Hook, and D.A. Roberts. 2021. MASTER (MODIS-ASTER) Airborne Simulator Campaign, SARP, California, USA, 2016. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1912

Table of Contents

  1. Dataset Overview
  2. Data Characteristics
  3. Application and Derivation
  4. Quality Assessment
  5. Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
  6. Data Access
  7. References

Dataset Overview

This dataset includes Level 1B (L1B) and Level 2 (L2) data products from the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) instrument collected and developed by the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The raw spectral data were collected from flights flown on 2016-06-17 over the region impacted by the Sherpa Fire (2016-06-15) near Bakersfield and Santa Barbara, California, U.S. Data products include L1B multispectral imagery in 50 bands covering wavelengths of 0.460 to 12.879 micrometers at approximately 19 to 50 meter resolution. Derived L2 products include estimates of emissivity in 5 bands and land surface temperature.

The MASTER instrument is a modified Daedalus Wildfire scanning spectrometer that flies on a variety of multi-altitude research aircraft and provides spectral information similar to that provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which are aboard two NASA Earth Observing System satellites: Terra and Aqua.

SARP was an eight-week summer program for junior and senior undergraduate students to acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of a scientific campaign using airborne science laboratories. The SARP 2016 campaign included one mission with 16 flight tracks. L2 data were generated for 7 flight tracks.

Project: MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator

The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) is a scanning spectrometer which flies on a variety of multi-altitude research aircraft and provides data similar to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). MASTER first flew in 1998 and has ongoing deployments as a Facility Instrument in the NASA Airborne Science Program (ASP). MASTER is a joint project involving the Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) at the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS).

Related Publication

Hook, S.J. Myers, J.J., Thome, K.J., Fitzgerald, M. and A.B. Kahle. 2001. The MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) - a new instrument for earth science studies. Remote Sensing of Environment 76:93–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(00)00195-4

Related Dataset

Hook, S.J., and R.O. Green. 2021. MASTER (MODIS-ASTER) Airborne Simulator Campaign, California and Nevada, USA, 2016. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1913

Acknowledgments

The MASTER instrument is maintained and operated by the Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, under the oversight of the EOS Project Science Office at NASA Goddard. Data processing was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California.

Data Characteristics

Spatial Coverage: Vicinity of Santa Barbara, California, U.S.

Spatial Resolution: 19 to 50 m

Temporal Coverage: 2016-06-17

Temporal Resolution: One-time estimate

Study Area: All latitudes and longitudes given in decimal degrees.

Site Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
Santa Barbara, California -120.938 -118.125 36.598 33.562

Data File Information

This dataset includes a total of 65 data files; 16 files in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF; *.hdf) format, 14 files in Keyhole Markup Language Zipped (KMZ; *.kmz) format, 35 files in compressed (ZIP; *.zip) format containing ENVI raster files (*.dat and *.hdr), and 7 files in compressed (*.zip) format that contain files in Portable Network Graphics (PNG; *.png) format. There are also 24 companion files containing a variety of supplementary information (Table 2).

The files are named MASTERLAA_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYMMDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-X.ext (e.g., MASTERL1B_1662900_01_20160617_1728_1746_V01.hdf), where

  • AA = ”1B” or “2”, indicating L1B or L2 data,
  • BBBBBBBB = “1662900”, indicating the flight number,
  • CC = flight track,
  • YYYYMMDD = date of sampling,
  • EEFF = starting time at EE hour and FF minute,
  • GGHH = ending time at GG hour and HH minute,
  • X = "emissivity_tes", "location", "QAmap", "surface_temp", "images", "RGB", or "LST", indicating the primary variable, and
  • ext = "hdf", "kmz", or "zip", indicating the file extension.

There are different numbers of each type of file, which corresponds to the number of segments of the flight (i.e., a deployment flown on a single day; hereafter "flight track") and whether L2 data were generated.

  • For each of 16 flight tracks, there is one L1B data file in HDF format.
  • L2 data are included for seven of the 16 tracks. For each track, there is one L1B data file in KMZ format, one L2 data file in KMZ format, and five L2 data files in ZIP format.
    • Four of the ZIP files contain L2 ENVI data for emissivity, land surface temperature, geographic coordinates, and quality assurance status. Each ZIP includes a binary data file (*.dat) and its header file (*.hdr).
    • One ZIP file contains three L2 PNG files: RBG composite, single-band emissivity, and land surface temperature.

Table 1. File names and descriptions. The flight number for all files in this dataset is “1662900”.

File Name Level File Type Total Files Description
MASTERL1B_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01.hdf L1B HDF 16 Multispectral radiance in 50 bands, pixel coordinates, sensor configuration, aircraft platform data, analysis parameters.
MASTERL1B_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-RGB.kmz L1B KMZ 7 Map of the RGB composite image of emissivity. The image was derived from three selected bands corresponding to the red, green, and blue wavelengths of the visible spectrum.
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-emissivity_tes.zip L2 ENVI 7 Map of atmospheric corrected emissivity; Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) corrected data in 5 bands (wavelengths: 8.58, 9.02, 10.62, 11.32, and 12.13 µm).
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-images.zip L2 PNG 7 Three non-georeferenced images depicting (a) RGB composite using selected bands, (b) emissivity from a single band, and (c) land surface temperature.
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-location.zip L2 ENVI 7 Latitude and longitude coordinates for pixels in ENVI files.
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-LST.kmz L2 KMZ 7 Map of land surface temperature in degrees Kelvin.
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-QAmap.zip L2 ENVI 7 QA status for each pixel from TES algorithm, where 1 = divergence and 0 = convergence.
MASTERL2_BBBBBBBB_CC_YYYYmmDD_EEFF_GGHH_V01-surface_temp.zip L2 ENVI 7 Map of land surface temperature (TES LST) in degrees Kelvin.

Table 2. Companion file names and descriptions. The flight number for all files in this dataset is “1662900”.

File Name Description
BBBBBBB_CC.jpg Browse figures; one per flight track, multiple tracks per flight
BBBBBBBtm.jpg Map showing path of flight
BBBBBBB_spectral_band_info.txt Spectral band information for flight
BBBBBBB_spectral_response_table.zip Spectral response tables by band (ZIP archive of 50 text files)
BBBBBBB_anc.txt Ancillary information about flight including notes on aircraft platform, mission objective, and data evaluation.
BBBBBBB_summary.txt Summary of flight information. Includes time and coordinates for start and end of flight tracks along with the number of scan lines, solar and instrument angles, and aircraft altitude. FTLT = flight track number.

Data File Details

The HDF and ENVI files contain swath trajectory data using longitude, latitude coordinates. The spatial resolution ranges from 19 m to 50 m and is a function of aircraft altitude.

Application and Derivation

The primary mission of MASTER is to: (a) collect ASTER-like and MODIS-like land datasets to support the validation of the ASTER and MODIS geophysical retrieval algorithms; (b) collect these datasets at a higher resolution than the spaceborne datasets to permit scaling studies and comparisons with in-situ measurements; and (c) under fly the EOS-AM1 ASTER and MODIS sensors to provide an additional radiometric calibration to assist with in-flight instrument performance characterization. Calibration is particularly important for ASTER where on-board calibration is dependent on a single black body in the TIR and only partial aperture illumination in the VNIR.

A secondary mission of MASTER is to: (a) provide both a backup instrument and backup modules for the current MODIS Airborne simulator, which is committed to a program of atmospheric and oceanic measurements; and (b) provide a wider spectral and dynamic range alternative to the use of the Thematic Mapper (TM) airborne simulator and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) airborne scanners (JPL, 2021b).

MASTER imagery has been used for mapping wildfires and their impacts (Veraverbeke et al., 2011), land covers (Li and Moon, 2004), coral reefs (Capolsini et al., 2003), and urban heat islands (Zhao and Wentz, 2016).

Quality Assessment

The MASTER instrument channels are calibrated spectrally and radiometrically in the laboratory preflight and postflight. The mid-infrared and thermal infrared channels (26–50) are also radiometrically calibrated in-flight by viewing an internal hot and cold blackbody with each scanline (Hook et al., 2001). Three calibration and validation experiments were conducted in 1998–2001 (Hook et al., 2001; JPL, 2021a). Spectral response information for this campaign is available as companion files.

Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods

The MASTER instrument was developed by the NASA Ames Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The instrument consists of three key components: the scanning spectrometer, the digitizer, and the storage system. The scanning unit was built by Sensys Technology (formerly Daedalus Enterprises) and the digitizer was a collaborative effort between Berkeley Camera Engineering and the Ames Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF). The data storage system and overall system integration were also provided by the ASF.

The MASTER instrument is similar to the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) developed by the MODIS project (King et al., 1996). However, it has two key differences. First, MASTER supports a variety of scan speeds allowing it to acquire contiguous imagery from a variety of altitudes with different pixel sizes. Second, the channel positions are configured to closely match those of ASTER and MODIS. A detailed description of the instrument and optical system are provided by Hook et al. (2001) and King et al. (1996), respectively.

NASA’s Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is an eight-week summer internship program for rising senior undergraduate students to acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of a scientific campaign using one or more NASA Airborne Science Program flying science laboratories (aircraft used for SARP have included the DC-8, P-3B, C-23, UC-12B, and ER-2).

For this campaign, the MASTER instrument was flown on NASA's ER-2 aircraft at altitudes of 19,130–20,300 m above sea level. The study area included a portion of southern California between Bakersfield south and west to Santa Barbara and the Pacific Ocean (Fig. 2).

The L2 data are derived from the L1B files, and the primary L2 products are emissivity in five bands (wavelengths: 8.58, 9.02, 10.62, 11.32, and 12.13 µm) and land surface temperature (LST). Emissivity and LST were corrected using a Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm (Coll et al., 2001).

FlightPath

Figure 2. Typical flight path is shown for June 9, 2016. Flight 1662600 and 11 flight tracks. Source: companion file 1662600tm.gif

Data Access

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

MASTER (MODIS-ASTER) Airborne Simulator Campaign, SARP, California, USA, 2016

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

References

ASF. 2021. Campaign summary information: HyspIRI / WDTS Airborne Campaign. Airborne Sensor Facility, Airborne Science Program, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. https://asapdata.arc.nasa.gov/sensors/master/data/deploy_html/hyspiri_home.html

Capolsini, P., S. Andréfouët, C. Rion, and C. Payri. 2003. A comparison of Landsat ETM+, SPOT HRV, Ikonos, ASTER, and airborne MASTER data for coral reef habitat mapping in South Pacific islands. Canadian J. Remote Sensing 29:187-200. https://doi.org/10.5589/m02-088

Coll, C., V. Caselles, E. Rubio, F. Sospedra, and E. Valor. 2001. Temperature and emissivity separation from calibrated data of the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer. Remote Sensing of Environment 76:250-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(00)00207-8

Hook, S.J. Myers, J.J., Thome, K.J., Fitzgerald, M., and A. B. Kahle. 2001. The MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) - a new instrument for earth science studies. Remote Sensing of Environment 76:93-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(00)00195-4

JPL. 2021a. Calibration and Validation, MASTER: MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. https://masterprojects.jpl.nasa.gov/cal-val

JPL. 2021b. Science objectives, MASTER: MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. https://masterprojects.jpl.nasa.gov/objectives

King, M.D., W.P. Menzel, P.S. Grant, J.S. Myers, G.T. Arnold, S.E. Platnick, L.E. Gumley, S.C. Tsay, C.C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K.S. Brown, and F.G. Osterwisch. 1996. Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, water vapor and surface properties. J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 13:777-794. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0777:ASSFRS>2.0.CO;2

Li, P., and W.M. Moon. 2004. Land cover classification using MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and NDVI: A case study of the Kochang area, Korea. Canadian J. Remote Sensing 30:123-126. https://doi.org/10.5589/m03-061

Veraverbeke, S., S. Harris, and S. Hook. 2011. Evaluating spectral indices for burned area discrimination using MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data. Remote Sensing of Environment 115:2702-2709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.06.010

Zhao, Q., and E.A. Wentz. 2016. A MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) imagery for urban heat island research. Data 1:7. https://doi.org/10.3390/data1010007