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This data set is a subset of Cramer and Leemans' (2001) global database of mean monthly climatology, which contains monthly averages of mean temperature, temperature range, precipitation, rain days, and sunshine hours for terrestrial areas during 1931-1960. This subset was created for the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) in South America (i.e., latitude 10° N to 25° S, longitude 30° to 85° W). The data are presented at 0.5-degree latitude/longitude resolution in ASCII GRID file format.

Cramer and Leemans (2001, Version 2.1) constituted a major update of an earlier database, Leemans and Cramer (1991). The new version was generated from a larger database by means of the partial thin-plate splining algorithm developed by Michael F. Hutchinson, Canberra (Hutchinson and Bischof 1983). Version 2.1 has been used widely, notably by all groups participating in the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme's Net Primary Productivity (NPP) model intercomparison (Olsen et al. 2001).

More information about the data can be found at cramer_lmns_readme.pdf.

LBA was a cooperative international research initiative led by Brazil. NASA was a lead sponsor for several experiments. LBA was designed to create the new knowledge needed to understand the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia; the impact of land use change on these functions; and the interactions between Amazonia and the Earth system. More information about LBA be found at

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Cramer, W. P., and R. Leemans. 2003. LBA Regional Mean Climatology, 0.5-Deg, 1930-1960, V[ersion]. 2.1 (Cramer and Leemans). Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/681.


Cramer, W. P., and R. Leemans. 2001. Global 30-Year Mean Monthly Climatology, 1930-1960, V[ersion]. 2.1 (Cramer and Leemans). Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Hutchinson, M. F., and R. J. Bischof. 1983. A new method for estimating the spatial distribution of mean seasonal and annual rainfall applied to the Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Australian Meteorological Magazine 31:179-184.

Leemans, R., and W. P. Cramer. 1991. The IIASA database for mean monthly values of temperature, precipitation and cloudiness of a global terrestrial grid. Research Report RR-91-18, November 1991. International Institute for Applied Systems Analyses, Laxenburg, Austria.

Olson, R. J., K. R. Johnson, D. L. Zheng, and J. M. O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Available on-line [NPP_TM196.pdf] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Data Format:

Information about the data format, climate parameters, and the procedure used to create the LBA subset are in the following file: cramer_lmns_readme.pdf.

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