The FIFE Standard Pressure Level Radiosonde Data Set provides a set of standard level profiles (i.e., 5 mb pressure intervals) from over 450 radiosonde balloon flights, which occurred every one to three hours (daylight hours) during the FIFE IFCs. This derived profile data were computed to 5 mb pressure intervals through simple linear interpolation means. An assumption exists that a linear interpolation scheme may be used with sufficient accuracy to assign meteorological values at 5 mb pressure levels. Some errors are introduced using this method.
Several new variables were computed from the original FIFE Radiosonde Data and are included in this derived data set. U (east-west) and V (north-south) winds have been computed from wind speed and direction, and potential temperature has been computed from pressure and temperature. These new parameters are desirable for initial conditions in numerical models as well as forcing functions in models, or as verification and comparison of numerical model's results.
FIFE Atmos. Profile: Std. Press. Level (FIFE)
(FIFE Standard Pressure Level Radiosonde Data.)
The FIFE Standard Pressure Level Radiosonde Data Set contains the meteorological parameters that were derived from the raw radiosonde data provided to FIFE by Prof. W. Brutsaert. The following parameters are provided at 5 mb pressure levels: dry and wet bulb temperatures, atmospheric mixing ratios, potential temperatures, and the U (east-west) and V (north-south) components of the wind.
The purpose of this work was to estimate atmospheric meteorological parameters at 5 mb pressure levels from the raw radiosonde data provided to FIFE by Prof. W. Brutsaert (see the description in the FIFE Radiosonde Data document for more details).
Meteorological parameters included in this data set are: dry and wet bulb temperatures, atmospheric mixing ratios, potential temperatures, and the U (east-west) and V (north-south) components of the wind.
Many research endeavors require atmospheric profile data at standard pressure intervals, whereas the radiosonde data provided to FIFE by Prof. Brutsaert (FIFE Radiosonde Data) had short time intervals. This data set provides a set of standard level profiles (i.e., 5 mb pressure intervals) from over 450 radiosonde balloon flights, which occurred every one to three hours (daylight hours) during the FIFE IFCs. This derived profile data were computed to 5 mb pressure intervals through simple linear interpolation means.
In addition, several new variables have been computed from the original FIFE Radiosonde Data and are included in this derived data set. U (east-west) and V (north-south) winds have been computed from wind speed and direction and potential temperature has been computed from pressure and temperature. These new parameters are desired by numerical modelers who may use them as initial conditions and/or forcing functions for their models, or as verification and comparison of their model's results.
Staff Science Data Reduction Program.
Dr. Robert J. Lutz
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Tel.: (301) 286-1272
The FIFE Standard Pressure Level Radiosonde Data were calculated from the FIFE Radiosonde Data by Dr. Robert Lutz of the FIFE Information System Staff.
A description of the general theory of the data set is found in the FIFE Radiosonde Data document. Specifically within this derived data set, an assumption exists that a linear interpolation scheme may be used with sufficient accuracy to assign meteorological values at 5 mb pressure levels. Some errors will be introduced using this method (see the Sources of Error Section).
See the FIFE Radiosonde Data document for a description of the radiosonde instrument used to collect the original data. No additional equipment was used in deriving the data set.
See the FIFE Radiosonde Data document for a description of the calibration applied to the original data from which this data set was derived. No additional calibration checks were made in deriving the data set described here.
See the Calibration Section.
See the Calibration Section.
See the Calibration Section.
See the Calibration Section.
This is a derived product. The original data was obtained from the FIFE Radiosonde Data provided on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1.
The FIFE study area, with areal extent of 15 km by 15 km, is located south of the Tuttle Reservoir and Kansas River, and about 10 km from Manhattan, Kansas, USA. The northwest corner of the area has UTM coordinates of 4,334,000 Northing and 705,000 Easting in UTM Zone 14.
The derived atmospheric profile data was calculated from radiosonde data collected from balloon releases at the FIFE site listed below:
SITEGRID STN_ID NORTHING EASTING LATITUDE LONGITUDE ELEV -------- ------ -------- ------- -------- --------- ---- 0928-RSB 102 4332188 710674 39 06 55 -96 33 48 342
The spatial coverage varies with each flight depending upon the horizontal distance traveled and the direction and rate of assent of the balloon. The distance and direction of the assent can be obtained from the FIFE Radiosonde Wind Profiles data set.
These are point data provided at constant pressure intervals (5 mb). The vertical resolution, height above the ground in meters, will vary approximately logarithmically as the sonde rises.
The data was collected during FIFE's five IFC's, covering the period from May 26, 1987 through August 12, 1989.
IFC# Dates ----- ------------------- IFC-1 05/26/87 - 06/06/87 IFC-2 06/25/87 - 07/11/87 IFC-3 08/06/87 - 08/21/87 IFC-4 10/05/87 - 10/16/87 IFC-5 07/24/89 - 08/12/89
The soundings were made at 1 to 3 hour intervals, depending on weather conditions.
Derivations were made at constant pressure intervals, resulting in non-constant time intervals.
The SQL definition for this table is found in the BRUT_DRV.TDF file located on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1.
Parameter/Variable Description Range Units Source
SITEGRID_ID This is a FIS grid location code. Site grid codes (SSEE-III) give the east (EE) and south (SS) cell number in a 100 x 100 array of 200 m square cells. The last 3 characters (III) are an instrument identifier.
STATION_ID The station ID designating the location of the observations.
OBS_DATE The date of the observations, in min = 26-MAY-87, CORNELL the format (DD-MMM-YY). max = 12-AUG-89 UNIVERSITY
OBS_TIME The time of day the observation min = 3, [GMT] CORNELL was made. max = 235953 UNIVERSITY
OBS_SECONDS The seconds portion of the min = 0 [GMT] FIS OBS_TIME. max = 30
OBS_TIME_DECIMAL The time of day, expressed in min = .00111, [GMT] FIS hours and decimal hours. For max = 23.99823 example, 12:30 (12 hours and 30 minutes) corresponds to 12.50 in this column.
This is the flight number of the min = 1, FIS radiosonde balloon flight where max = 450 the data was recorded.
ATMOSPHERIC_PRESS The atmospheric pressure at the min = 440, [millibars] ANEROID observation height. max = 999 SENSOR
HEIGHT_ABV_GRND_LVL The height above the ground min = 0, [meters] CORNELL level where the observation max = 8541, UNIVERSITY was made. missing = -999
DRY_BULB_TEMP The temperature measured using min = -21.61, [degrees THERMISTOR a conventional thermometer. max = 37.21 Celsius]
WET_BULB_TEMP The temperature to which air min = -15.38, [degrees THERMISTOR may be cooled by evaporating max = 26.36, Celsius] water into it at a constant missing = -999 pressure until it is saturated.
MIX_RATIO The mixing ratio of water to air: min = -.51, [grams] FIS grams of water per kilogram of max = 22.2, [kg ^-1 dry air (mass of air minus mass missing = -999 of air] of water).
POTNTL_TEMP The potential temperature at the min = 276.25, [degrees FIS observation height; the temperature max = 330.85 Kelvin] an air sample attains if reduced to 1000 millibars pressure without any external heat exchange.
U_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The U (westward) component of min = -36.12, [meters] CORNELL the wind velocity at the max = 453.33, [sec^-1] UNIVERSITY observation height. missing = -999
V_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The V (northward) component of min = -204.16, [meters] CORNELL the wind velocity at the max = 637.06, [sec^-1] UNIVERSITY observation height. missing = -999
FIFE_DATA_CRTFCN_CODE * The FIFE Certification Code for the min = pre, FIS data, in the following format: CPI max = pre (Certified by PI), CPI-??? (CPI - questionable data).
LAST_REVISION_DATE the data, in the format max = 13-DEC-91 (DD-MMM-YY).
* Valid levels
The primary certification codes are: EXM Example or Test data (not for release) PRE Preliminary (unchecked, use at your own risk) CPI Checked by Principal Investigator (reviewed for quality) CGR Checked by a group and reconciled (data comparisons and cross checks)
The certification code modifiers are: PRE-NFP Preliminary - Not for publication, at the request of investigator. CPI-MRG PAMS data that is "merged" from two separate receiving stations to eliminate transmission errors. CPI-??? Investigator thinks data item may be questionable.
Sample Data Record:SITEGRID_ID STATION_ID OBS_DATE OBS_TIME OBS_SECONDS FLIGHT_NUM ----------- ---------- ---------- -------- ----------- ---------- 0928-RSB 102 28-MAY-87 1228 42 5 0928-RSB 102 28-MAY-87 1228 47 5 0928-RSB 102 28-MAY-87 1228 52 5 0928-RSB 102 28-MAY-87 1228 57 5 FILE_NAME ATMOSPHERIC_PRESS HEIGHT_ABV_GRND_LVL DRY_BULB_TEMP ------------ ----------------- ------------------- ------------- FL5.DAT 972.9 23 15.990 FL5.DAT 969.8 49 16.060 FL5.DAT 966.5 79 16.080 FL5.DAT 963.2 108 16.040 WET_BULB_TEMP MIX_RATIO POTNTL_TEMP AZIM_ANG ELEV_ANG WIND_SPEED ------------- ---------- ----------- --------- --------- ---------- 14.870 10.510 291.4300 16.980 15.300 -999.0000 14.760 10.390 291.7600 12.770 20.060 13.1500 14.620 10.260 292.0600 11.170 23.530 13.1500 14.450 10.120 292.3100 11.000 25.330 9.4900
This data set contains derived point data provided at 5 mb pressure intervals. The original data was collected during the five FIFE IFCs, covering the period from May 26, 1987 through August 12, 1989.
A general description of data granularity as it applies to the IMS appears in the EOSDIS Glossary.
The CD-ROM file format consists of numerical and character fields of varying length separated by commas. The character fields are enclosed with a single apostrophe. There are no spaces between the fields. Each file begins with five header records. Header records contain the following information: Record 1 Name of this file, its table name, number of records inthis file, path and name of the document that describes the data in this file, and name of principal investigator for these data.
Record 2 Path and filename of the previous data set, and path and filename of the next data set. (Path and filenames for files that contain another set of data taken at the same site on the same day.)
Record 3 Path and filename of the previous site, and path and filename of the next site. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken on the same day for the previous and next sites (sequentially numbered by SITEGRID_ID)).
Record 4 Path and filename of the previous date, and path and filename of the next date. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken at the same site for the previous and next date.)
Record 5 Column names for the data within the file, delimited by commas.
Record 6 Data records begin.
Each field represents one of the attributes listed in the chart in the Data Characteristics Section and described in detail in the TDF file. These fields are in the same order as in the chart.
The following formulas were used to generate the derived values reported in this data set.
A linear interpolation method was used to weight values of variables at these 5 mb pressure intervals. Although pressure varies logarithmically with height in the atmosphere; over small intervals of pressure, linear methods may be applied.
If PR(k) is the desired 5 mb pressure level (k) and PR(k) falls between P(I) and P(I+1); then:
It was noted that on two flights (192 and 207), instruments continued to record and provide data after the radiosonde began to descend i.e., after the balloon had exploded in the upper atmosphere. This descending data was removed from the data set.
As in any data set formed using a linear interpolation scheme, the original maximas and minimas tend to be slightly "smoothed" out.
Dr. Robert Lutz checked this data, and assigned -999.0 to all missing values. No cross-checking with other data sets was done.
There are known errors (due to errors in the original data set) in this derived data set. Though the time intervals are short during these "erroneous" data collection periods, investigators should be aware of their existence (e.g., for averaging purposes).
Not estimated for this data set at this revision.
FIS did a general quality check on the data, checking minimas and maximas within the data fields.
The data verification performed by the ORNL DAAC deals with the quality of the data format, media, and readability. The ORNL DAAC does not make an assessment of the quality of the data itself except during the course of performing other QA procedures as described below.
The FIFE data were transferred to the ORNL DAAC via CD-ROM. These CD-ROMs are distributed by the ORNL DAAC unmodified as a set or in individual volumes, as requested. In addition, the DAAC has incorporated each of the 98 FIFE tabular datasets from the CD-ROMs into its online data holdings. Incorporation of these data involved the following steps:
Each distinct type of data (i.e. "data set" on the CD-ROM), is accompanied by a documentation file (i.e., .doc file) and a data format/structure definition file (i.e., .tdf file). The data format files on the CD-ROM are Oracle SQL commands (e.g., "create table") that can be used to set up a relational database table structure. This file provides column/variable names, character/numeric type, length, and format, and labels/comments. These SQL commands were converted to SAS code and were used to create SAS data sets and subsequently to input data files directly from the CD-ROM into a SAS dataset. During this process, file names and directory paths were captured and metadata was extracted to the extent possible electronically. No files were found to be corrupted or unreadable during the conversion process.
Additional Quality Assurance procedures were performed as follows:
As errors are discovered in the online tabular data by investigators, users, or DAAC staff, corrections are made in cooperation with the principal investigators. These corrections are then distributed to users. CD-ROM data are corrected when re-mastering occurs for replenishment of CD-ROM stock.
Use in the study of the atmospheric boundary layer.
This data set contains parameters that can be used as initial conditions in meteorological numerical models as well as forcing functions in models, or as verification and comparison of numerical model's results.
The FIFE field campaigns were held in 1987 and 1989 and there are no plans for new data collection. Field work continues near the FIFE site at the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Konza research site (i.e., LTER continues to monitor the site). The FIFE investigators are continuing to analyze and model the data from the field campaigns to produce new data products.
Software to access the data set is available on the all volumes of the FIFE CD-ROM set. For a detailed description of the available software see the Software Description Document.
ORNL DAAC User Services
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665
ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665
Users may place requests by telephone, electronic mail, or FAX. Data is also available via the World Wide Web at http://[an error occurred while processing this directive].
FIFE data are available from the ORNL DAAC. Please contact the ORNL DAAC User Services Office for the most current information about these data.
The FIFE Standard Pressure Level Radiosonde Data are available on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1. The CD-ROM filename is as follows:
Where yy is the last two digits of the year (e.g., Y87 = 1987) and mm is the month of the year (e.g., M12 = December). Note: capital letters indicate fixed values that appear on the CD-ROM exactly as shown here, lower case indicates characters (values) that change for each path and file.
The format used for the filenames is: ydddNnnn.sfx, where y is the last digit of the year (e.g., 7 = 1987, and 9 = 1989), ddd is the day of the year (e.g., 061 = sixty-first day in the year), and nnn is the flight number (ranging from 002 - 450). The file extension, (.sfx), identifies the data set content for the file and is equal to .WBD for this data set.
NOAA. 1981. Radiosonde observations. Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 3. U.S. Department of Commerce. National Weather Service. Washington, DC.
Brutsaert, W. and M. Sugita. 1990. The extent of the unstable Monin-Obukhov layer for temperature and humidity above complex hilly grassland. Boundary-Layer Meteor. 51:383-400.
Brutsaert, W. and M. Sugita. 1991. A bulk similarity approach in the atmospheric boundary layer using radiometric skin temperature to determine regional surface fluxes. Boundary-Layer Meteor. 55:1-23.
Brutsaert, W. and M. Sugita. 1992. Self-preservation in the diurnal evolution of the surface energy budget to determine daily evaporation. J. Geophys. Res. 97:18,377-18,382.
Sugita, M. and W. Brutsaert. 1990. Wind velocity measurements in the neutral boundary layer above hilly prairie. J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.). 95(D6):7617-7624.
Sugita, M. and W. Brutsaert. 1990. How similar are temperature and humidity profiles in the unstable boundary layer? J. Appl. Meteor. 29:489-497.
Sugita, M. and W. Brutsaert. 1992. The stability functions in the bulk similarity formulation for the unstable boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteor. 61:65-80.
Contact the EOS Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (see the Data Center Identification Section). Documentation about using the archive and/or online access to the data at the ORNL DAAC is not available at this revision.
A general glossary for the DAAC is located at Glossary.
A general list of acronyms for the DAAC is available at http://[an error occurred while processing this directive]/acronyms.html.
April 25, 1994.
Warning: This document has not been checked for technical or editorial accuracy by the FIFE Information Scientist. There may be inconsistencies with other documents, technical or editorial errors that were inadvertently introduced when the document was compiled or references to preliminary data that were not included on the final CD-ROM.
Previous versions of this document have been reviewed by the Principal Investigator, the person who transmitted the data to FIS, a FIS staff member, or a FIFE scientist generally familiar with the data.
August 28, 1996 (citation revised on October 3, 2002).
Lutz, R. J. 1994. Atmos[pheric]. Profile: St[andar]d. Press[ure]. Level (FIFE). Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/14. Also published in D. E. Strebel, D. R. Landis, K. F. Huemmrich, and B. W. Meeson (eds.), Collected Data of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, Vol. 1: Surface Observations and Non-Image Data Sets. CD-ROM. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, U.S.A. (available from http://www.daac.ornl.gov).