Documentation Revision Date: 2022-09-15
Dataset Version: 2
This dataset holds 31 files in comma separated values (CSV) format.
Nghiem, J., G. Salter, K.A. Wright, P. Passalacqua, and M.P. Lamb. 2022. Delta-X: Turbidity, Water and Air Pressure, Temperature, MRD, Louisiana, 2021. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/2074
Table of Contents
- Dataset Overview
- Data Characteristics
- Application and Derivation
- Quality Assessment
- Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
- Data Access
- Dataset Revisions
This dataset provides turbidity measurements with co-located water and air pressure and temperature measurements in portions of the Mississippi River Delta, coastal Louisiana, U.S.. Data were collected at five sites in Atchafalaya River Basin in Spring (2021-03-24 to 2021-04-02) and eight sites in the Atchafalaya River and Terrebonne Basins in Fall 2021 (2021-08-17 to 2021-08-27). In order to sample various hydrodynamic conditions, sensors were deployed at island edges, island interior, and other portions of wetlands. Sensors recorded turbidity, absolute pressure, and temperature.
The Delta-X mission is a 5-year NASA Earth Venture Suborbital-3 mission to study the Mississippi River Delta in the United States, which is growing and sinking in different areas. River deltas and their wetlands are drowning as a result of sea level rise and reduced sediment inputs. The Delta-X mission will determine which parts will survive and continue to grow, and which parts will be lost. Delta-X begins with airborne and in situ data acquisition and carries through data analysis, model integration, and validation to predict the extent and spatial patterns of future deltaic land loss or gain.
This work was supported by NASA's Earth Venture Suborbital-3 (EVS-3) program (grant NNH17ZDA001N-EVS3).
Spatial Coverage: Atchafalaya River and Terrebonne Basins, Louisiana, USA
Spatial Resolution: Point samples.
Temporal Coverage: 2021-03-24 to 2021-08-27
Temporal Resolution: Continuous readings, recorded at one minute intervals
Site Boundaries: Latitude and longitude are given in decimal degrees.
|Site||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude|
|Atchafalaya River and Terrebonne Basins, Louisiana||-91.4452||-90.822||29.510||29.171|
Data File Information
This dataset consists of 31 files in comma-separated values (CSV) format.
The files DeltaX_Fall2021_turbidity_pressure_METADATA.csv and DeltaX_Fall2021_turbidity_pressure_METADATA.csv contain metadata for each of the sampling stations. These files hold information for all the turbidity, water pressure, and air pressure measurements. These include station IDs, GPS coordinates, install and uninstall times, water depth at install and uninstall times, and the relative positions of the sensors with respect to the bed.
The remaining 29 CSV files are organized according to the type of measurement and measurement site. The different types of measurements are turbidity (Sensor = Turbidity), water pressure (Sensor = WaterPressure), and air pressure (Sensor = AirPressure).
The naming convention for these files is DeltaX_AAAA_BBBB_basin_siteid_station.csv (e.g., DeltaX_Fall2021_AirPressure_Atchafalaya_MikeIsland_MW_channel.csv), where
- AAAA = "Spring2021" or "Fall2021"
- BBBB = instrument: "Turbidity" or "WaterPressure" or "AirPressure"
- basin = "Atchafalaya" or "Terrebonne"
- siteid = site name: "MikeIsland" or "421"
- station = station name, which may include an embedded "_" (e.g., "ME_channel")
Missing data or are indicated with the value -9999. Gaps in turbidity and water pressure data were caused when low tides exposed turbidity sensors to air.
Table 1. Variables in turbidity data files. NTU = Nephelometric Turbidity Unit.
|time||YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss||Time of sampling in UTC|
|measured_temperature||degrees C||Temperature measured by pressure or turbidity sensors|
|measured_turbidity||NTU||Measured instantaneous turbidity values over a 1-minute window|
|turbidity_1min_avg||NTU||Average of measured turbidity values over a 1-minute window|
|turbidity_1min_max||NTU||Maximum of measured turbidity values over a 1-minute window|
|turbidity_1min_min||NTU||Minimum of measured turbidity values over a 1-minute window|
|turbidity_1min_sd||NTU||Standard deviation of measured turbidity values over a 1-minute window|
Table 2. Variables in the water pressure and air pressure data files.
|time||YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss||Time of sampling in UTC|
|measured_pressure||kPa||For air pressure sensor: Pressure measured by air pressure sensor.
For water pressure sensor: Pressure measured by water pressure sensor (absolute pressure uncorrected for atmospheric pressure).
|measured_temperature||degrees C||Temperature measured by pressure sensor. For air pressure sensor: Air temperature.
For water pressure sensor: Water temperature. However, there might be periods of time when water pressure sensor was exposed to air at low tides. In that case, temperature corresponds to air pressure.
Table 3. Variables in DeltaX_Fall2021_turbidity_pressure_METADATA.csv and DeltaX_Fall2021_turbidity_pressure_METADATA.csv.
|basin||-||River basin name, “Atchafalaya”|
|site_id||-||Location within the basin|
|station id||-||Location within site|
|sensor_type||-||Type of sensor: “turbidity,” “water pressure,” or “air pressure"|
|latitude||degree_north||Latitude of station in decimal degrees|
|longitude||degree_east||Longitude of station in decimal degrees|
|time_install||YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss||Time of measurement station installation|
|time_uninstall||YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss||Time of measurement station uninstallation|
|depth_install||cm||Local water depth at measurement station at the installation time|
|depth_uninstall||cm||Local water depth at measurement station at the uninstallation time|
|sensor_to_rodtop||cm||Distance between sensor elevation and top of installation rod|
|bed_to_rodtop||cm||Distance between local bed elevation and top of installation rod|
|bed_to_sensor||cm||Distance between bed and sensor elevation|
|notes||-||Any additional notes or descriptions|
Application and Derivation
These in situ data are used to calibrate and validate Delta-X’s hydrodynamic models. Turbidity data provide time series records of sediment coming to the island and turbidity values within the island. Water pressure combined with air pressure can be used to compute the flow depth. These measurements are compared to numerical models to calibrate and validate its parameters. The hydrology models quantify the mesoscale (i.e., on the order of 1 ha) patterns of soil accretion that control land loss and gain and predict the resilience of deltaic floodplains under projected relative sea-level rise. Understanding and mitigating the impact of the relative sea-level rise on coastal deltas is urgent. If ignored, relative sea-level rise will very soon have devastating consequences on the livelihood of the half-billion people that live in these low-lying coastal regions.
The files provide raw data from the installed sensors. For turbidity measurements, the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation over one-minute sample windows are included. Gaps in turbidity data were caused when low tides exposed turbidity sensors to air. Otherwise, data quality and uncertainty were not assessed.
Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
During Spring 2021, turbidity sensors and co-located water pressure sensors were deployed at five sites within Mike Island (Fig. 2B) in the Wax Lake Delta of Atchafalaya River Basin in coastal Louisiana. Two stations were located on the island edges to monitor turbidity from the channels that feed the island and to compare with turbidity values within the island. These stations were installed from an outboard boat. The other three stations were located within the island interior and were installed by airboat.
During Fall 2021, turbidity sensors and co-located water pressure sensors were deployed at eight sites in Atchafalaya and Terrebonne Basins. The four Atchafalaya sites were all located at Mike Island in the Wax Lake Delta in island edge and island interior locations. The remaining four sites were in Terrebonne basin and were proximal to the Louisiana Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) site 421. These stations were installed in different parts of the wetland expected to have different levels of hydrological connectivity.
Figure 2. Locations of turbidity sampling stations in Mississippi River Delta of coastal Louisiana during 2021. (A) Locations of Atchafalaya and Terrebonne stations within the delta. (B) Sites around Mike Island in Wax Lake Delta in Atchafalaya basin. (C) Sites in the Terrebonne basin near CRMS site 421.
The turbidity sensor and water pressure sensors were placed on rods driven into the mud. The power and data logger were located within a case that was suspended from the tripods (Fig. 3). The sensors record turbidity, absolute pressure, temperature.
Figure 3. Annotated image of turbidity sensor setup.
These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Not cited or provided.
|Version||Release Date||Revision Notes|
|2.0||2022-09-15||Fall 2021 data added. Title revised.|
|1.0||2022-04-20||Original release with Spring 2021 data|