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BOREAS RSS-03 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera

Documentation Revision Date: 2017-09-13

Data Set Version: 2

Summary

This data set provides images of boreal forests in central Canada collected over numerous tower and auxiliary sites during the BOREAS Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) in the Northern (NSA) and Southern Study Areas (SSA). The images were acquired by helicopter with VHS video cameras during the green-up, peak, and senescent stages of the growing season from May-September of 1994. These snapshots were generated from VHS imagery and converted to .jpg format.

There are 163 images in .jpg format with this data set.

Figure 1. Image of an Aspen auxiliary site in the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA). The image was taken September 9th, 1994.

Citation

Walthall, C.L., and S. Loechel. 2017. BOREAS RSS-03 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/289

Table of Contents

  1. Data Set Overview
  2. Data Characteristics
  3. Application and Derivation
  4. Quality Assessment
  5. Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
  6. Data Access
  7. References
  8. Data Set Revisions

Data Set Overview

This data set provides images of boreal forests in central Canada collected over numerous tower and auxiliary sites during the BOREAS campaign in the Northern (NSA) and Southern Study Areas (SSA). The images were acquired in all three Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) during the green-up, peak, and senescent stages of the growing season from May-September of 1994.

The BOREAS Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-RSS-03 team collected the images with two VHS video cameras mounted on a helicopter platform, and video single-frame "snapshots" were processed to the still images.

Project: Boreas

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study was a large-scale international interdisciplinary experiment in the boreal forests of central Canada. Its focus was improving our understanding of the exchanges of radiative energy, sensible heat, water, CO2 and trace gases between the boreal forest and the lower atmosphere. A primary objective of BOREAS was to collect the data needed to improve computer simulation models of the important processes controlling these exchanges so that scientists can anticipate the effects of global change, principally altered temperature and precipitation patterns, on the biome.

Related data sets

Deering, D.W., and T.F. Eck. 1999. BOREAS RSS-01 PARABOLA SSA Surface Reflectance and Transmittance Data. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/286

Irons, J.R., and P.W. Dabney. 2000. BOREAS RSS-02 Level-1b ASAS Image Data: At-sensor Radiance in BSQ Format. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/562

Walthall, C.L., and S. Loechel. 1998. BOREAS RSS-03 Reflectance Measured from a Helicopter-Mounted SE-590. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/291

Walthall, C.L., and S. Loechel. 1998. BOREAS RSS-03 Reflections Measured from a Helicopter-Mounted Barnes MMR. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/290

Walthall, C.L., and S. Loechel. 1999. BOREAS RSS-03 Atmospheric Conditions from a Helicopter-Mounted Sunphotometer. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/288

Miller, J., D.R. Peddle, and J. Freemantle. 1998. BOREAS RSS-19 1994 Seasonal Understory Reflectance Data. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/304

Leroy, M. and F.-M. Breon. 1999. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER Helicopter-Mounted Measurements of Surface BRDF. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/306

Related publications

Sellers, P. and F. Hall. 1994. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1994-3.0 NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 94).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, and K.F. Huemmrich. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1994 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 94).

Sellers, P. and F. Hall. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1996-2.0 NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 96).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, and K.F. Huemmrich. 1997. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1996 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 96).

Sellers, P. J., F. G. Hall, R. D. Kelly, A. Black, D. Baldocchi, J. Berry, M. Ryan, K. J. Ranson, P. M. Crill, D. P. Lettenmaier, H. Margolis, J. Cihlar, J. Newcomer, D. Fitzjarrald, P. G. Jarvis, S. T. Gower, D. Halliwell, D. Williams, B. Goodison, D. E. Wickland, and F. E. Guertin. 1997. BOREAS in 1997: Experiment Overview, Scientific Results and Future Directions. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (D24): 28,731-28,770.

Data Characteristics

Spatial Coverage: Central Canada, in the BOREAS Northern (NSA) and Southern Study Areas (SSA). The NSA is is west of Thompson, Manitoba. The SSA is north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.

Spatial Resolution: The spatial resolution for the imagery was somewhat variable based on the altitude of the helicopter, tree height, and ground cover. Helicopter altitude was usually 300-m above ground level.

Temporal Coverage: 1994-05-31 to 1994-09-16

Temporal Resolution: Daily

Study Area: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site

Westernmost Longitude

Easternmost Longitude

Northernmost Latitude

Southernmost Latitude

Boreal forests of central Canada (Northern and Southern study areas of the BOREAS project)

 -106.1978

-97.485659

 56.00339

 53.62889

 

Data file information

There are 163 images in .jpg format with this data set. The files are named according to the date, study area, and site.

Where:

YY-MM-DD = date,

ssa or nsa  (ssa = southern study area and nsa = northern study area) = study area,

site abbreviation (refer to the companion file),

flxtr for fluxtower or aux# = auxillary site and number (followed by a number for some files),

 

For example:  94-05-31_ssa-ojp-flxtr_1.jpg

Photo from May 31, 1994 from the ssa (Southern Study Area), ojp (Old Jack Pine), fluxtower 1.

 

Table 1. The helicopter visited all of the NSA and SSA tower and category-1 auxiliary sites. Each site listed below was observed at least once during the 1994 campaign. The coordinates in the table are based on the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83).

Site ID Operational Grid ID Longitude Latitude UTM Easting UTM Northing UTM Zone
             
SSA Flux Tower Sites            
SSA-FEN F0L9T 104.61798 53.80206 525159.8 5961567 13
SSA-OBS G8I4T 105.11779 53.98717 492276.5 5982101 13
SSA-OJP G2L3T 104.69203 53.91634 520227.7 5974258 13
SSA-YJP F8L6T 104.64529 53.87581 523320.2 5969763 13
SSA-9OA C3B7T 106.19779 53.62889 420790.5 5942900 13
SSA-9YA D0H4T 105.32314 53.65601 478644.1 5945299 13
             
NSA Flux Tower Sites            
NSA-OBS T3R8T 98.48139 55.88007 532444.5 6192853 14
NSA-OJP T7Q8T 98.62396 55.92842 523496.2 6198176 14
NSA-YJP T8S9T 98.28706 55.89575 544583.9 6194707 14
NSA-BVP T4U6T 98.02747 55.84225 560900.6 6188951 14
NSA-FEN T7S1T 98.42072 55.91481 536207.9 6196750 14
             
SSA Auxiliary Sites            
SSA-9BS D0H6S 105.29534 53.64877 480508.7 5944263 13
SSA-9BS G2I4S 105.13964 53.93021 490831.4 5975766 13
SSA-9BS G2L7S 104.63785 53.90349 523793.6 5972844 13
SSA-9BS G6K8S 104.759 53.94446 515847.9 5977147 13
SSA-9BS G9I4S 105.11805 53.99877 492291.2 5983169 13
SSA-9JP F5I6P 105.11175 53.86608 492651.3 5968627 13
SSA-9JP F7J0P 105.05115 53.88336 496667 5970323 13
SSA-9JP F7J1P 105.03226 53.88211 497879.4 5970406 13
SSA-9JP G1K9P 104.74812 53.9088 516546.7 5973405 13
SSA-9JP G4K8P 104.76401 53.91883 515499.1 5974517 13
SSA-9JP G7K8P 104.77148 53.95882 514994.2 5978964 13
SSA-9JP G8L6P 104.63755 53.96558 523778 5979753 13
SSA-9JP G9L0P 104.73779 53.97576 517197.7 5980856 13
SSA-9JP I2I8P 105.05107 54.11181 496661.4 5995963 13
SSA-ASP B9B7A 106.18693 53.59098 421469.8 5938447 13
SSA-ASP D6H4A 105.31546 53.70828 479177.5 5951112 13
SSA-ASP D6L9A 104.6388 53.66879 523864 5946733 13
SSA-ASP D9G4A 105.46929 53.74019 469047.1 5954718 13
SSA-MIX D9I1M 105.20643 53.7254 486379.7 5952990 13
SSA-MIX F1N0M 104.533 53.80594 530753.7 5962032 13
SSA-MIX G4I3M 105.14246 53.9375 490677.3 5976355 13
SSA-CLR FRSHCL 104.69194 53.91639 520205.2 5974269 13
             
NSA Auxiliary Sites            
NSA-9BS S8W0S 97.84024 55.76824 572761.9 6180895 14
NSA-9BS T0P7S 98.82345 55.88371 511043.9 6193151 14
NSA-9BS T0P8S 98.80225 55.88351 512370.1 6193132 14
NSA-9BS T0W1S 97.80937 55.78239 574671.7 6182502 14
NSA-9BS T3U9S 97.98339 55.83083 563679.1 6187719 14
NSA-9BS T4U8S 97.99325 55.83913 563048.2 6188633 14
NSA-9BS T4U9S 97.98364 55.83455 563657.5 6188133 14
NSA-9BS T5Q7S 98.64022 55.9161 522487.2 6196801 14
NSA-9BS T6R5S 98.51865 55.90802 530092 6195947 14
NSA-9BS T6T6S 98.18658 55.87968 550887.9 6192988 14
NSA-9BS T7R9S 98.44877 55.91506 534454.5 6196764 14
NSA-9BS T7T3S 98.22621 55.89358 548391.8 6194506 14
NSA-9BS T8S4S 98.37111 55.91689 539306.4 6197009 14
NSA-9BS U5W5S 97.70986 55.9061 580655.5 6196381 14
NSA-9BS U6W5S 97.70281 55.91021 581087.8 6196847 14
NSA-9JP 99O9P 99.03952 55.88173 497527.8 6192918 14
NSA-9JP Q3V3P 98.02473 55.55712 561517.9 6157222 14
NSA-9JP T7S9P 98.30037 55.89486 543752.4 6194599 14
NSA-9JP T8Q9P 98.6105 55.93219 524334.5 6198601 14
NSA-9JP T8S9P 98.28385 55.90456 544774.3 6195689 14
NSA-9JP T8T1P 98.26269 55.90539 546096.3 6195795 14
NSA-9JP T9Q8P 98.59568 55.93737 525257.1 6199183 14
NSA-9OA T2Q6A 98.67479 55.88691 520342 6193541 14
NSA-ASP P7V1A 98.07478 55.50253 558442.1 6151104 14
NSA-ASP Q3V2A 98.02635 55.56227 561407.9 6157794 14
NSA-ASP R8V8A 97.8926 55.67779 569638.4 6170775 14
NSA-ASP S9P3A 98.87621 55.88576 507743.3 6193372 14
NSA-ASP T4U5A 98.04329 55.84757 559901.6 6189528 14
NSA-ASP T8S4A 98.37041 55.91856 539348.3 6197195 14
NSA-ASP V5X7A 97.48565 55.97396 594506.1 6204217 14
NSA-ASP W0Y5A 97.3355 56.00339 603796.6 6207707 14
NSA-MIX Q1V2M 98.03769 55.54568 560718.3 6155937 14
NSA-MIX T0P5M 98.85662 55.88911 508967.7 6193747 14

 

Application and Derivation

The imagery was taken to capture visual conditions at the site during data collection that could then later be referred to as necessary when processing the data to aid in quality assessment. The imagery was taken from the helicopter platform simultaneous with radiometric ground measurements and sunphotometer measurements from the same platform. 

Quality Assessment

The camera field of view is unknown. BOREAS Information System (BORIS) staff viewed some of the JPEG imagery to verify data format.

 

Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods

BOREAS was a large-scale international interdisciplinary experiment in the boreal forests of central Canada. Images were collected from two helicopter video cameras of numerous flux tower and auxiliary sites (some of these sites were located within the tower sites) during the BOREAS campaign in the NSA and SSA (Sellers et al., 1995). The data were collected during the green-up, peak, and senescent stages of the growing season. Observations were made during all three BOREAS 1994 IFCs from May to September of 1994.

 

Study area map

Figure 2. Map showing the BOREAS study areas in central Canada.

 

Video imagery was taken with color VHS video cameras mounted on a helicopter platform at BOREAS sites simultaneous with radiometric ground measurements and sunphotometer measurements from the same platform. The video cameras were operated continuously during data collection. The still frames were digitized from the video tapes as representative views of the sites.

Image over the ssa OBS  Image of the ssa OBS fluxtower

Figure 3. The image on the left was taken from the helicopter over the SSA Old Black Spruce Site (OBS) flux tower site September 13, 1994. The right image is the fluxtower at the SSA OBS site.

 

The instrumentation used was designed and developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).  In general, the helicopter was flown during relatively clear days when possible. Data collection was attempted during conditions of highest possible solar elevation (Walthall et al., 1996).

Two video cameras were used in the system. One video camera was bore-sighted with the main instruments on the pointable platform, and the other was next to the 70-mm photographic camera set to view nadir only. All observations were usually at 300-m above ground level (AGL). During IFC-1, a video camera with an operator-controlled electronic zoom and focus system was used.  During IFC-2 and IFC-3, this lens was replaced with the same type of lens used with the nadir-looking camera.  These lenses had a manual focus and a 20- to 80-mm zoom range, which was set at 30 to 35 mm. Multiple observations were captured from the video at sites where the cover changed significantly during the scan time; this was determined subjectively by the operator (Walthall et al., 1996). The spatial resolution for the imagery was somewhat variable based on the altitude of the helicopter, tree height, and ground cover. Helicopter altitude was usually 300-m above ground level.

The video snapshots were generated on a Power Macintosh PC 8500/220 using a VHS video player and Avid VideoShop 3.0.2.  The images were then converted from PICT format to JPEG for universal accessibility.

 

Data Access

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

BOREAS RSS-03 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

References

Sellers P., F. Hall, H. Margolis, B. Kelly, D. Baldocchi, G. den Hartog, J. Cihlar, M.G. Ryan, B. Goodison, P. Crill, K.J. Ranson, D. Lettenmaier, and D.E. Wickland. 1995. The boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 76(9):1549-1577.

Walthall, C., D.L. Williams, B. Markham, J. Kalshoven, and R. Nelson. 1996. Development and present configuration of the NASA GSFC/WFF helicopter-based remote sensing system.  International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) Spring 1996, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Data Set Revisions

This revision represents a re-packaging of the previously published data set

Walthall, C.L., and S. Loechel. 1999. BOREAS RSS-03 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/289