Rapalee, G., F. G. Hall, L. T. Steyaert, and E. R. Levine. 2001. BOREAS Follow-On DSP-09 Moss Cover Classification at Three Area Scales. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
1.2 Data Set Introduction
This data set contains moss cover maps within the BOREAS region at three different scales: 1) a regional moss cover analysis for a 619-km by 821-km subset of the BOREAS region; (2) moss cover analysis for the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA); and (3) moss cover analysis for the BOREAS Northern Study Area Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) tower site.
The major objective of this study was to develop regional moss cover classifications at 1 km and 30 m scales for use by BOREAS investigators. By also including data at the even finer scale of 10 m, we demonstrate the spatial variability of moss within 1 km land cover pixels. Data at 10 and 30 m further demonstrate the under-representation of smaller wetland areas not detected at 1 km scale.
1.4 Summary of Parameters
This data set contains information about the inferred spatial distribution of moss cover within the BOREAS region. The moss classes cover four broad groups: feather moss, sphagnum, brown moss, and lichen. Some classes are a combination of two of the groups.
Moss cover classification maps were derived using: regional 1 km AVHRR land cover classification (AFM-12 documentation; Steyaert et al., 1997), Landsat TM 30 m land cover and biomass density data (TE-18), and 10 m soil map (TE-20; Harden et al., 1997).
Reclassifying land cover images to the moss cover groups mentioned above takes into account similarities in soil drainage, forest cover, tree biomass density, landform, and soil texture. (See table in Section 7.3.2.)
The 1 km moss analysis was based on regrouping the BOREAS AFM-12 AVHRR land cover as follows:
|Moss Cover Class||Moss Cover Class ID||AVHRR (AFM-12)
Land Cover Class ID
|Feather Moss/Sphagnum Moss||
|Feather/Sphagnum/Brown Moss Mix||
Note: Missing are lichen (dry upland jack pine) and brown moss (fens). Class 4 on the moss map is the same as Class 4 in the AVHRR land classification.
The 1 km AVHRR land cover classes (AFM-12) are:
ID Class Name -- ---------- 1 Wet Conifer (Low Stand Density) 2 Wet Conifer (Medium Stand Density) 3 Wet Conifer (High Stand Density) 4 Upland Conifer/Fen 5 Rock Outcrops/Bare Ground/Sparse Vegetation/Slow Regeneration Burn Areas 7 Open Water 9 Regeneration (North: Within Canadian Shield Zone) 11 Recent Visible Burn 12 Rangeland/Pasture/Hay/Aspen Patches 13 Mixed Agriculture/Predominately Grains 14 Mixed Agriculture/Predominately Pasture/Hay 15 Grassland Marshes 16 Mixed Forest (80% Coniferous) 17 Mixed Forest (50% Coniferous) 18 Mixed Forest (80% Deciduous) 19 Regeneration (South: generally south of Shield Zone) 20 Unknown
From the BOREAS TE-18 30 m (TM) physically-based land cover image of the SSA, moss cover classes are:
|Moss Cover Class||Moss Cover Class ID||TM (TE-18) Land Cover ID|
|Feather Moss/Sphagnum Moss||
|Brown Moss (Fen)||
The 30 m TM land cover classes (TE-18) include:
ID Class Name -- ---------- 1 Conifer (Wet) 14 Deep sphagnum moss layer on clay 15 Poorly drained soils w/ sphagnum on clay 16 Moderately well-drained soils with feather moss over clay 2 Conifer (Dry) 3 Mixed (Coniferous and Deciduous) 4 Deciduous 5 Fen 6 Water 7 Disturbed 8 Fire Blackened 9 New Regeneration Conifer 10 Medium-Age Regeneration- Conifer 11 New Regeneration Deciduous 12 Medium-Age Regeneration-Deciduous 13 GrassClasses 14, 15, and 16 in the wet conifers are derived from the SSA biomass density image (TE-18), where the range in wet conifer is from 1.4-17.4 kg m-2. Here, Class 14 represents the wetter sites, where biomass ranges from 1-6 kg m-2. Class 15 represents wet sites, with biomass ranging from 6 to 12 kg m-2. Class 16 represents the drier sites and biomass ranges from 12 to 17 kg m-2.
|Moss Cover Class||Moss Cover Class ID||TE-20 Soil Polygon ID|
|Feather Moss/Sphagnum Moss||
|Feather Moss/Sphagnum Moss (bog veneer)||
|Brown Moss (fen)||
The Soil Drainage and Moss cover map classes of NSA-OBS (TE-20) include:
1 Feather moss -- moderately well-drained, covering 31% of mapped area 2 Feather moss/Sphagnum moss -- imperfect to poorly drained, covering 15% of mapped area 2 Feather moss/Sphagnum moss (bog veneer) -- poorly drained, covering 30% of mapped area 3 Sphagnum moss -- poor to very poorly drained, covering 14% of mapped area 4 Brown moss (fen) -- very poorly drained, covering 10% of mapped areaMoss Cover Class The moss cover classes for the 10 m map listed above are based on soil drainage, site characteristics, landform, soil texture, and land cover. (See table in Section 7.3.2.) The percentages of areal coverage listed are from Figure 1 in Harden et al. (1997). For more detailed site information on this and other tower sites in the Northern Study Area, see BOREAS TE-20 Supplementary Soil & Site Information. (See Section 1.6.)
The moss cover data sets were developed from four sources:
1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification
BOREAS TE-18 Landsat TM Physical Classification Image of the SSA
BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA
BOREAS TE-20 Soils Data Over the NSA-MSA and Tower Sites in Raster Format
BOREAS TE-20 Supplementary Soil & Site Information for NSA MSA and Tower Sites
2.2 Title of Investigation
DSP-9 Moss Cover Classification of the BOREAS Region at 3 Scales in Raster Format
2.3 Contact Information
University of California, Irvine
Forrest G. Hall
University of Maryland - Baltimore County
Louis T. Steyaert
U.S. Geological Survey --EOC
4.1 Sensor/Instrument Description
4.1.1 Collection Environment
4.1.3 Source/Platform Mission Objectives
4.1.4 Key Variables
Moss cover classes.
4.1.5 Principles of Operation
4.1.6 Sensor/Instrument Measurement Geometry
4.1.7 Manufacturer of Sensor/Instrument
4.2.1 SpecificationsReturn to top of document.
4.2.2 Frequency of Calibration
4.2.3 Other Calibration Information
6.2 Field Notes
The TE-20 Supplementary Soil & Site Information data set contains detailed field notes of the soil survey and a field manual. See Section 1.6.
7.1.1 Spatial Coverage18.104.22.168 AHVRR-based moss map, 1 km
The regional 1-km AVHRR moss cover data are contained within a 672 row by 862 column raster image. The image contains the actual moss cover classes (pixel values 1-6) for a 619-km by 821-km subset of the BOREAS region, plus a set of zero-value pixels that form the boundary of the raster image. The subsetted land cover classification has a domain of approximately 52-57 deg. N and 96-108 deg. W, which includes the BOREAS SW-NE transect from southwest of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to northeast of Gillam, Manitoba.
The corners of the data set are as follows. These coordinates are in the BOREAS Grid Albers Equal Area Conic (AEAC) projection.BOREAS Grid Corner X Y ------------------------------------ Northwest 174.0707 785.4531 Northeast 1036.0707 785.4531 Southwest 174.0707 113.4531 Southeast 1036.0707 113.4531
22.214.171.124 TM-based moss map, 30 m
The moss cover image of the SSA covers an area that is approximately 144 km by 114 km and includes areas just north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The corners of the data set are below. The BOREAS Grid coordinates are in the AEAC projection described in section 7.1.4.BOREAS Grid Corner X Y Longitude Latitude -------------------------------------------------------- Northwest 297.810 392.490 106.401° W 54.438° N Northeast 441.810 392.490 104.190° W 54.333° N Southwest 297.810 278.490 106.515° W 53.417° N Southeast 441.810 278.490 104.357° W 53.314° N
126.96.36.199 Ground-based moss map, 10 m
The moss cover image of the NSA-OBS is projected in the BOREAS Grid system and is bounded by the following points. These coordinates are based on the NAD83 datum.BOREAS Grid Corner X Y Longitude Latitude ----------------------------------------------------------- Northwest 777.540 614.230 98.48997° W 55.88746° N Northeast 778.840 614.230 98.46950° W 55.88538° N Southwest 777.540 612.930 98.49369° W 55.87599° N Southeast 778.840 612.930 98.47323° W 55.87390° N
7.1.2 Spatial Coverage Map
7.1.3 Spatial Resolution
NSA-OBS -- each pixel represents a 10-meter by 10-meter area on the ground.
SSA TM -- each pixel represents a 30-meter by 30-meter area on the ground.
Regional AVHRR -- each pixel represents a 1-km by 1-km area on the ground.
The area mapped in each image is projected in the Albers Equal-Area Conic (AEAC) projection. For the 1-km AVHRR image, the projection has the following parameters:Datum: None Ellipsoid: Sphere Origin: 111.000° W 51.000° N Standard Parallels: 52° 30' 00" N 58° 30' 00" N Units of Measure: kilometersIt is important to emphasize that the 1-km AVHRR image is projected using a Sphere as the Earth model and not the WGS84 ellipsoid used for most other BOREAS data sets (see below). The other projection parameters listed above are the same as many other BOREAS georeferenced data sets. This difference in Earth models used can result in spatial misregistration of approximately 2 to 4 pixels. This difference should be considered when comparing this classification to other georeferenced imagery. See AFM-12 documentation.
Both the 30 and 10 m moss maps are projected in the BOREAS Grid projection, which is based on the ellipsoidal version of the AEAC projection. The projection has the following parameters:Datum: NAD83 Ellipsoid: Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS80) or Worldwide Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) Origin: 111.000° W 51.000° N Standard Parallels: 52° 30' 00"N 58° 30' 00"N Units of Measure: kilometers
7.1.5 Grid Description
The data are referenced to the BOREAS Grid described in section 7.1.4.
7.2 Temporal Characteristics
7.2.1 Temporal Coverage188.8.131.52 AHVRR-based moss map, 1 km
Monthly NDVI image composites for the period April-September 1992 were used to develop the input 1992 1-km AVHRR/land cover data set (AFM-12).
184.108.40.206 TM-based moss map, 30 m
The TM image of the SSA that this product was based on was collected on 02-Sep-1994. The scene is a Path 37, Row 22-23 (shifted) scene of the Landsat World Reference System (WRS). The solar elevation angle at the time of image acquisition was 40.1 degrees. The solar azimuth angle was 146 degrees.
220.127.116.11 Ground-based moss map, 10 m
Field samples for mapping the soils of the NSA-OBS tower site were collected in 1994. The aerial photos used to map the land cover associations of the OBS tower site were taken in 1971 and 1972 at a scale of 1:15,840.
7.2.2 Temporal Coverage Map
7.2.3 Temporal Resolution18.104.22.168 AHVRR-based moss map, 1 km
Monthly NDVI image composites for the period April-September, 1992 were used to develop the 1992 1-km AVHRR/land cover data set.
22.214.171.124 TM-based moss map, 30 m
The TE-18 data set represents the land cover and biomass density as it existed on 02-Sep-1994.
126.96.36.199 Ground-based moss map, 10 m
The aerial photos used to map the OBS tower site were taken in 1971 and 1972 at a scale of 1:15,840.
7.3 Data Characteristics
Moss Cover Type.
7.3.2 Variable Description/Definition
The moss cover classes listed in Section 1.4 can be grouped into four broad categories consisting of: (1) feather moss; (2) sphagnum moss; (3) brown moss; and (4) lichen.188.8.131.52 Feather Moss
Feather moss (Pleurozium, Hyclomium spp.) is the dominant ground cover associated with three of the AFM-12 AVHRR vegetation mosaics: (i) wet conifer, (ii) mixed coniferous-deciduous, and (iii) regeneration (in the north within the Canadian Shield Zone).
Descriptions of these mosaics directly follow as taken from Steyaert et al. (1997) and AFM-12 documentation (see Section 1.6):
184.108.40.206 Sphagnum Moss
- "The AVHRR wet conifer mosaic consists of black spruce and various embedded subpixel fens and bogs, scattered tamarack (Larix laricina), mixed water-vegetation pixels, small pockets of dry jack pine (Pinus banksiana) on sandy hilltops, and scattered deciduous trees. This mosaic is characterized by the very consistent vegetative patterns in the 'low lying' areas (black spruce, fens, and bogs) as opposed to more upland terrain (more productive black spruce in combination with jack pine on sandy soils and scattered deciduous trees) environments throughout the entire BOREAS region. This classification does not resolve in all cases these 'lowland' versus 'upland' components of the wet conifer mosaic. The subpixel fens, bogs, and small water bodies are also not resolved in this classification.
Based on extensive field data, the 1-km AVHRR spectral-temporal clusters do permit the characterization of the wet conifer mosaic into 'low', 'medium,' and 'high' tree density levels (Classes 1-3, respectively)." (Steyaert et al., 1997; AFM-12 documentation).
Tree density levels correspond with drainage class and, hence, moss cover. In the wet conifer mosaic of the BOREAS region, feather moss is found in the upland moderately well-drained sites with high density tree cover; a mix of feather and sphagnum (Sphagnum spp.) mosses in imperfectly and poorly drained sites with medium density tree cover; and sphagnum moss in low lying areas with low density tree cover.
Although feather moss is the dominant ground cover, the user is advised that there are pockets of each moss type in the wet conifer mosaics and that there is significant lichen (Cladina spp.) in medium density spruce stands near Cree Lake and northwest of La Ronge in Saskatchewan.
- "The AVHRR mixed coniferous-deciduous forest mosaic consists of 80 percent conifer-20 percent deciduous (Class 16) and codominant mixed forest (Class 17). These mixed forest classes are generally distributed along a southwest-northeast gradient ranging from deciduous dominant in the south to coniferous dominant in the north. The effects of forest succession are evident in this mixed class, especially in stands with mature deciduous trees and successional spruce under the deciduous canopy. In the northern extremes, this AVHRR mixed forest (Class 16) is predominantly upland black spruce with scattered jack pine on sandy soils and approximately 20 percent aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) with scattered birch (Betula papyrifera) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) trees. These trees are typically on rocky hills throughout the central and northern portions of the BOREAS region. The mixed forest class in the central region (Class 17) consists of codominant coniferous and deciduous trees that are quite well developed. The conifers are dominated by tall jack pine, black spruce, and some white spruce (Picea glauca), while the deciduous trees consist of mature aspen and birch." (Steyaert et al., 1997; AFM-12 documentation)
- "The regeneration mosaic includes individual land cover classes for fire disturbance-regenerating vegetation patches in the north (AVHRR Class 9) that are located within the Canadian Shield Zone and are typically associated with old burns of various ages. This mixed vegetation class consists of jack pine, aspen, and young black spruce trees. The stand density and tree sizes depend on the age of the burn and the soil conditions. The jack pine and aspen trees are taller than young black spruce." (Steyaert et al., 1997; AFM-12 documentation)
Sphagnum mosses are found in poorly to very poorly drained sites with low density black spruce cover of the AVHRR wet conifer mosaic (Class 1) discussed in (i) above. These sites are level to gently sloping on clayey, peaty Luvic Gleysols and Terric Mesic Fibrisols. Here, sphagnum is dominant and may be mixed with feather and other mosses.
Sphagnum moss cover is also found on peatlands consisting of varying peat materials that are well- to poorly-drained at the surface, and have frozen peat and/or mineral at depth (palsas and peat plateau bogs) with Fibric and Mesic Organic Cryosols. Here, sphagnum is the dominant ground cover and may be mixed with feather moss at the drier sites. Forest cover is black spruce.
220.127.116.11 Brown Moss
Brown mosses (Depranocladus spp.) and sedges (Carex spp.) are found in the very poorly drained fens and permafrost collapse scar bogs with deep Typic Fibrisols.
In the 1-km AVHRR classification brown mosses are found within Class 4 (upland conifer/fen), described below within the mixed feather/sphagnum/brown moss class. Because fens and collapse bogs are often smaller than 1 km2, these wetlands are not always detected on the 1-km AVHRR classification. At the 30-m scale of the TM classification, however, areas with brown moss and sedges are found in the land cover class 5 (Fen).
Lichens are found in upland, well-drained sites on sandy Eluviated Dystric Brunisols with jack pine cover.
Areas of lichen cover show up best in the dry conifer (jack pine dominant) sites (Class 2) of the TM land cover classification.
18.104.22.168 Feather/Sphagnum/Brown Moss Mix
DSP-09 mapped the AVHRR upland conifer/fen class (Class 4) as feather/sphagnum/brown moss mix because this AVHRR class is a result of landscape elements with a patch size distribution falling below the 1 to 4 km spatial resolution of the composited AVHRR images used for classification. The upland conifer consists primarily of spruce and jack pine stands growing on moderately well-drained loamy soils with a feather moss background. Patches of fen mixed within the upland conifer AVHRR pixels are dominated by brown and sphagnum mosses.
The table below summarizes moss cover classes described in this section.
Moss Cover Types
Moss Cover Drainage Forest Cover Tree Biomass
Feather Moss Moderately Well Spruce, Mixed
High Upland Clay Feather Moss/
Imperfect Spruce Medium Upland Clay Sphagnum Moss/
Poor Spruce Low Bog Veneer Clay Brown Moss Very Poor --- --- Fen Clay Lichen Well
Compiled from: Harden et al. (1997), TE-18, and Rapalee et al. (1998).
7.3.3 Unit of Measurement
Moss cover type is unitless.
7.3.4 Data Source
AVHRR imagery was received from EROS Data Center, USGS, Sioux Falls, SD. Landsat-5 TM scene on 02-Sep-1994 from the CCRS. Aerial photography was acquired by Hugo Veldhuis. No additional information is available about this photography.
7.3.5 Data RangeMoss Map Value Range ------------------- ----------- 1-km AVHRR 0-6 30-m TM 0-7 10-m ground-base maps 0-4Boundary pixels have values of zero.
7.4 Sample Data Record
Not applicable to image data.
8.2 Data Format(s)
This BOREAS moss cover classification data set contains 4 files as follows:
File 1 0_readme.txt 80-byte American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) text records File 2 moss_avhrr.img 672 records of 862 bytes each 1 byte per pixel File 3 moss_ssa.img 3,800 records of 4,800 bytes each 1 byte per pixel File 4 moss_nsa-obs.img 130 records of 130 bytes each 1 byte per pixelReturn to top of document.
9.1.1 Derivation Techniques and Algorithms
9.2 Data Processing Sequence
9.2.1 Processing Steps
9.2.2 Processing Changes
9.3.1 Special Corrections/Adjustments
9.3.2 Calculated Variables
9.4 Graphs and Plots
10.2 Quality Assessment
10.2.1 Data Validation by SourceReturn to top of document.
See the Data Validation by Source section of the documentation for BOREAS-related data sets of AFM-12, TE-18, and TE-20 science teams. (See Section 1.6.)
10.2.2 Confidence Level/Accuracy Judgment
Although efforts have been made to make the moss cover classification as accurate as possible, there is bound to be some confusion between classes used to infer moss cover. The most noticeable problem is confusion between dense jack pine and dense black spruce in the land cover classifications (AFM-12 and TE-18). Spectrally, they are very similar. Hence, classification for the 1-km moss cover image includes a "Feather/Sphagnum/Brown Moss Mix" class.
10.2.3 Measurement Error for Parameters
10.2.4 Additional Quality Assessments
10.2.5 Data Verification by Data Center
11.2 Known Problems with the Data
See relevant sections in BOREAS documentation or the related data sets of AFM-12, TE-18, and TE-20. (See Section 1.6.)
11.3 Usage Guidance
Before uncompressing the files, be sure that you have enough disk space to hold the uncompressed data files. Then use the appropriate decompression software for your specific system.
11.4 Other Relevant Information
14.2 Software Access
IDRISI is available from:
950 Main St.
Worcester MA 01610-1477
Web site: http://www.clarklabs.org/[Internet Link]
ORNL DAAC User Services
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
15.2 Procedures for Obtaining Data
BOREAS data may be obtained through the ORNL DAAC World Wide Web site at http://www.daac.ornl.gov/ [Internet Link] or users may place requests for data by telephone or electronic mail.
15.3 Output Products and Availability
Requested data can be provided electronically on the ORNL DAAC's anonymous FTP site or on various media including, CD-ROMs, 8-MM tapes, or diskettes.
16.2 Film Products
16.3 Other Products
Welch, T.A. 1984, A Technique for High Performance Data Compression,
IEEE Computer, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 8-19.
17.2 Journal Articles and Study Reports
Bubier, J. L., T. R. Moore, L. Bellisario, N. T. Comer, and P. M. Crill, Ecological controls on methane emissions from a northern peatland complex in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 455-470, 1995.
Bubier, J. L., B. N. Rock, and P. M. Crill, Spectral reflectance measurements of boreal wetland and forest mosses, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (D24), 29,483-29,494, 1997.
Hall, F. G., D. E. Knapp, and K. F. Huemmrich, Physically based classification and satellite mapping of biophysical characteristics in the southern boreal forest, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (D24), 29,567-29,580, 1997.
Harden, J. W., K. P. O'Neill, S. E. Trumbore, H. Veldhuis, and B. J. Stocks, Moss and soil contributions to the annual net flux of a maturing boreal forest, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (D24), 28,805-28,816, 1997.
Rapalee, G., S. E. Trumbore, E. A. Davidson, J. W. Harden, and H. Veldhuis, Soil carbon stocks and their rates of accumulation and loss in a boreal forest landscape, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12 (4), 687701, 1998.
Sellers, P. and F. Hall, BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan, Version 1994-3.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 94), 1994.
Sellers, P., F. Hall, H. Margolis, B. Kelly, D. Baldocchi, G. den Hartog, J. Cihlar, M.G. Ryan, B. Goodison, P. Crill, K. J. Ranson, D. Lettenmaier, and D. E. Wickland, The boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 76 (9), 1549-1577, 1995.
Sellers, P., F. Hall, and K. F. Huemmrich, BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1994 Operations, NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 94), 1996.
Sellers, P. and F. Hall, BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan, Version 1996-2.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 96), 1996.
Sellers, P., F. Hall, and K. F. Huemmrich, BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1996 Operations, NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 96), 1997.
Sellers, P. J., F. G. Hall, R. D. Kelly, A. Black, D. Baldocchi, J. Berry, M. Ryan, K. J. Ranson, P. M. Crill, D. P. Lettenmaier, H. Margolis, J. Cihlar, J. Newcomer, D. Fitzjarrald, P. G. Jarvis, S. T. Gower, D. Halliwell, D. Williams, B. Goodison, D. E. Wickland, and F. E. Guertin, BOREAS in 1997: Experiment overview, scientific results and future directions, Journal of Geophysical Research, BOREAS Special Issue, 102 (D24), 28,731-28,770, 1997.
Steyaert, L. T., F. G. Hall, and T. R. Loveland, Land cover mapping,
fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with
1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data, Journal of Geophysical Research, BOREAS
Special Issue, 102 (D24), 29,581-29,598, 1997.
17.3 Archive/DBMS Usage Documentation
AEAC - Albers Equal Area Conic AFM - Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology APT - Automatic Picture Transmission ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange BOREAS - Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study BORIS - BOREAS Information System BPI - Bytes Per Inch CCRS - Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing CD-ROM - Compact Disk-Read-Only-Memory DAAC - Distributed Active Archive Center DAT - Digital Archive Tape DEM - Digital Elevation Model EDC - EROS Data Center EOS - Earth Observing System EOSAT - Earth Observing Satellite Company EOSDIS - EOS Data and Information System EROS - Earth Resources Observation System GAC - Global Area Coverage GCM - Global Circulation Model GMT - Greenwich Mean Time GPS - Global Positioning System GRS80 - Geodetic Reference System of 1980 GSFC - Goddard Space Flight Center HRPT - Higher Resolution Picture Transmission IFC - Intensive Field Campaign IFOV - Instantaneous Field of View LAC - Local Area Coverage LST - Local Standard Time MSA - Modeling Sub-Area NAD27 - North American Datum 1927 NAD83 - North American Datum 1983 NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration NeDT - Noise Equivalent Differential Temperature NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRL - Naval Research Laboratory NSA - Northern Study Area OBS - Old Black Spruce ORNL - Oak Ridge National Laboratory PANP - Prince Albert National Park RSS - Remote Sensing Science SSA - Southern Study Area SST - Sea Surface Temperature SVAT - Surface Vegetation and Atmosphere TE - Terrestrial Ecology TF - Tower Fluxes TGB - Trace Gas Biogeochemistry TIROS - Television and Infrared Observation Satellite TM - Thematic Mapper URL - Uniform Resource Locator USGS - United States Geological Survey UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator WGS84 - World Geodetic System of 1984 WRS - Worldwide Reference System WWW - World Wide WebReturn to top of document.
Rapalee, G., F. G. Hall, L. T. Steyaert, and E. R. Levine. 2001. BOREAS Follow-On DSP-09 Moss Cover Classification at Three Area Scales. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac. ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
These data were classified to be included as a part of the BOREAS Follow-on Hydrometerological Modeling Group data set, using AVHRR, Landsat 5 TM, and field and soil survey data from AFM-12, TE-18, and TE-20 science groups. The data sources are: the EROS Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls SD; the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS); and aerial photography acquired by Hugo Veldhuis. Any publication of these data should also acknowledge the sources of the moss classification as: Harden et al. (1997); Steyaert et al. (1997); and the TE-18 and AFM-12 science groups. The investigators gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Jill Bubier who helped with moss identification and classification.