Documentation Revision Date: 2017-12-27
Data Set Version: 1
There are 30 shapefiles (.shp) with this dataset provided in compressed (.zip) format. This includes 15 files that provide the date of burning (DoB) for the fire scars, and 15 files that provide the filtered MODIS daily active fire locations across Canada and Alaska for the years 2001-2015. These files are also provided in *.kmz format for viewing in Google Earth.
Loboda, T.V., and J.V. Hall. 2017. ABoVE: Wildfire Date of Burning within Fire Scars across Alaska and Canada, 2001-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1559
Table of Contents
- Data Set Overview
- Data Characteristics
- Application and Derivation
- Quality Assessment
- Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
- Data Access
Data Set Overview
This dataset provides estimates of wildfire progression, as represented by date of burning (DoB), within fire scars across Alaska and Canada for the period 2001-2015. The estimated DoB was derived using an algorithm for identifying the first fire occurrence from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detection product (MCD14ML, Collection 6) and to determine all dates of burning within fire scars. Burn scar locations were from the Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC; https://fire.ak.blm.gov/) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRC; https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/) databases. All scars within these databases were used in this study and the MCD14ML product was filtered to the scar locations. The DoB data are provided as polygons to map the daily progression of a fire within each burn scar. That is, there is one polygon for each DoB detected within an identified burn scar boundary. Also provided are the MODIS active fire points associated with the burn scars.
This product is an updated version of the 2014 DoB algorithm (Billmire et al., 2014) and uses the MODIS active fire detections (MCD14ML) from Collection 6 to determine the date of burning within 1-km buffered fire scars found in the AICC and NRC databases.
The Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program field campaign based in Alaska and western Canada between 2016 and 2021. Research for ABoVE links field-based, process-level studies with geospatial data products derived from airborne and satellite sensors, providing a foundation for improving the analysis and modeling capabilities needed to understand and predict ecosystem responses and societal implications.
This study was funded by NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (Grant number: NNX13AK44G ).
Spatial Coverage: Alaska and Canada
ABoVE Reference Locations:
Domain: Core ABoVE
State/territory: Alaska and Canada
Spatial Resolution: DoB data are represented by polygons. MODIS active fires are point data.
Temporal Coverage: 2001-01-01 to 2015-12-31
Temporal Resolution: Daily
Study Area (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
|Site||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude|
|Alaska and Canada||-178.851||-22.1843||80.45651||28.89674|
Data file information
There are 30 shapefiles (.shp) with this dataset provided in compressed (.zip) format. This includes 15 files that provide the date of burning (DoB) for the fire scars, and 15 files that provide the filtered MODIS daily active fire locations across Canada and Alaska for the years 2001-2015. These 30 shapefiles are also provided as companion files in *.kmz format for viewing in Google Earth.
Table 1. File names and descriptions.
|ABoVE_DoB_YYYY.zip||A shapefile provided in compressed format which provides the date of burning of fires for the years 2001-2015 (YYYY)|
|ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_YYYY.zip||A shapefile provided in compressed format which provides the daily active fire locations in Canada and Alaska for the years 2001-2015 (YYYY)|
Attributes in the Date of Burning Shapefiles
Table 2. Attributes in the data files ABoVE_DoB_YYYY.zip
|UID_Fire||Unique identifier assigned for each fire event that occurred in the study area during the specific year. The same UID_Fire can be repeated during subsequent years.|
|Year||Year of mapping|
|Map_date||Date of Burning. Format = YYYY-MM-DD; Null value = 0000-00-00|
|JD||Day of year. Valid values = 1 – 365 (or 366 for leap year); Null value = 0|
Fire Database reference:
AK = Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) Database
CA = Natural Resources Canada (NRC) Database
Fire Reference ID from the original Fire Database: For the AICC Database, the value provided is the database value for “FIREID" and for the NRC Database, the value provided is the database value for “CFS_REF_ID” .
Used to define the data source of the mapping date:
FPM = Date obtained from the Fire Progression Model
Table 3. Number of Fire Database (FD) scars that were allocated either “FPM”, “1AF”, “FD”, or “NA”
|Year||Total FD scars||FPM||1AF||FD||NA|
Attributes in the Active Fire Shapefiles
Table 4. Attributes in the data files ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_YYYY.zip
User Note: Columns 1-11 are attributes from the original MCD14ML product. Attributes 12-15 were added for this Active Fire Product.
|1||YYYYMMDD||UTC year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD).|
|2||HHMM||UTC hour (HH) and minute (MM).|
|3||sat||Satellite: Terra (T) or Aqua (A).|
|4||lat||decimal degrees||Latitude at center of fire pixel.|
|5||lon||decimal degrees||Longitude at center of fire pixel.|
|6||T21||degrees K||Band 21 brightness temperature of fire pixel.|
|7||T31||degrees K||Band 31 brightness temperature of fire pixel.|
|8||sample||Sample number (range 0-1353).|
|9||FRP||MW||Fire radiative power (FRP).|
|10||conf||%||Detection confidence (range 0-100).|
Inferred hot spot type:
0 = presumed vegetation fire
|12||UID_Fire||Unique identifier assigned for each fire event that occurred in the study area during the specific year. The same UID_Fire can be repeated during subsequent years.|
Indicates the level of filtering applied to the Active Fire point:
primary = MODIS Active Fire points used within the IDW interpolation
Fire Database reference:
AK = Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) Database CA = Natural Resources Canada (NRC) Database
Fire Reference ID from the original Fire Database:
For the AICC Database, the value provided is the database value for “FIREID" and for the NRC Database, the value provided is the database value for “CFS_REF_ID” .
Spatial properties of the shapefiles
Table 5. Extents of the shapefiles
|Filename||Northernmost latitude||Southernmost latitude||Easternmost longitude||Westernmost longitude|
Application and Derivation
These data could be useful to carbon storage, biomass studies, and related climate studies.
Caveats and Known Problems
There are fire scars mapped within the AICC and NRC databases that contain neither dates of detection nor contain active fire data. These mapped scars have been given a JD value of 0.
During 2001 and 2002, the MODIS instrument was turned off for substantial periods of time and therefore no active fire detections were acquired.
The annual merged shapefile contains overlapping scars. The unique identifier or reference ID can be used to extract specific scars of interest.
All scars in the AICC and NRC datasets (regardless of area) were used in this study.
Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
This product is an updated version of the 2014 DoB algorithm (Billmire et al., 2014) and uses the MODIS active fire detections (MCD14ML) from Collection 6 to determine the date of burning within 1-km buffered fire scars found in the AICC and NRC databases. All scars within these databases were used in this study.
Figure 2. The DoB data are provided as polygons to map the progression of a fire within each burn scar. That is, there is one polygon for each DoB detected within an identified burn scar boundary. This figure shows a typical number of DoB polygons in two Alaskan fire scars and the associated MODIS active file points in 2015.
A consecutive 20-day filter was applied to the active fires (filtered to only include presumed vegetation fires: type = 0; Giglio et al., 2003; 2015) on a per scar basis to remove any temporally anomalous fires. In addition, further filtering was applied to remove any anomalous fires within active fire clusters – to account for the off-nadir viewing angle geolocation inaccuracies, and to remove any residual burning through applying a 100-m radius buffer to the first instance of fire detection.
Inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation was used to determine the fire spread through linearly weighting the active fire dates. For this product a mapping cell size of 30-m was used in the IDW interpolation. Any scars only containing one active fire point were allocated the date from that active fire detection. Any scars that did not contain any MODIS active fire detections were allocated the date of mapping based on the AICC and NRC dates. Any scars which contained neither MODIS active fire detections nor a mapping date within the FD were allocated a 0 (zero) value.
These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Billmire, M., N.H. French, T. Loboda, R.C. Owen, and M. Tyner. 2014. Santa Ana winds and predictors of wildfire progression in southern California. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 23(8), 1119-1129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF13046
Giglio, L. 2015. MODIS Collection 6 Active Fire Product User’s Guide Revision A. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland. https://cdn.earthdata.nasa.gov/conduit/upload/3865/MODIS_C6_Fire_User_Guide_A.pdf
Giglio, L., J. Descloitres, C.O. Justice, and Y.J. Kaufman. 2003. An enhanced contextual fire detection algorithm for MODIS. Remote sensing of environment, 87(2), 273-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00184-6