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ABoVE: Wildfire Date of Burning within Fire Scars across Alaska and Canada, 2001-2019

Documentation Revision Date: 2021-01-14

Dataset Version: 1.1

Summary

This dataset provides estimates of wildfire progression represented by date of burning (DoB) within fire scars across Alaska and Canada for the period 2001-2019. Burn scar locations were obtained from two datasets: the Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRC) databases. All scars within these databases were used in this study. The estimated DoB was derived using an algorithm for identifying the first fire occurrence from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detection product (MCD14ML, Collection 6) and to subsequently determine all dates of burning within fire scars. The DoB data are provided as polygons and map the daily progression of a fire within each burn scar. As a result, there is one polygon for each DoB detected within an identified burn scar boundary. The MODIS active fire points associated with the burn scar data are also provided. Data for the period 2001-2015 were first published in 2017 and data for the period 2016-2019 were added in January 2021.

This product is an improvement of the 2014 DoB algorithm (Billmire et al., 2014) and uses the MODIS active fire detections (MCD14ML) from Collection 6 to determine the date of burning within 1 km buffered fire scars found in the AICC and NRC databases. Data for the period 2001–2015 were first published in 2017, and data for the period 2016–2019 were added in January 2021.

There are 38 Shapefiles in compressed (*.zip) format provided in this dataset provided, including 19 files for the date of burning (DoB) of fire scars and 19 files for filtered MODIS daily active fire locations across Canada and Alaska for the period 2001–2019. Identical companion files in Keyhole Markup Language (*.kmz) format are included for viewing in Google Earth.

Figure 1. Date of Burning (DoB) estimated for areas within each fire scar (inset) across Alaska and Canada. Red areas show fire scar locations across central Canada (detail) in 2015.

Citation

Loboda, T.V., J.V. Hall, and A. Baer. 2017. ABoVE: Wildfire Date of Burning within Fire Scars across Alaska and Canada, 2001-2019. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1559

Table of Contents

  1. Dataset Overview
  2. Data Characteristics
  3. Application and Derivation
  4. Quality Assessment
  5. Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods
  6. Data Access
  7. References
  8. Dataset Revisions

Dataset Overview

This dataset provides estimates of wildfire progression represented by date of burning (DoB) within fire scars across Alaska and Canada for the period 2001–2019. Burn scar locations were obtained from two datasets: the Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRC) databases. All scars within these databases were used in this study. The estimated DoB was derived using an algorithm for identifying the first fire occurrence from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detection product (MCD14ML, Collection 6) and to subsequently determine all dates of burning within fire scars. The DoB data are provided as polygons and map the daily progression of a fire within each burn scar. As a result, there is one polygon for each DoB detected within an identified burn scar boundary. The MODIS active fire points associated with the burn scar data are also provided. Data for the period 2001–2015 were first published in 2017 and data for the period 2016–2019 were added in January 2021.

This product is an improvement of the 2014 DoB algorithm (Billmire et al., 2014) and uses the MODIS active fire detections (MCD14ML) from Collection 6 to determine the date of burning within 1 km buffered fire scars found in the AICC and NRC databases. Data for the period 2001–2015 were first published in 2017, and data for the period 2016–2019 were added in January 2021.

Project: Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment

The Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program field campaign being conducted in Alaska and western Canada, for 8 to 10 years, starting in 2015. Research for ABoVE links field-based, process-level studies with geospatial data products derived from airborne and satellite sensors, providing a foundation for improving the analysis, and modeling capabilities needed to understand and predict ecosystem responses to, and societal implications of, climate change in the Arctic and Boreal regions.

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (grant NNX13AK44G).

Data Characteristics

Spatial Coverage: Alaska and Canada

ABoVE Reference Locations

Domain: Core ABoVE
State/territory: Alaska and Canada

Spatial Resolution: Burn scar and DoB data are represented by vector polygons. MODIS active fires are vector points.

Temporal Coverage: 2001-01-01 to 2019-12-31

 Temporal Resolution: Daily

Study Area: Latitude and longitude are given in decimal degrees.

Site Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
Alaska and Canada -178.841 -53.82671 70.15916 41.74560

Data File Information

There are 38 Shapefiles in compressed (*.zip) format provided in this dataset provided, including 19 files for the date of burning (DoB) of fire scars and 19 files for filtered MODIS daily active fire locations across Canada and Alaska for the period 2001–2019. Identical companion files in Keyhole Markup Language (*.kmz) format are included for viewing in Google Earth. The file naming convention is ABoVE_DoB_YYYY.zip and ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_YYYY.zip, where YYYY is the year of the fire.

NOTE: Data for the period 2016–2019 were added in November 2020 (Version 1.1). Date of burning and active fire locations were determined using the same process as for earlier data. There were no changes to previously released data.

Table 1. File names and descriptions.

File Name Description
ABoVE_DoB_YYYY.zip Shapefile bundle for the date of burning fires for the period 2001–2019
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_YYYY.zip Shapefile bundle for the daily active fire locations in Canada and Alaska for the period 2001–2019

Data File Details

Table 2. Variable name and descriptions for files named ABoVE_DoB_YYYY.zip.

Variable Description
UID_Fire Unique identifier assigned for each fire event that occurred in the study area during the specific year. The same UID_Fire can be repeated during subsequent years
Year Year of mapping
Map_date Date of Burning. Format = YYYY-MM-DD. Null value = 0000-00-00
JD Day of year. Valid values = 1–365 (or 366 for leap year); Null value = 0
FD_Agency

Fire Database Reference

AK = Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) Database
CA = Natural Resources Canada (NRC) Database

REF_ID

Fire Reference ID from the original Fire Database. For the AICC Database, the value provided is the database value for “FIREID", and for the NRC Database the value provided is the database value for “CFS_REF_ID”.

date_src

Used to define the data source of the mapping date.

FPM = Date obtained from the Fire Progression Model
1AF = The burn only contained 1 MODIS active fire point and therefore the mapped date for the entire scar was given the date from the active fire point
FD = There were no MODIS active fire points. Therefore, the date was obtained from either the “REP_DATE” if the scar was from the NRC database or “DiscDate” if the scar was from the AICC database.
NA = For these scars there were neither MODIS active fires nor any date information within the Fire Database. These scars will have a JD = 0 in the final output. See Table 3 for details.

Table 3. The number of Fire Database (FD) scars that were allocated to each data source. See Table 2 for details.

Year Total FD scars FPM 1AF FD NA
2001 751 105 31 119 496
2002 859 325 63 125 346
2003 1120 434 61 178 447
2004 920 567 39 308 6
2005 945 445 42 455 3
2006 1472 434 86 947 5
2007 1225 363 67 774 21
2008 1277 299 75 896 7
2009 1261 396 87 770 8
2010 1771 503 107 1154 7
2011 904 320 58 520 6
2012 1400 498 83 810 9
2013 1528 532 97 887 12
2014 1140 399 63 676 2
2015 2092 858 113 1088 33
2016 1177 325 71 774 7
2017 1718 617 94 1004 3
2018 1955 663 117 1170 5
2019 1188 356 84 748 356

Table 4. Variable name and descriptions for files named â€‹ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_YYYY.zip. Columns 1-11 are variables from the original MCD14ML product. Variables 12-16 were added for the Active Fire Product. Variable 12 is available for only the period 2016–2019.

Column Variable Units Description
1 YYYYMMDD   UTC year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD)
2 HHMM   UTC hour (HH) and minute (MM)
3 sat   Satellite: Terra (T) or Aqua (A)
4 lat decimal degrees Latitude at center of fire pixel
5 lon decimal degrees Longitude at center of fire pixel
6 T21 degrees K Band 21 brightness temperature of fire pixel
7 T31 degrees K Band 31 brightness temperature of fire pixel
8 sample   Sample number (range 0–1353)
9 FRP MW Fire radiative power (FRP)
10 conf % Detection confidence (range 0–100)
11 type  

Inferred hot spot type.

0 = presumed vegetation fire
1 = active volcano
2 = other static land source
3 = offshore

12 dn Day/Night Algorithm Flag D = daytime
N = nighttime
13 UID_Fire   Unique identifier assigned for each fire event that occurred in the study area during the specific year. The same UID_Fire can be repeated during subsequent years
14 Status  

Indicates the level of filtering applied to the Active Fire point.

primary = MODIS Active Fire points used within the IDW interpolation
residual = MODIS Active Fire points encountered within the same location after the first date/time of fire detection representing residual burning
removed = temporally and spatially anomalous MODIS Active Fire points within the identified fire events within the mapped scars

15 FD_Agency  

Fire Database Reference.

AK = Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) Database
CA = Natural Resources Canada (NRC) Database

16 REF_ID   Fire Reference ID from the original Fire Database. For the AICC Database, the value provided is the database value for “FIREID", and for the NRC Database the value provided is the database value for “CFS_REF_ID”.

Spatial Properties of Shapefiles

EPSG: 102001
PROJCS["Canada_Albers_Equal_Area_Conic",
    GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1983",
        DATUM["D_North_American_1983",
            SPHEROID["GRS_1980",6378137.0,298.257222101]],
        PRIMEM["Greenwich",0.0],
        UNIT["Degree",0.0174532925199433]],
    PROJECTION["Albers"],
    PARAMETER["False_Easting",0.0],
    PARAMETER["False_Northing",0.0],
    PARAMETER["Central_Meridian",-96.0],
    PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_1",50.0],
    PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_2",70.0],
    PARAMETER["Latitude_Of_Origin",40.0],
    UNIT["Meter",1.0]]

Table 5. Spatial extents of the shapefiles.

Shapefile Name Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Easternmost Longitude Westernmost Longitude
ABoVE_DoB_2001.shp 79.62475 28.89674 -27.5605 -178.851
ABoVE_DoB_2002.shp 79.26801 39.49561 -28.3421 -169.709
ABoVE_DoB_2003.shp 80.25712 36.63773 -26.0811 -169.876
ABoVE_DoB_2004.shp 79.51588 37.26822 -28.9261 -167.477
ABoVE_DoB_2005.shp 79.21216 35.11068 -38.6583 -170.388
ABoVE_DoB_2006.shp 76.37066 36.09079 -33.8209 -166.337
ABoVE_DoB_2007.shp 79.64559 39.51355 -28.9521 -169.671
ABoVE_DoB_2008.shp 78.41748 40.21596 -29.5072 -168.261
ABoVE_DoB_2009.shp 78.7255 39.80437 -29.0477 -168.375
ABoVE_DoB_2010.shp 79.69768 36.02449 -38.8742 -170.136
ABoVE_DoB_2011.shp 79.32386 41.5503 -31.2824 -165.643
ABoVE_DoB_2012.shp 80.45651 39.84391 -25.851 -171.771
ABoVE_DoB_2013.shp 78.14374 40.53107 -32.3789 -166.481
ABoVE_DoB_2014.shp 79.37394 40.60062 -28.788 -168.146
ABoVE_DoB_2015.shp 80.07437 39.53679 -22.1843 -171.476
ABoVE_DoB_2016.zip 68.60278 43.69844 -56.6044 -171.411
ABoVE_DoB_2017.zip 69.95171 43.56071 -59.8641 -163.197
ABoVE_DoB_2018.zip 68.39109 43.53752 -57.249 -166.188
ABoVE_DoB_2019.zip 69.46963 45.13534 -60.5945 -165.854
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2001.shp 74.39441 44.51606 -39.1757 -154.054
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2002.shp 78.94646 39.82787 -28.9974 -168.529
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2003.shp 79.16242 36.71709 -29.5627 -167.744
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2004.shp 79.50891 40.93674 -32.0034 -167.444
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2005.shp 79.18593 39.22152 -38.7358 -170.25
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2006.shp 76.36248 39.09417 -34.6674 -166.325
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2007.shp 79.16532 40.14741 -29.8921 -168.828
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2008.shp 78.4134 40.21209 -29.5268 -168.26
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2009.shp 78.72369 40.54558 -29.0617 -166.813
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2010.shp 79.69872 36.02766 -36.777 -170.139
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2011.shp 78.84153 41.56533 -32.9378 -164.732
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2012.shp 80.44758 39.90664 -25.8889 -171.646
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2013.shp 77.72753 41.66693 -33.2133 -165.75
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2014.shp 79.36979 41.95637 -38.0751 -167.803
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2015.shp 80.06294 39.73405 -27.8063 -171.25
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2016.zip 68.2003 44.46839 -57.5433 -163.626
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2017.zip 69.53299 43.94309 -64.6639 -163.181
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2018.zip 68.3761 44.54529 -59.9997 -166.139
ABoVE_DoB_MODIS_Active_Fires_2019.zip 68.9331 45.38739 -63.5919 -165.859

Application and Derivation

These data aid in understanding fire progression across landscapes both temporally and spatially. In addition, these data could be useful in studies related to carbon storage, biomass, and climate change.

Quality Assessment

Caveats and Known Problems

There are fire scars mapped within the Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRC) databases that contain neither dates of detection nor active fire data. These mapped scars have been given a value of 0.

During 2001 and 2002, the MODIS instrument was turned off for substantial periods of time and therefore no active fire detections were acquired.

The annual merged shapefile contains overlapping scars. The unique identifier or reference ID can be used to extract specific scars of interest.

Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods

This product is an improvement to the 2014 DoB algorithm (Billmire et al., 2014) and uses the MODIS active fire detections (MCD14ML) from Collection 6 to determine the date of burning within a 1 km buffered fire scars found in the Alaskan Interagency Coordination Center (AICC; fire.ak.blm.gov) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRC; www.nrcan.gc.ca) databases. All scars within these databases were used in this study.

DoB polygon

Figure 2. A typical number of DoB polygons in two Alaskan fire scars and the associated MODIS active file points in 2015. The DoB data are provided as polygons to map the progression of a fire within each burn scar. There is one polygon for each DoB detected within an identified burn scar boundary.

A consecutive 20-day filter was applied to the active fires (i.e., filtered to include only presumed vegetation fires, type=0) on a per scar basis to remove any temporally anomalous fires (Giglio et al., 2003; Giglio, 2015). In addition, further filtering was applied to remove any anomalous fires within active fire clusters. To account for the off-nadir viewing angle geolocation inaccuracies and to remove any residual burning, a 100 m radius buffer was applied to the first instance of fire detection.

Inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation was used to determine the fire spread through linearly weighting the active fire dates. For this product, a mapping cell size of 30 m was used in the IDW interpolation. Any scars containing only one active fire point were allocated the date from that active fire detection. Any scars that did not contain MODIS active fire detections were allocated the date of mapping based on the AICC and NRC dates. Any scars which contained neither MODIS active fire detections nor a mapping date within the FD were allocated a zero value.

Data Access

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

ABoVE: Wildfire Date of Burning within Fire Scars across Alaska and Canada, 2001-2019

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

References

Billmire, M., N. H. F. French, T. Loboda, R. C. Owen, and M. Tyner. 2014. Santa Ana winds and predictors of wildfire progression in southern California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23:1119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF13046

Giglio, L. 2015. MODIS Collection 6 Active Fire Product User’s Guide Revision A. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland. https://cdn.earthdata.nasa.gov/conduit/upload/3865/MODIS_C6_Fire_User_Guide_A.pdf

Giglio, L., J. Descloitres, C.O. Justice, and Y.J. Kaufman. 2003. An Enhanced Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment 87:273–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00184-6

Loboda, T.V., and J.V. Hall. 2017. ABoVE: Wildfire Date of Burning within Fire Scars across Alaska and Canada, 2001-2015. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1559

MODIS Collection 6 NRT Hotspot / Active Fire Detections MCD14ML distributed from NASA FIRMS. Available on-line [https://earthdata.nasa.gov/firms]. https://doi.org/10.5067/FIRMS/MODIS/MCD14ML

Dataset Revisions

Version Release Date Revision Notes
1.1 2021-01-11 Data for the period 2016–2019 were added. Date of burning and active fire locations were determined using the same process as version 1.0. Data for the period 2001–2015 from version 1.0 were not changed.
1.0 2018-01-30 Data updated. The citation was Lobota, 2017.
1.0 2017-12-27 Initial publication.