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LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004


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Revision date: October 18, 2013

Summary: 

This data set provides derived emission factors (EFs), reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg), for PM10 (particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size), O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) from the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE). TROFFEE used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires.

EFs were determined for 19 tropical deforestation fires in August and September, 2004. The combined output of several of these fires created a massive megaplume more than 500-km wide and covered a large area in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay for about one month. For the megaplume, the EFs (reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg)) represented the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source.

There are two comma-delimited data files (.csv) and one text file (.txt) with this data set. The text file contains information regarding the fuel/fire sources, latitude and longitudes (also provided in the data files).

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Yokelson, R.J., T. Karl, P. Artaxo, D. R. Blake, T. J. Christian, D.W.T. Griffith, A. Guenther, and W.M. Hao. 2013. LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1195

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in October of 2013. Users who download the data between October 2013 and September 2018 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes

Team ID: TG-10 (Yokelson / Artaxo)

The investigators were Artaxo, Paulo; Yokelson, Robert James; Alvarado Celestino, Ernesto; Carvalho Jr., Joao Andrade de; Christian, Ted; Gielow, Ralf; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas; Lincoln, Emily; Longo, Karla Maria; Miranda, Heloisa S.; Munhoz, Kelli ; Newton, Jenny and Santos, Jose Carlos. You may contact Yokelson, Robert James (bob.yokelson@umontana.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: TG10_TROFFEE

This data set provides derived emission factors (EFs), reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg), for PM10 (particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size), O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) from the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE). TROFFEE used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires.

EFs were determined for 19 tropical deforestation fires in August and September, 2004. The combined output of several of these fires created a massive megaplume more than 500-km wide and covered a large area in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay for about one month. For the megaplume, the EFs (reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg)) represented the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source.

2. Data Characteristics:

There are two comma-separated data files (.csv), and one text file (.txt) with information regarding the fuel/fire sources, in this data set.

File names:

File #1:TROFFEE_AFTIR.csv: EFs derived from airborne fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR) measurement results

File #2:TROFFEE_PTRMS.csv: EFs derived from proton transfer mass spectrometer measurement results

File #3: TROFFEE_Sites.txt: Information regarding the fuel/fire sources, latitude and longitudes

Data are organized as follows:

File #1: TROFFEE_AFTIR.csv

COLUMN COLUMN HEADING Units/format Description
1Date YYYYMMDDSampling date
2Fire_name   Fire identification: in the case where samples from multiple individual fires were combined this is indicated by including Mean in the Fire_name
3 Latitudedecimal degreesFire location in decimal degrees of latitude
4 Longitudedecimal degrees Fire location in decimal degrees of longitude
5 Obs_start HH:MM:SSStart time of sampling in local time
6 Obs_end HH:MM:SSEnd time of sampling in local time
7 EF_CO2g/kgInitial emissions factor for carbon dioxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
8EF_COg/kg Initial emissions factor for carbon monoxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
9MCE   Modified combustion efficiency, not an emissions factor, calculated as DeltaCO2/ (DeltaCO2+ Delta CO)
10EF_NOg/kg Initial emissions factor for nitric xide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
11EF_NO2g/kg Initial emissions factor for nitrogen dioxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
12EF_NOxg/kg Initial emissions factor for NOx (measured as NO) reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
13EF_HONOg/kg Initial emissions factor for nitrous acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
14EF_CH4g/kg Initial emissions factor for methane reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
15EF_C2H4g/kg Initial emissions factor for ethylene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
16EF_C2H2 g/kgInitial emissions factor for acetylene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
17EF_C2H6g/kg Initial emissions factor for ethane reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
18EF_C3H6g/kg Initial emissions factor for propene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
19EF_HCHOg/kg Initial emissions factor for formaldehyde reported ingrams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
20EF_CH3OHg/kg Initial emissions factor for methanol reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
21EF_CH3COOHg/kg Initial emissions factor for accetic acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
22EF_HCOOHg/kg Initial emissions factor for formic acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
23EF_NH3g/kg Initial emissions factor for ammonia reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
24EF_HCNg/kg Initial emissions factor for hydrogen cyanide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source

Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records

Date,Fire_name,Latitude,Longitude,Obs_start,Obs_end,EF_CO2,EF_CO,EF_MCE,EF_NO,EF_NO2,
EF_NOx,EF_HONO,EF_CH4,EF_C2H4,EF_C2H2,EF_C2H6,EF_C3H6,EF_HCHO,EF_CH3OH,
EF_CH3COOH,EF_HCOOH,EF_NH3,EF_HCN

20040829,29 Aug Fire 1,-10.27,-52.159,13:41:54,14:17:10,1638,95.72,0.916,0.238, 1.979,
1.574,0.345,4.213,0.747,0.094,0.548,0.452,1.277,2.077,3.134,0.398,
1.127,0.665
20040829,29 Aug Fire 2,-10.357,-52.019,14:30:07,14:43:30,1591,112.08,0.9,
-9999,0.93,0.606,0.167,6.916,1.238,-9999,1.137,0.728,1.912,2.874,4.172
,0.519, 1.364,0.537
...
20040907,7 Sept Fire Mean,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,1662,72.36,0.936,-9999,
4.12,2.687,-9999,5.324,0.454,0.62,-9999,-9999,1.409,2.165,3.704,
1.715,0.308,0.184
20040908,Mega-plume,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,1651,87.54,0.923,2.297,1.899,
3.535,-9999,7.636,0.378,0.085,-9999,-9999,1.004,2.55,9.242,
3.266,1.509,0.169

File #2: TROFFEE_PTRMS.csv

COLUMN COLUMN HEADING Units/format Description
1 DateYYYYMMDD Sampling date
2 Fire_name  Fire identification: in the case where samples from multiple individual fires were combined this is indicated by including Mean in the Fire_name
3 Latitude decimal degrees Fire location in decimal degrees of latitude
4 Longitude decimal degreesFire location in decimal degrees of longitude
5 Obs_start HH:MM:SSStart time of sampling in local time
6 Obs_end HH:MM:SSEnd time of sampling in local time
7 EF_Acetonitrileg/kg Initial emissions factor for acetonitrile reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
8 EF_Acetaldehydeg/kg Initial emissions factor for acetaldehyde reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
9 EF_Acrylonitrileg/kg Initial emissions factor for acrylonitrile reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
10 EF_Acroleing/kg Initial emissions factor for acrolein reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
11 EF_Acetoneg/kg Initial emissions factor for acetone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
12 EF_Propanalg/kg Initial emissions factor for propanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
13 EF_Isopreneg/kg Initial emissions factor for isoprene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
14 EF_Furang/kg Initial emissions factor for furan reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
15 EF_Methylvinyl_ketoneg/kg Initial emissions factor for methylvinyl ketone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
16 EF_Methacroleing/kg Initial emissions factor for methacrolein reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
17 EF_Crotonaldehydeg/kg Initial emissions factor for crotonaldehyde reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
18 EF_Methylethyl_ketoneg/kg Initial emissions factor for methylethyl ketone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
19 EF_Methyl_propanalg/kg Initial emissions factor for methyl propanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
20 EF_Acetol_ and_Methylacetateg/kg Initial emissions factor for acetol plus methylacetate reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
21 EF_Benzeneg/kg Initial emissions factor for benzene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
22 EF_C6_Carbonylsg/kg Initial emissions factor for C6 carbonyls reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
23 EF_3-Methylfurang/kg Initial emissions factor for 3-methylfuran reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
24 EF_2-Methylfurang/kg Initial emissions factor for 2-methylfuran reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
25 EF_Hexanalg/kg Initial emissions factor for hexanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
26 EF_2_3-Butanedioneg/kg Initial emissions factor for 2 3-butanedione reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
27 EF_2-Pentanoneg/kg Initial emissions factor for 2-pentanone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
28 EF_3-Pentanoneg/kg Initial emissions factor for 3-pentanone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
29 EF_Tolueneg/kg Initial emissions factor for toluene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
30 EF_Phenolg/kg Initial emissions factor for phenol reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
31 EF_Other_Substituted_Furansg/kg Initial emissions factor for other substituted furans reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
32 EF_Furaldehydesg/kg Initial emissions factor for furaldehydes reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
33 EF_Xylenesg/kg Initial emissions factor for xylenes reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
34 EF_Ethylbenzeneg/kg Initial emissions factor for ethylbenzene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source
35 EF_PM_10g/kg Initial emissions factor for PM-10 reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel (g/kg): For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source

Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records

Date,Fire_name,Latitude,Longitude,Obs_start,Obs_end,EF_Acetonitrile,EF_Acetaldehyde,
EF_Acrylonitrile,EF_Acrolein,EF_Acetone,EF_Propanal,EF_Isoprene,EF_Furan,
EF_Methylvinyl_ketone,EF_Methacrolein,EF_Crotonaldehyde,EF_Methylethyl_ketone,
EF_Methyl_propanal,EF_Acetol_ and_Methylacetate,EF_Benzene,EF_C6_Carbonyls,
EF_3-Methylfuran,EF_2-Methylfuran,EF_Hexanal,EF_2_3-Butanedione,EF_2-Pentanone,
EF_3-Pentanone,EF_Toluene,EF_Phenol,EF_Other_Substituted_Furans,EF_Furaldehydes,
EF_Xylenes,EF_Ethylbenzene,EF_PM_10

20040829,29 Aug Fire 1,-10.27,-52.159,13:41:54,14:17:10,0.574,1.255,0.051,-9999,
0.429,0.067,0.236,0.207,0.166,0.066,0.1,0.229,0.081,-9999,0.189,0.98,0.252,0.036,
0.006,0.317,0.032,0.014,0.102,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.086,0.053,17.61
20040829,29 Aug Fire 2,-10.357,-52.019,14:30:07,14:43:30,0.276,1.202,-9999,-9999,
0.525,0.082,0.366,0.32,0.499,0.198,0.302,0.469,0.165,-9999,0.381,0.307,0.707,0.101,
0.017,0.79,0.085,0.038,0.109, -9999,-9999,-9999,0.092,0.084,14.43
...
20040903,3 Sept Fire Mean,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.485,3.322,-9999,
-9999,0.803,0.126,0.625,0.547,0.215,0.085,0.13,0.654,0.23,0.895,0.234,
0.241,0.668,0.095,0.016,0.995,0.106,0.047,0.399,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.322,
0.126,26.41
20040905,Planned Fire,-9.969,-56.345,14:16:42,14:51:08,0.359,1.282,-9999,
0.808,0.694,0.109,0.378,0.331,0.411,0.163,0.248,-9999,-9999,0.7,0.261,0.363,
0.511,0.073,0.012,0.634,0.066,0.029,0.135,0.406,1.095,0.255,0.137,0.078,12.53

File# 3. TROFFEE_Sites.txt

This is a text file with fire location, dates, and fuel source-types. Sample data are provided below.

Date               Fire_name            Latitude        Longitude
20040829       29 Aug Fire 1       -10.27            -52.159 

Obs_start            Obs_end                   Fuel_description                       Data_reported_as
13:41:54               14:17:10                   slash under partial canopy    29 Aug Fire 1

Date               Fire_name            Latitude        Longitude
20040829       29 Aug Fire 2       -10.357          -52.019   

Obs_start            Obs_end                   Fuel_description                       Data_reported_as
14:30:07                14:43:30                   pasture                                       29 Aug Fire 2

Date               Fire_name            Latitude        Longitude
20040830       30 Aug Fire 1       -11.315          -54.064    

Obs_start            Obs_end       Fuel_description                                   Data_reported_as
12:56:51           13:00:45      grass and slash piles under partial canopy 30 Aug Fire Mean

Date               Fire_name            Latitude        Longitude
20040907     7 Sept Fire 3           -3.129            -59.056

Obs_start            Obs_end         Fuel_description                                   Data_reported_as
12:04:50              12:05:58         mixed forest fuels                                 7 Sept Fire Mean

Date               Fire_name            Latitude        Longitude
20040907       7 Sept Fire 4          -3.137           -59.147

Obs_start            Obs_end         Fuel_description                                   Data_reported_as
12:06:46             12:07:36         mixed forest fuels                                   7 Sept Fire Mean


Date
20040908         Mega-plume         not recorded        not observed                     Mega-plume

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
Mato Grosso - Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso) -54.185 -51.798 -9.167 -11.491
Amazonas- Manaus (Amazonas) -59.147 -58.93 -3.007 -3.137

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Airborne measurements of fire emission factors are needed as model input and for bottom-up emissions estimates at any scale.

4. Quality Assessment:

The sensitivity of the proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instrument during this study was typically on the order of 70 Hz/ppbv (counts per second per ppbv) for acetone and 50 Hz/ppbv for methanol at 2.3-mbar buffer gas pressure with a reaction time of 110 us and 3 to 4-MHz H3O+ ions, and thus inferred a signal to noise ratio of 60% at a concentration of 20 pptv and a 2-s integration time.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Experiment Description

TROFFEE included airborne and field campaigns, however, this data set only includes the derived emission factors and not the measured field data. The ground-based field campaigns included measurements of biogenic emissions from pristine forest near Manaus, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and emissions measurements on initially-unlofted plumes from nine biomass fires in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil. The ground campaign fires included a planned fire in which Brazilian researchers carried out a “typical” deforestation burn under conditions where the fuel consumption and other aspects of fire ecology could be measured. The emissions from this planned fire were measured by the ground-based FTIR and in the TROFFEE airborne campaign.

Airborne Sampling

The airborne campaign consisted of 44.5 flight hours between August 27 and September 8, 2004, on an Embraer Bandeirante operated by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)). The major instruments deployed on the aircraft included: (1) real-time ozone, condensation particle counter, and mass-calibrated nephelometry (University of Sao Paulo); (2) PTR-MS (National Center for Atmospheric Research); (3) Whole air sampling in canisters with subsequent gas chromatography (GC) analysis using flame ionization, mass selective, and electron capture detection (FID, MSD, and ECD; University of California at Irvine); and (4) airborne FTIR (University of Montana). The instruments measured CO2, CO, PM10, CH4, NOx, O3, and more than 40 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) including the important biogenic emissions isoprene and methanol.

In phase 1, the aircraft was based in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, in the southern Amazon, from August 27 through September 5, where the local dry/burning season was well underway. Regional haze, due mostly to diluted biomass-burning smoke of unknown age and the nascent (minutes-old) emissions from 15 fires (mostly deforestation fires), were sampled in the states of Mato Grosso and Para within about one-hour flight time of Alta Floresta.

In phase 2, the aircraft was based in Manaus, Amazonas, from September 5 to September 8. The local dry season was just beginning and the air was much cleaner and mostly unaffected by fires, especially in the mornings. The biogenic emissions were sampled from forests, several plantations east of Manaus, and the pristine forest at the ZF-14 tower north of Manaus. In addition, four more fires were sampled around noon in the Manaus region. On September 8, from 8 to 13 degrees S, a smoke plume hundreds of km wide was sampled that contained the combined emissions from a huge number of fires. These fires represented a significant fraction of the total Amazon burning for 2004 and they generated a megaplume.

Flight plans and sampling protocols

While based in Alta Floresta (27 August through 5 September), background air (defined here as air not within a visible biomass burning plume) was characterized at various altitudes (up to 3,352 m). These were afternoon flights conducted to search for and sample fires and most of the measurements were made below the top of the (hazy) mixed layer. While based in Manaus, cleaner background air was sampled during morning flights over a similar altitude range. The Manaus flights included both continuous-spiral and 'parking-garage'-type vertical profiles over the instrumented ZF-14 Tower, and a constant-altitude 'racetrack' pattern that sampled several regionally important ecosystems (undisturbed forest, flooded forest, and various plantations) east of Manaus (Karl et al., 2007b). Background-air sampled data are not provided with this data set.

Nearly all the fires we observed in Mato Grosso and southern Para were related to the expansion of existing, large farms or ranches. In all areas, the fires frequently occurred in clusters. TROFFEE supported a planned, deforestation fire on a farm near Alta Floresta.

To measure the initial emissions from fires in both regions,  smoke, less than several minutes old, was sampled by penetrating the column of smoke 200 to 1000 m above the flame front. The AFTIR system and cans obtained grab samples in the plume (and paired background samples just outside the plume). The other instruments measured their species continuously while passing through the plume. More than a few kilometers downwind from the source, smoke plume samples are 'chemically aged' and better for probing post emission chemistry than estimating initial emissions (Hobbs et al., 2003; de Gouw et al., 2006).

Airborne FTIR (AFTIR) and whole air sampling in canisters

The basic design and operation of the AFTIR system has been described in detail by Yokelson et al. (1999, 2003a, b). A summary description is given here followed by the details of how AFTIR was used to fill canisters:

PTR-MS

More details about the PTR-MS in this campaign are given by Karl et al. (2007a).

Calculation of emission factors

A widely used, derived quantity, is the normalized excess mixing ratio where DeltaX (reflects the instantaneous dilution of the plume and the instrument response time.) is compared to a simultaneously measured plume tracer such as DeltaCO or DeltaCO2. A measurement of DeltaX/DeltaCO or DeltaX/DeltaCO2 made in a nascent plume (seconds to a few minutes old) is an emission ratio (ER).

For any carbonaceous fuel, a set of ER to CO2 for the other major carbon emissions (i.e. CO, CH4, a suite of NMOC, particulate carbon) can be used to calculate emission factors (EF, g compound emitted/kg dry fuel) for all the gases quantified from the source using the carbon mass-balance method (Yokelson et al., 1996). EFs are combined with fuel consumption measurements to estimate total emissions at various scales. In this project, the primary data needed to calculate EF was provided by AFTIR measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, and many NMOC. However, the PTR-MS and canister sampling added numerous, important NMOC that were below AFTIR detection limits or not amenable to IR detection. The PM10 data allowed inclusion of particle carbon.

Fire-average, initial EF for PM10 and each observed trace gas from our fire-average initial ER was estimated using the carbon mass balance method (Ward and Radke, 1993) as described by Yokelson et al. (1999):

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 955-966, doi:10.1029/2000GB001382

Colman, J. J., Swanson, A. L., Meinardi, S., Sive, B. C., Blake, D. R., and Rowland, F. S. 2001. Description of the analysis of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in whole air samples collected during PEM tropics A and B, Anal. Chem., 73, 3723-3731.

de Gouw, J. A.,Warneke, C., Stohl, A., et al. 2006. Volatile organic compounds composition of merged and aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006175

Ferek, R. J., Reid, J. S., Hobbs, P. V., Blake, D. R., and Liousse, C. 1998. Emission factors of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, trace gases, and particles from biomass burning in Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 32 107-118, doi:10.1029/98JD00692

Goode, J. G., Yokelson, R. J., Susott, R. A., and Ward, D. E. 1999. Trace gas emissions from laboratory biomass fires measured by openpath FTIR: Fires in grass and surface fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21 237-21 245, doi:10.1029/1999JD900360

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