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LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil
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Revision date: February 22, 2012

Summary:

This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, along the road BR-174 north of the city of Manaus within three fazendas (cattle ranches) now in various stages of grazing, pasture abandonment, or pasture reclamation: Fazenda Rodao (km 46), Embrapa-District of SUFRAMA (DAS) pasture research site (km 53), and Fazenda Dimona (km 72). Ten secondary forest study sites were selected within the three fazendas where post-pasture forest recovery ranged from 0 to 14 years since abandonment.

From 2000-2001 estimates of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy cover were derived from hemispherical canopy digital photographs, and estimates of aboveground biomass and basal area were derived utilizing allometric equations from diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements. Estimates were classified by growth-form and diameter class. See Feldpausch et al. (2005) for more information. There are four comma-delimited data files with this data set and one companion file with information regarding the allometric equations relating diameter at breast height (for dbh > 5 cm) to dry weight for biomass calculations.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Feldpausch, T.R., E.C.M. Fernandes, M.A. Rondon, S.J. Riha, and E. Wandelli. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1068

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in February of 2012. Users who download the data between February 2012 and January 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA website [http://lbaeco-archive.ornl.gov/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics

Team ID: ND-04 (Fernandes / Wandelli)

The investigators were Fernandes, Erick C.M.; Wandelli, Elisa Vieira; Ackerman, Ilse Lieve; Duxbury, John; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Frank Correa; Gallardo-Ordinola, Jorge Luis Enrique; Garcia, Silas; Hines, Kristen; Kuczak, Christienne N.; Lehmann, Johannes; Luizao, Flavio de Jesus; Luizao, Regina Celi Costa; Milgroom, Jessica; Queiroz, Juliete Maria Tome de; Riha, Susan J.; Schwendener, Carol Melanie; Silva, Guilherme Castilho da; Silva, Rubenildo Lima da; Cabrera, Lucerina Trujillo and Welch, Steven A.  You may contact Feldpausch, Ted R. (trf2@cornell.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Recovery

The area of secondary forest (SF) regenerating from pastures is increasing in the Amazon Basin; however, the return of forest and canopy structure following abandonment is not well understood. We studied the development of leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover, aboveground biomass, stem density, diameter at breast height (DBH), and basal area (BA) by growth-form and diameter class for ten SFs regenerating from abandoned pastures.

Related Data Set:

2. Data Characteristics:

There are four comma-delimited data files with this data set and one companion file with information regarding the allometric equations relating diameter at breast height (for dbh > 5 cm) to dry weight for biomass calculations.

File #1: ND04_Secondary_Forest_LAI_2000-01.csv
File #2: ND04_Secondary_Forest_DBH.csv
File #3: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Structure_Means.csv
File #4: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv

Companion file:
File #5: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt


Fazenda names/sampling location information:

Fazenda name codeFazenda name Description
DASEmbrapaAmazonia Ocidental Agricultural District of SUFRAMA (DAS) pasture research site, BR-174 Km 53-54 (North of Manaus)
RodaoFazenda RodaoBR-174 Km 46 (North of Manaus)
DimonaFazenda DimonaZF-3 Km 72 (North of Manaus)

File #1: ND04_Secondary_Forest_LAI_2000-01.csv

ColumnHeading Units/formatDescription
1 Sample_date yyyymmddSampling date (yyyymmdd)
2 Sample_month mm Month in which sampling was done: March, June, September, December
3 Sample_year yyyy Year in which sampling was done
4 Location_ID   Sampling location ID code, consisting of fazenda name code + forest site number within each fazenda (See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)
5 Stand_age   Secondary forest age at the onset of the study (years since pasture abandonment) in ranges: 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14
6 Plot_ID   Plot identification number: each forest had four plots varying in area between 100 and 400 m2
7 Rep_no  Identification of replicate samples within each plot for each LAI measurement
8 Height cm Sampling height in centimeters (cm). Measuring LAI at two heights allows computation of the scrub layer by subtraction of LAI at 5 from 150
9 Treatment   Fertilizer treatment: - Control: no additions - P: P added at a rate of 50 kg/ha as TSP - P+Ca: P (50 kg/ha)+Ca (2 t/ha) - P+Ca+G: P(50 kg/ha)+Ca (2 metric t/ ha)+Gypsum (CaSO4) (1 metric t/ha)
10 LAI_1m2 m-2 Estimated Leaf Area index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared of ground area calculated using the CI-110 Digital Plant Canopy Analyzer [C-110: CID, Inc., Vancouver Washington]
11 Mean_leaf angle degrees Mean leaf angle in degrees
12 Trans_coef % Transmission coefficient; a factor that describes the regional clarity of the atmosphere with respect to instantaneous transmission of direct radiation
13 Threshold   Threshold set within the CI-110 software used to differentiate between leaf margins and sky
14 Canopy_opennes % Canopy openness based on the GLA software reported in percent (%) [GLA: Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al., 1999)]
15LAI_GLA_4 m2 m-2 Estimated Leaf Area Index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared of ground area calculated using the GLA software for the 4th ring [GLA: Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al., 1999)]
16LAI_GLA_5 m2 m-2 Estimated Leaf Area Index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared of ground area calculated using the GLA software for the 5th ring [GLA: Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al., 1999)]
 
Missing data  represented by -9999, data not collected are represented by -4444

Example data records:

Sample_date,Sample_month,Sample_year,Location_ID,Stand_age,Plot_ID,Rep_no,Height,Treatment,
LAI_1,Mean_leaf angle,Trans_coef,Threshold,Canopy_openness ,LAI_GLA_4,LAI_GLA_5
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,1,150,P,
-9999,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,2,150,P,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,3,150,P,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,4,150,P,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,5,150,P,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,1,150,Control,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,2,150,Control,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0
20000912,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,3,150,Control,
0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

File #2: ND04_Secondary_Forest_DBH.csv

ColumnHeading Units/formatDescription
1 Location_ID   Sampling location ID code, consisting of fazenda name code + forest site number within each fazenda (See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)
2 Stand_age   Secondary forest age at the onset of the study (years since pasture abandonment) in ranges: 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14
3Plot_ID   Plot identification number: there are 4 plots per forest with the exception of DAS-1 which has 12 plots
4Subplot_ID   Subplot identification number: there are 3 subplots per plot
5Subplot_area   m2Subplot area in meters squared (m2)
6Plant_ID   Plant identification number
7Scientific_name   Scientific name of the plant where identified in the format Genus species or "Not determined"
8 Common_name   Local name of plant where identified or "Not determined"
9 Growth_form   Plant growth form: tree, shrub or liana
10 DBH mm Diameter at breast height: measured in millimeters (mm) at 1.3 meters above the surface of the soil
11Field_notes   Comments from the field notebooks
Missing data  indicated by -9999

Example data records:

Location_ID,Stand_age,Plot_ID,Subplot_ID,Subplot_area,Plant_ID,Scientific_name,Common_name,Growth_form,DBH ,Field_notes
DAS-1,0 to 2,1,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,2,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,3,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,4,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,5,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,6,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH
DAS-1,0 to 2,7,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems
greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

File #3: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Structure_Means.csv

ColumnHeading Units/formatDescription
1 Location_ID   Sampling location ID code, consisting of fazenda name code + forest site number within each fazrnda (See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)
2 Stand_age  Secondary forest age at the onset of the study (years since pasture abandonment) in ranges: 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14
3 Vegetation_group  Type of vegetation: tree, shrub, liana, or total which indicates that all 3 categories are represented
4 Biomass_TABG mg ha-1Total aboveground biomass calculated using allometric equations for the trees, lianas, and shrubs reported as mg ha-1 (See below for contents of companion file (File #5): ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt). See accompanying documentation for equations.
5 DBH_mean cmMean diameter at breast height in centimeters (cm) for each forest. Diameter was measured at 1.3 meters above the ground or above prop roots where they occurred
6 Stem_density_mean stems ha-1Mean number of stems per hectare (stems ha-1) for each forest
7 Basal_area_meanm2 ha-1 Mean basal area calculated from measured dbh and scaled from the sum of all area inventoried to m2 per hectare for each forest, reported as m2 ha-1
 
Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Location_ID,Stand_age,Vegetation_group,Biomass_TABG,DBH_mean,Stem_density_mean,Basal_area_mean
DAS-1,0 to 2 ,tree,0,0,0,0
DAS-1,0 to 2 ,shrub,0,0,0,0
DAS-1,0 to 2 ,liana,0,0,0,0
DAS-1,0 to 2 ,total,0,-9999,0,0
Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,tree,0,0,0,0
Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,shrub,0,0,0,0
Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,liana,0,0,0,0
Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,total,0,-9999,0,0
Rodao-4,2 to 4,tree,0.08,0.86,75,0
Rodao-4,2 to 4,shrub,0.18,0.73,300,0.1
Rodao-4,2 to 4,liana,0,0,0,0
Rodao-4,2 to 4,total,0.25,-9999,375,0.1
DAS-2,4 to 6,tree,22.27,3.05,6375,7
DAS-2,4 to 6,shrub,1.1,1.81,1875,0.5

File #4: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1 State   Study location state: Amazonia
2 Region   Study location region: Manaus
3 Km_marker   Study location kilometer marker along the highway BR-174 running north from Manaus to Venezuela, or ZF-3, a feeder road to BF-174
4 Fazenda_name   Fazenda name (See Fazenda Name / Description above)
5 Location_ID   Sampling location ID code, consisting of fazenda name code + forest site number within the fazenda
6 Stand_age   Secondary forest age at onset of study, i.e. years after pasture abandonment: 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14
7 N_Plots   Number of plots in forest
8 Plot_dimensions m Plot dimensions as width of plot in meters X depth of plot in meters (m)
9 N_subplots   Number of sub-plots in the plot
10 Subplot_dimensions m Sub-plot dimensions as: width of sub-plot in meters X depth of sub-plot in meters (m)
11 Plot_area m^2Total area sampled per plot in meters squared (m^2)
12 Forest_area m^2 Total area sampled per forest in meters squared (m^2)

Example data records:


State,Region,Km_marker,Fazenda_name,Location_ID,Stand_age,N_plots,Plot_dimensions,N_subplots,Subplot_dimensions,
Plot_area,Forest_area
Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-1,0 to 2,12,10x10,1,10x10,
100,1200
Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-2,4 to 6,4,15x15,3,4x5,
60,240
Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-3,12 to 14,4,20x20,3,5x7,
105,420
Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-1,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,
60,240
Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-2,12 to 14,4,20x20,3,5x7,
105,420
Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-3,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,
60,240
Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-1,0 to 2,4,15x15,1,15x15,
225,900
Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-2,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,
60,240
Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-3,4 to 6,4,15x15,3,4x5,
60,240
Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-4,2 to 4,4,10x10,1,10x10,
100,400


File #5: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt

Allometric equations relating diameter at breast height (for dbh > 5 cm) to dry weight of dominant secondary forest species in central Amazonia, Brasil. Based on Nelson et al. 1999.

Family Scientific_name Allometric equation R2
Cecropiaceae Cecropia sp. ln (DW)= -2.5118 +2.4257*ln (dbh) 0.98
Celastraceae Goupia glabra ln (DW)= -1.7972 +2.4206*ln (dbh) 0.99
Clusiaceae Vismia japurensis ln (DW)= -1.7829 +2.3651*ln (dbh) 0.99
Clusiaceae Vismia cayennensis ln (DW)= -2.3706 +2.5392*ln (dbh) 0.99
Flacourtiaceae Laetia procera ln (DW)= -2.224 +2.5105*ln (dbh) 0.99
Melastomateceae Bellucia sp. ln (DW)= -1.8158 +2.370*ln (dbh) 0.99
Mixed species   ln (DW)= -1.9968 +2.4128*ln (dbh) 0.98
 
Allometric equation relating basal area (in cm2) to dry weight for lianas. Based on Putz 1983. Log (DW)= 0.12+ 0.91*log(BA) R2= 0.82
 
Citations:
Nelson, B.W., R. Mesquita, J.L.G. Pereira, S.G.A. d. Souza, G.T. Batista and L.B. Couto. 1999. Allometric regressions for improved estimate of secondary forest biomass in the central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 117: 149-167.
 
Putz, F.E. 1983. Liana biomass and leaf area of a 'terre firme' forest in the Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica 15: 185-189.

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Amazonas (Manaus) - EMBRAPA CPAA pasture research station (Amazonas (Manaus)) -60.03-60.03-2.518-2.518World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Amazonas (Manaus) - Fazenda Dimona (Amazonas (Manaus)) -59-59-2-2World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Amazonas (Manaus) - Fazenda Rodao (Amazonas (Manaus)) -60.02365-60.02365-2.57156-2.57156World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Using individual tree and shrub DBH measurements we calculated dry biomass by life-form and diameter class using two sets of allometric equations developed in the region (for stems greater than 5 cm diameter, from Nelson et al. (1999);  for smaller stems, from Mesquita unpublished data). We calculated mean basal area for all stems by calculating basal area for the individual based on DBH and summing the values per plot. Using allometric equations developed in Amazonian terra firme sites, we calculated basal area of individual vines and converted basal area to dry biomass (Putz, 1983).

These data allow the calculation of rate the recovery of secondary forests as well as the structure of the recovering forest in terms of stem size and density.

4. Quality Assessment:

Since we only measured DBH for stems greater than or equal to 1 cm diameter, our estimates underestimate total aboveground biomass and stem density.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study sites:
The study sites were located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil along the road BR-174 north of the city of Manaus. The terrain is undulating with an elevation of 50-150 m.a.s.l. The plateau soil is classified as dystrophic, isohyperthermic, clayey kaolinitic Hapludoxes with approximately 80 to 95% clay. Regional climate is tropical humid and the mean temperature is 26.7 degrees C. Mean annual rainfall in Manaus is 2.2 meters with March and April the wettest months.

Ten secondary forests were selected within three fazendas (cattle ranches) now in various stages of grazing, pasture abandonment or pasture reclamation: Fazenda Rodao (km 46), Embrapa-District of SUFRAMA (DAS) pasture research site (km 53), and Fazenda Dimona (km 72). Defining “abandoned” was problematic since there may have been an infrequent rotation of temporary contract grazing of a few cattle. The abandonment date was then indefinite since cattle may periodically graze the area until all palatable forage is replaced by woody successional vegetation. To address this issue,  the data are provided as age classes, rather than purport to define a fixed abandonment date (Feldpausch et al., 2005). The regenerating forests within each fazenda represented individual pastures that were abandoned from 0–2 to 12–14 yr. Within the selected forest (time since pasture abandonment 0-14 years), located on plateau Oxisols, we established 4 plots of 100 m2 to 400 m2 area. Within each plot 3 subplots ranging in size from 35 to 100 m2 were established. A total of 0.56 ha of area was included in this study across the 10 forests.

LAI measurements:
Leaf area index was measured in all sub-plots beginning in September 2000 and repeated every three months for a year.  The LAI measurements were taken with a portable, electronic handheld hemispheric (fish-eye) lens (CI-110: CID, Inc., Vancouver Washington) with the plane of the lens set parallel to the ground.  LAI was measured at 5 and 150 cm above the ground, which resulted in 12 LAI images per forest per height (total of 240 images). The two heights allow for the distinction of understory (leaf area below 150 cm height)and overstory leaf area. All photographs were taken using the incident light characteristic of morning and evening twilight hours.

Leaf area index was calculated from the digital photos using the CI-110 software (version 3.0.1.1) on a high-resolution LCD monitor. We reduced the field of view from 180 degrees to 150 degrees to reduce the misclassification of stems as leaves. After setting an image specific threshold to differentiate between leaf margins and sky, the software uses gap fraction analysis to calculate LAI for each image (Norman and Campbell 1989).

Canopy cover, a measure of the percentage of leaf cover obscuring the open sky as viewed from the ground, was calculated from the same digital photos using the Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al. 1999). Additional LAI estimates were made from the GLA software based on reductions in the hemispheric view from GLA ring 4 and ring 5.
Canopy cover was calculated using the canopy gap diffuse data, the fraction of pixels in each sky region that are open (white) on the fisheye photograph, weighted by hemispherical area.

Forest structure and biomass measurements:
Diameters of all stems (trees, shrubs and vines) with diameters at breast height (1.3 m above ground for all live trees with diameters greater than or equal to 1 cm or above prop roots where they occurred) were measured in each sub-plot in late December 2000/early January 2001. Using individual tree and shrub DBH measurements we calculated dry biomass by life-form and diameter class using two sets of allometric equations developed in the region (for stems greater than 5 cm diameter, from Nelson et al. (1999);  for smaller stems, from Mesquita unpublished data). We calculated mean basal area for all stems by calculating basal area for the individual based on DBH and summing the values per plot. Using allometric equations developed in Amazonian terra firme sites, we calculated basal area of individual vines and converted basal area to dry biomass (Putz, 1983).

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Feldpausch, Ted R., Susan J. Riha, Erick C. M. Fernandes, Elisa V. Wandelli, 2005: Development of Forest Structure and Leaf Area in Secondary Forests Regenerating on Abandoned Pastures in Central Amazônia. Earth Interact., 9(6):1-22.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/EI140.1

Frazer, G.W., C.D. Canham and K.P. Lertzman. 1999. Gap Light Analyzer (GLA): Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-color fisheye photographs: User's manual and program documentation (version 2.0). Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY 36 pp.

Nelson, B.W., R. Mesquita, J.L.G. Pereira, S.G.A. d. Souza, G.T. Batista and L.B. Couto. 1999. Allometric regressions for improved estimate of secondary forest biomass in the central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 117: 149-167.

Norman, J.M. and G.S.Campbell. 1989. Canopy structure. Pages 301-325 in Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation. J.E.R.W. Pearcy, H.A. Mooney and P.W. Rundel editors.

Putz, F.E. 1983. Liana biomass and leaf area of a 'terre firme' forest in the Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica 15: 185-189.

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