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LBA-ECO ND-02 Cation Leaching from Forest and Pasture Soils, Para, Brazil
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Revision date: March 28, 2012

Summary:

This data set provides a time series of calcium, magnesium, and potassium extracted from soil samples from a laboratory column extraction study conducted in 2002. Soils used in the columns were originally collected in 1998 in Fazenda Vitoria, a cattle ranch 6 km north of the town of Paragominas, Para, Brazil. The soils were from contrasting land uses of primary forest (mata), secondary forest (capoeira), or pasture (pasto). Water equilibrated with increasing concentrations of CO2 was used to extract cations from the soil columns. Data represent the time series of cation concentrations in the extract solutions as well as the total content of cations removed from the soils. There is one comma-delimited ASCII file with this data set.

 

paragominas research sites

A 2001 IKONOS image of research sites in Paragominas, Brazil. Note mature and secondary forests and managed pasture areas. Source: Markewitz et. al. 2004.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Markewitz, D., E.A. Davidson, R.D.O. Figueiredo, P.R. Moutinho and D.C. Nepstad. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-02 Cation Leaching from Forest and Pasture Soils, Para, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1074

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in March of 2012.  Users who download the data between March 2012 and February 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics

Team ID: ND-02 (Davidson / Stone / Markewitz / Carvalho / Sa / Vieira / Moutinho / Figueiredo)

The investigators were Davidson, Eric A.; Markewitz, Daniel; Stone, Thomas A.; Carvalho, Claudio Jose Reis de; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Moutinho, Paulo; Sa, Tatiana Deane De Abreu; Vieira, Ima; Almeida, Arlete; Araujo, Thereza Cristina; Bastos, Therezinha Xavier; Coelho, Roberta de Fatima R.; Correa, Jean Michel; Costa, Brenda Magda do Nascimento; Costa, Fabiola Fernandes; Cunha, Ewerton da Silva; de Figueiredo, Tenilson Monteiro; Dutra, Fabio Carneiro; Freire, Georgia Silva; Guerrero, Jose Benito; Guild, Liane S.; Hayashi, Sanae Nogueira; Ishida, Francoise; Junior, Alvaro Castro Pacheco; Kingerlee, Wendy; Leal, Eliane Constantinov; Leao, Luciene Mota de; Leite, Tania de Sousa; Lobato Junior, Ivan da Costa; Lopes, Leticia Campos; Martins, Jorge Ricardo de Souza; Maues, Bernardo Antonio Rodrigue Antonio; Pacheco, Nilza Araujo; Pantoja, Maria de Jesus Ribeiro; Pedreira, Alessandra Cavalcante; Portela, Gilvane Azevedo; Reis, Marilea Barros; Rodrigues Pantoja, Karina de Fatima; Saba, Renata Tuma; Salimon, Cleber; Santos, Elisana Batista; Santos, Maria Tereza Primo dos; Santos Junior, Mario Rosa; Schuler, Marysol A. E.; Serrao, Bruno de Oliveira; Siddique, Ilyas; Silva, Marilia; Silva, Patricio de Souza; Silva, Sabrina; Silva, Wanderley; Silva da Rosa, Maria Beatriz; Souza, Alex Henrique Moreira de; Souza, Cleo Marcelo Araujo; Souza, Karina Christina Neves de and Tancredi, Nicola Saverio Holanda. You may contact Markewitz, Dr. Daniel (dmarke@warnell.uga.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: ND02_Soil_CO2_Extracts

This data set provides a time series of calcium, magnesium, and potassium extracted from soil samples from a laboratory column extraction study conducted in 2002. Soils used in the columns were originally collected in 1998 in Fazenda Vitoria, a cattle ranch 6 km north of the town of Paragominas, Para, Brazil. The soils were from contrasting land uses of primary forest (mata), secondary forest (capoeira), or pasture (pasto). Water equilibrated with increasing concentrations of CO2 was used to extract cations from the soil columns. Data represent the time series of cation concentrations in the extract solutions as well as the total content of cations removed from the soils.

2. Data Characteristics:

Data are provided in a single comma-delimited ASCII file: ND02_CO2_soil_solution.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Gas% Concentration (%) of CO2 in the gas bubbled through the extraction solution
2Landuse  Land cover under which the surface soils were sampled. In 1996 the capoeira was ~19 yrs. old, the Mata was an undisturbed mature forest, and the pasto was managed pasture in the region. Details of sampling are available in Markewitz et al., 2004
3 Week  Week after initiation of the column study that soils were extracted with solutions
4 Day  Day since initiation of the column study on which soils were extracted with solutions
5 SeqDay  Sequential day of solution extraction. This ignores the incubation period and strings all days of extraction together sequentially
6 ExtvolmlmL Actual amount of solution recovered on each day of extraction in mL
7 Seqvolml mL Cumulative amount of solution extracted in mL over all days of extraction
8 Ca_mgLmg/L Concentration of Ca in solution in mg/L
9 K_mgLmg/L Concentration of K in the extract solution in mg/L
10 Mg_mgLmg/L Concentration of Mg in the extract solution in mg/L
11 Ca_ugug Content of Ca in the extract solution in ug
12 K_ugug Content of K in the extract solution in ug
13 Mg_ugug Content of Mg in the extract solution in ug
14 CumCa_ugug Cumulative content of Ca extracted in ug
15 CumK_ug ug Cumulative content of K in the extract solution in ug
16 CumMg_ugug Cumulative content of Mg in the extract solution in ug

Example data records:

Gas,Landuse,Week,Day,SeqDay,Extvolml,Seqvolml,Ca_mgL,K_mgL,Mg_mgL,Ca_ug,K_ug,
Mg_ug,CumCa_ug,CumK_ug,CumMg_ug
0,Capoeira,1,1,1,21,21,19.46,7.343,1.46,406,153,
30,406,153,30
0,Capoeira,1,2,2,46,67,2.849,2.08,0.72,132,97,
33,538,250,63
...
10,Pasto,20,125,30,51,1621,0.499,0.031,0.066,26,2,
3,2467,890,683
10,Pasto,20,126,31,55,1676,0.4,0.005,0.068,22,0,
4,2489,891,687
10,Pasto,20,127,32,72,1748,0.527,0.012,0.091,38,1,
7,2527,891,693
...
10,Pasto,20,128,33,68,1816,0.408,0.073,0.07,28,5,
5,2554,896,698
10,Pasto,20,129,34,58,1875,0.409,0.037,0.076,24,2,
4,2578,899,702
10,Pasto,20,130,35,75,1949,0.024,0,0.01,2,0,
1,2580,899,703

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Para Eastern (Belem) - Paragominas (Para Eastern (Belem)) -47.51600 -47.51600-2.98300 -298300 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The column extractions were performed over a period of 20 weeks with 7 days of CO2 equilibrated water being passed through the columns on week 1, 3, 6, 11, and 20. In the intervening weeks, soils were left in the columns in contact with interstitial waters. After each day (24 hour period) solutions in containment vessels were capped, weighed for volume, and retained for later analysis. Daily volumes as well as sequentially collect volumes (i.e., continuously summed volumes) are presented. Daily concentration for Ca, Mg, and K are presented as are the contents of these elements extracted (i.e., the concentration times the solution volume). These contents are also provided as a continuous sum (i.e, cumulative amounts). No other manipulations of data are required for utilization. Soil masses extracted are available in the publication.

4. Quality Assessment:

These laboratory generated data are relatively simple, required no adjustments, and are of high quality. Within the laboratory standard reference materials (ERA, Arvada, CO) were utilized to maintain quality assurance.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Soil samples used in this study were originally collected in 1998 in a cattle ranch 6 km north of the town of Paragominas in the Brazilian state of Para, in Amazonia. Fazenda Vitoria has been the site of a number of studies during the last 18 years and much information is available (Nepstad et al., 1994; Uhl et al., 1988). At the time of soil sampling for this project, primary forest remnants (~200 ha) were still present on the ranch. The secondary forest areas utilized in this study were cleared, grazed by cattle for 6 to 8 years, and have been re-growing over the past 2 decades. The managed pastures, lands which tend to border streams, received management inputs such as disking, P fertilization (~50 kg ha-1), and planting with an African grass (Brachiaria brizantha) in 1987 and have been actively grazed since. Row crop agriculture was not present at the time of sampling for this project. (Markewitz et al., 2006).

This data set is from a laboratory column extraction study conducted in 2002. Soils used in the columns were from contrasting land uses: primary forest (mata), secondary forest (capoeira), or pasture (pasto). Solutions equilibrated with different concentrations of CO2 were used to extract cations from the soil columns. Data represent the time series of cation concentrations in the extract solutions as well as the total contents of cations removed from the soils.

Upper 0 to 10 cm mineral soils were collected at five positions along three randomly located 200 m transects (n=3) in each land use (Markewitz et al., 2004). A subsample of the sieved, air-dried sample from each of the three transects within the mature forest, secondary forest, and managed pasture was composited by land use and homogenized.

Prior to CO2 extraction, soil from each land-use was analyzed in replicate for base cation contents. Samples were air-dried and extracted with Mehlich-I double acid extract in a 1:10 soil mass to solution volume ratio. After leaching with CO2, soils remaining in the columns were air-dried and re-measured for cation contents. See Markewitz et al., 2006 for data.

Soil leachate columns were prepared with 10 g of soil in 15-mL centrifuge tubes. A total of 12 columns were run simultaneously; three land uses by four solution extracts. The solution extracts were comprised of CO2 (g) equilibrated with deionized water (DI). Treatments were 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 10% CO2 (g) (i.e., equilibrated H2CO3* (aq)). The CO2 concentrations utilized are characteristic of the soils at this research site (Davidson and Trumbore, 1995), although higher concentrations in bulk soil are only reached at greater than 2 m depth. The measured pH values of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 10% CO2-equilibrated water were 5.84, 5.12, 4.94, and 4.48, respectively.

The equilibrated waters were pulled from the bottom to the top of the column using a peristaltic pump. The flow rate was 0.035 mL/min which provided an average residence time of ~420 min inside the column. To further ensure interaction between soils and solutions, soils were leached for 1 week (7 days) and then incubated in the presence of CO2-saturated solutions by stopping the peristaltic pump prior to further extraction. The period of incubation was 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks followed by an additional week of leaching in each case; a total of 35 days of leaching over 140 days. Approximately 2 L of solution were collected per column over the experiment. Daily aliquots of leachate were collected during leaching (54 +/-16 ml; mean +/-1 S.D.) and later analyzed for Ca, Mg, and K by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Solution chemical data for the extracts was obtained on a Perkin-Elmer atomic adsorption spectrophotometer AAnalyst 100. Calcium and Magnesium were determined on a nitrous oxide flame using adsorption while potassium was on an acetylene flame using emission.

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) or the EOS Data Gateway.

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Davidson, E.A., Trumbore, S.E., 1995. Gas diffusivity and production of CO2 in deep soils of the eastern Amazon. Tellus 47B, 550–565.

Markewitz, D., E. Davidson, P. Moutinho, and D. Nepstad. 2004. Nutrient loss and redistribution after forest clearing on a highly weathered soil in Amazonia. Ecological Applications 14(4):S177.

Markewitz, D., R.O. Figueiredo, and E. Davidson. 2006. CO2-driven cation leaching after tropical forest clearing. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 88(1-3):214-219.

Nepstad, D.C., de Carvalho, C.R., Davidson, E.A., Jipp, P.H., Lefebvre, P.A., Negreiros, G.H., da Silva, E.D., Stone, T.A., Trumbore, S.E., Vieira, S., 1994. The deep-soil link between water and carbon cycles of Amazonian forests and pastures. Nature 372, 666-669.

Uhl, C., Buschbacher, R., Serrao, E.A.S., 1988. Abandoned pastures in eastern Amazonia: I. Patterns of plant succession. Journal of Ecology 76, 663-681.