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LBA-ECO CD-32 LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP) Meteorological Forcing Data
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Revision date: July 24, 2013

Summary:

This data set provides gap-filled meteorological observations from nine Brazilian flux towers for periods between 1999 and 2006. The measurements include: air temperature, specific humidity, module of wind speed, downward long wave and shortwave radiation at the surface, surface pressure, precipitation, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These atmospheric data are provided at 1-hour time-steps. These data were used as the standardized forcing data input for the LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP).

The Amazonian sites and nine towers include:

Refer to the companion file CD32_MIP_Drivers_Sites.pdf for the list of investigators and data reference information for each site.

The LBA-MIP goal was to gain comparative understanding of ecosystem models that simulate energy, water, and CO2 fluxes over the LBA area. The task was to subject all the models to the same forcing and experimental protocol, and to compare the outputs. The protocol is provided as a companion file, lba_mip_protocol4.0_20100309.pdf.

The source meteorological observations for the forcing data, from the nine Brazilian flux towers, were recently published at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) as LBA-ECO CD-32 Flux Tower Network Data Compilation, Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2006  (Saleska, et al., 2013). See related data sets. These source data were gap-filled according to the LBA-MIP standard protocol. Note that the CAX forest tower was not included in the MIP. See the companion file driver_data.pdf for additional gap-filling information.

There are 34 data products with this data set and they are provided in both text (.txt) and ALMA-compliant NetCDF (.nc) formats. The files have been compressed into nine *.zip files according to site.

Data User Guidance

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

de Goncalves, L.G.G., N. Restrepo-Coupe, H.R. da Rocha, S.R. Saleska, and R. Stockli. 2013. LBA-ECO CD-32 LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP) Meteorological Forcing Data. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1177

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in August 2013. Users who download the data between August 2013 and July 2018 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider.

Data users should use the data set citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Carbon Dynamics

Team ID: CD-32 (Saleska / da Rocha / Artaxo / Nobre / Shimabukuro)

The investigators were Saleska, Scott R.; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da; Artaxo, Paulo Eduardo; Huete, Alfredo R.; Nobre, Antonio Donato; Parker, Geoffrey; Ratana, Piyachat; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Monica Takako; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir and Tannus, Rafael Nora . You may contact Saleska, Scott R. (saleska@email.arizona.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: CD32_LBA_MIP_Drivers

This data set provides gap-filled meteorological observations from nine Brazilian flux towers for periods between 1999 and 2006. The measurements include: air temperature, specific humidity, module of wind speed, downward long wave and shortwave radiation at the surface, surface pressure, precipitation, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These atmospheric data are provided at 1 hour time-step. These data were used as the standardized forcing data input for the LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP).

  • Related Data Sets (data from the flux tower sites for similar time periods)

    2. Data Characteristics:

    File naming conventions:

    There are 34 data files with this data set in text (.txt) and NetCDF formats. The files have been compressed into nine *.zip files according to site.

    The nine *.zip files are named as Site.zip: 

    Example file names: Manaus_KM34.zip and Reserva_Jaru.zip.

    The .txt and .nc files are named according to Site and Year.

    Example file names:

    Bananal_Island_2004uaz.100217LWnet.leap.csv

    Bananal_Island_2004.uaz.100217LWnet.leap.nc

     

    Data file contents:

    The NetCDF (.nc) format files are ALMA-compliant and largely self-documenting.

    The ASCII (.csv) format files have content organized as follows:

    Column Column Heading Units/format Description Range
    1 Year YYYY Year of measurement (YYYY) 1999-2006
    2 DoY DD Day of year (DD) 0-366
    3 Hour HH Hour (HH)0-23
    4 Minute MM Minute (MM)0-0
    5 Tair K Near surface air temperature (degrees K) 
    6 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    7 Qair kg/kg Near surface specific humidity (kg/kg) 0.000-0.030
    8 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    9 Wind m2/s Near surface module of the wind (m2/s) 0-9
    10 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    11 Rainf kg/m2/sRainfall rate (kg/m2/s) 0-0.02
    12 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    13 PSurf Pa Surface pressure (Pa) 93000-100000
    14 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    15 SWdown W/m2 Surface incident shortwave radiation (W/m2) 0-1500
    16 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    17 LWdown W/m2 Surface incident longwave radiation (W/m2) 270-540
    18 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 
    19 CO2air ppmvNear surface CO2 concentration (ppmv). CO2 set at constant 375--not measured375-375
    20 GF   Gap filled: 0=original, 1=filled (See NaN note) 

    Missing values represented as -999.00. Years have 365 or 366 days, depending on if the year is or is not a leap year.

    NaN note: In several of the data files, the flags (GF) that indicate whether a meteorolgical value is an original or a gap-filled number do not have consistent values. The majority of the GF fields have correct values, either 0 for an orginal value or 1 for a gap-filled value. A few GF fields have values of "NaN" and inspection reveals that the correct GF value could be either 0 or 1. The meterological values are unaffected by the GF flag inconsistency.

    Example file: Reserva_Jaru_2000uaz.100217LWnet.leap.csv

    Year,DoY,Hour,Minute,Tair,GF,Qair,GF,Wind,GF,Rainf,GF,PSurf,GF,SWdown,GF,LWdown,GF,CO2air,GF
    2000,1,0,0,298.82,0,0.01596846,1,2.78049685,0,0.000150426,NaN,100538.3333,NaN,0,0,415.055,0,375,NaN
    2000,1,1,0,297.8607782,0,0.016135424,1,1.994083389,0,0.000413556,NaN,100643.3333,NaN,0,0,442.59,0,375,NaN
    ...
    2000,196,4,0,290.24,0,0.008681715,0,4.16,0,0,0,101745,0,0,0,354.735,0,375,1
    2000,196,5,0,289.39,0,0.00844715,0,4.18,0,0,0,101725,0,0,0,351.17,0,375,1
    ...
    2000,366,22,0,300.8085515,0,0.018639643,1,0.74,0,0,1,100492.4609,1,33.15678571,1,445.5732047,1,375,1
    2000,366,23,0,300.1969176,0,0.018303222,1,0.28,0,0,1,100577.4609,1,0.010535714,1,428.7657042,1,375,1

    Site boundaries:(All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

    Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
    Para Western (Santarem) - km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.95900 -54.95900 -2.85700 -2.85700 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Para Western (Santarem) - km 77 Pasture Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.88850 -54.88850 -3.02020 -3.02020 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Para Western (Santarem) - km 83 Logged Forest Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.97070 -54.97070 -3.01700 -3.01700 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Amazonas (Manaus) - ZF2 km 34 (Amazonas (Manaus)) -60.20910 -60.00000 -2.50000 -2.60900 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Para Eastern (Belem) - FLONA Caxiuana (Para Eastern (Belem)) -51.45360 -51.45360 -1.74830 -1.74830 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Rondonia - Fazenda Nossa Senhora (Rondonia) -62.35720 -62.35720 -10.76180 -10.76180 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Rondonia - Jaru Biological Reserve Tower B (Rondonia) -61.93310 -61.93310 -10.07800 -10.07800 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Tocantins - Ilha do Bananal (Tocantins) -50.1591111 -50.1591111 -9.824416667 -9.824416667 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
    Sao Pablo - Reserva Pe-de-Gigante (Sao Pablo) -47.6498889 -47.6498889 -21.61947222 -21.61947222 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

    Time period:

    • The data set covers the period 1999/01/01 to 2006/12/31.
    • Temporal Resolution: Hourly

    Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

    • TOWER / SHORTWAVE RADIATION / ANALYSIS
    • TOWER / LONGWAVE RADIATION / PYRRADIOMETERS
    • TOWER / TEMPERATURE SENSOR / AIR TEMPERATURE
    • TOWER / ANEMOMETER / WIND PROFILES

    3. Data Application and Derivation:

    Typical Application of Data:

    Forcing drivers and boundary conditions for ecosystem models that simulate terrestrial energy, water and CO2 fluxes based on continuous observations of these quantities over the LBA area.

    Derivation Techniques:

    For information on the derivation techniques and algorithms, refer to the companion file: driver_data.pdf

    For site-specific data references refer to the companion file: CD32_MIPDrivers_Sites.pdf.

    4. Quality Assessment:

    Data Usage Guidance:
    Please refer to The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP) protocol  companion file: lba_mip_protocol4.0_20100309.pdf.

    5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

    The source meteorological observations for the forcing data, from the nine Brazilian flux towers, were recently published as Saleska, et al. (2013).

    Site descriptions:

    Table 1. Nine towers and corresponding study areas (information for these sites may also be found at the FLUXNET web site,  http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/):

    Site code Description Fluxnet Site Name/Site Code Altitude (m) Measurement Height (m) Temporal Coverage
    BAN Tocantins State, Bananal seasonally flooded forest, mixture of cerrado, cerrado and campo (natural grassland) Ecotone Bananal Island/
    BR-Ban
    120.000 40.000 2004-2006
    K34 Manaus, km 34 tropical forest site Manaus-ZF2 K34/
    BR-Ma2
    130.000 50.000 2002-2005
    K67 Santarem, km 67 tropical forest site Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest/
    BR-Sa1
    **
    130.000 63.000 2002-2004
    K77 Santarem, km 77 pasture-agriculture site Santarem-Km77-Pasture/
    BR-Sa2
    130.000 18.000 2001-2005
    K83 Santarem, km 83 selectively logged tropical forest Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest/
    BR-Sa3
    ***
    130.000 64.000 2001-2003
    RJA Rondonia State, Reserva Jaru, tropical dry forest Rond.- Rebio Jaru Ji Parana-Tower B/
    BR-Ji3
    191.000 60.000 2000-2002
    FNS Rondonia State, Fazenda Nossa Senhora, pasture Rond.- Faz. Nossa Senhora-Ji Parana-pasture/
    BR-Ji1
    306.000 8.5000 1999-2001
    CAX Para State, Caxiuana tropical forest Caxiuana Forest-Almeirim/
    BR-Cax
    130.000 51.5000 1999-2003
    PDG Sao Paulo State, Reserva Pe-de-Gigante (PDG) cerrado Sao Paulo Cerrado/
    BR-Sp1
    690.000 21.000 2001-2003

    ** Site information and data are also available from AmeriFlux (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov/). In AmeriFlux, site name = LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest/BR-Sa1.

    ***** Site information and data are also available from AmeriFlux (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov/). In AmeriFlux, site name = LBA Tapajos KM83 Logged Forest/BR-Sa3.

    Processing Flux Tower Data:

    Yearly gap-filled meteorological driver data were created from flux tower data sets at hourly time-steps.

    Please refer to the companion file driver_data.pdf for additional information.

    Data at the tower reference height were used and only filled by lower profile measurements where available and needed.

    Outliers which deviated from the median-filtered time-series were removed. Gaps up to two-months long were filled by applying a seven day running mean diurnal cycle forwards and backwards through the yearly time-series. Years with more than 2 months of consecutive missing data were not used.

    Observations were flagged to indicate if a value is an original value or a filled value. See "Data User Guidance" in Summary.

    6. Data Access:

    These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

    Data Archive Center:

    Contact for Data Center Access Information:
    E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
    Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

    7. References:

    Araujo, A.C., A.D. Nobre, B. Kruijt, J.A. Elbers, R. Dallarosa, P. Stefani, C. von Randow, A.O. Manzi, A.D. Culf, J.H.C. Gash, R. Valentini, and P. Kabat, Comparative measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes from two nearby towers in a central Amazonian rainforest: The Manaus LBA site, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (D20), doi:10.1029/2001JD000676, 2002.

    Borma, L.S., H.R. da Rocha, and O.M.R. Cabral, The effect of seasonal flooding on the surface energy and water fluxes over an ecotone in Bananal Island, Brasil, Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, submitted.

    Carswell, F.E., A.L. Costa, M. Palheta, Y. Malhi, P. Meir, J.D.R. Costa, M.D. Ruivo, L.D.M. Leal, J.M.N. Costa, R.J. Clement, and J. Grace, Seasonality in CO2 and H2O flux at an eastern Amazonian rain forest, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (D20), 8076, doi:10.1029/2000JD000284, 2002.

    Goulden, M.L., S.D. Miller, H.R. da Rocha, M.C. Menton, H.C. de Freitas, A.M.E.S. Figueira, and C.A.D. de Sousa, Diel and seasonal patterns of tropical forest CO2 exchange, Ecological Applications, 14 (4), S42-55, 2004.

    Hutyra, L.R., J.W. Munger, S.R. Saleska, E. Gottlieb, B.C. Daube, A.L. Dunn, D.F. Amaral, P.B.d. Camargo, and S.C. Wofsy, Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, G03008, 2007.

    Iwata, Hiroki, Yadvinder Malhi, and Celso von Randow. 2005.Gap-filling measurements of carbon dioxide storage in tropical rainforest canopy airspace. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 132: 305–314

    Kruijt, B., J.A. Elbers, C. von Randow, A.C. Arajo, P.J. Oliveira, A. Culf, A.O. Manzi, A.D. Nobre, P. Kabat, and E.J. Moors, The robustness of eddy correlation fluxes for Amazon rain forest conditions, Ecological Applications, 14 (sp4), 101-113, 2004.

    Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, M.C. Menton, H.R.d. Rocha, H.C. Freitas, A.M.S. Figueira, and C.A.D. Sousa, Biometric and micrometeorological measurements of tropical forest carbon balance, Ecological Applications, 14 (4), S114-S126, 2004.

    da Rocha, H.R., M.L. Goulden, S.D. Miller, M.C. Menton, L.D.V.O. Pinto, H.C. Freitas, and A.M.S. Figueira, Seasonality of water and heat fluxes over a tropical forest in eastern Amazonia, Ecological Applications, 14 (4), S22-S32, 2004.

    Sakai, R.K., D.R. Fitzjarrald, O.L.L. Moraes, R.M. Staebler, O.C. Acevedo, M.J. Czikowsky, R. Silva, E. Brait, and V. Miranda, Land-use change effects on local energy, water and carbon balances in an Amazonian agricultural field, Global Change Biology, 10(5), 895-907, 2003.

    Saleska, S.R., H.R. da Rocha, A.R. Huete, A.D. Nobre, P. Artaxo, and Y.E. Shimabukuro. 2013. LBA-ECO CD-32 Flux Tower Network Data Compilation, Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2006. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1174

    Saleska, S.R., S.D. Miller, D.M. Matross, M.L. Goulden, S.C. Wofsy, H.R. da Rocha, P.B. de Camargo, P. Crill, B.C. Daube, H.C. de Freitas, L. Hutyra, M. Keller, V. Kirchhoff, M. Menton, J.W. Munger, E.H. Pyle, A.H. Rice, and H. Silva, Carbon in Amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses, Science, 302, 1554-1557, 2003.

    Souza-Filho, J.D., A. Ribeiro, M. H. Costa, and J. C. Cohen, Control mechanisms of the seasonal variation of transpiration in a northeast Amazonia tropical rainforest (in Portuguese), Acta Amazonica, 35 (2), 223-229, 2005.

    von Randow, C., A.O. Manzi, B. Kruijt, P.J. de Oliveira, F.B. Zanchi, R.L. Silva, M.G. Hodnett, J.H.C. Gash, J.A. Elbers, M.J. Waterloo, F.L. Cardoso, and P. Kabat, Comparative measurements and seasonal variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and pasture in South West Amazonia, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 78 (1-3), 5-26, 2004.

    Related Publications

    • Christoffersen, B.J., Araujo, A., Baker, I.T., Costa, M.H., Goncalves, L ., Imbuzeiro, H., Kruijt, B., Manzi, A., Poulter, B., von Randow, C., Restrepo-Coupe, N., da Rocha, H.R., Saleska, S.R. An Amazon basin-wide intercomparison of ecosystem land surface models and flux observations: Results from the LBA-MIP. Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract B33B-0395. Presentation.
    • Poulter, B., Hattermann, F., Hawkins, E., Zaehles, Z., Sitch, S., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Heyder, U. & Cramer, W. 2010. Robust dynamics of Amazon dieback to climate change with perturbed ecosystem model parameters. Global Change Biology, vol. 16, pp. 2476-2495.
    • Mercado, L.M., Patino, S., Domingues, T.F., Fyllas, N.M., Baker, T.R., Weedon, G.P., Sitch, S., Phillips, O.L., Aragao, L.E.O.C., Malhi, Y., Dolman, A.J., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Saleska, S.R., Quesada, C.A., Almeida, S., Higuchi, N., Lloyd, J. 2011. Is the observed variability in stem wood production rates for Amazon forests related to modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 1-14.
    • Restrepo-Coupe, N., S.R. Saleska, H.R. da Rocha, and the Brasil flux network Team. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin - A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network. Geophysical Research Abstracts,Vol. 11, EGU2009-6565, AGU General Assembly 2009. Presentation.
    • da Rocha, H.R.; S. R. Saleska; N. Restrepo-Coupe; M. Goulden; S. D. Miller; O. Cabral; A. Manzi; S. C. Wofsy; L. Borma; E. Collichio; G. L. Vourlitis; J. D. Nogueira; A. Nobre; H. Freitas; C. vonRandow; R. G. Aguiar; F. Cardoso; B. Kruijt. CO2 and water fluxes across the brazillian Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. AGU Meeting of the Americas (B23B. Regional-Scale Budgets of Greenhouse Gases for Amazonia I), Foz do Iguassu, Aug 8-12, 2010. Invited Presentation.
    • Sakaguchi, K., Zeng, X., Christoffersen, B.J., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Saleska, S.R. & Brando, P.M. 2011. Natural and drought scenarios in an east central Amazon forest: Fidelity of the Community Land Model 3.5 with three biogeochemical models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, vol. 116, p. G01029.