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LBA-ECO CD-06 Carbon Cycling in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre, Brazil: 2005-2006
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Revision date: September 13, 2012

Summary:

This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2 evaded, dissolved oxygen isotopes (delta 18O-O2), and concentration of bacterial cells in river water.

Samples were collected from 10 white-water rivers, two clear-water streams (one each in Amazonas and Acre), and two black-water rivers in Amazonas from July to September 2005, which coincided with a severe drought in the western and southern regions of the Amazon Basin (Zeng et al. 2008). Eight of these sites were resampled during August through September 2006 of the following year (no drought).

There is one comma-delimited data file with this data set.


Figure 1. Map of study sites within the Amazon River Basin. Major tributaries are in grey. The circled sites are located in the state of Acre, whereas the others are in the state of Amazonas (Ellis et al., 2012).

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Ellis, E.E, J.E. Richey, A.K. Aufdenkampe, A.V. Krusche, P.D. Quay, C. Salimon and H. Brandao da Cunha. 2012. LBA-ECO CD06 Carbon Sources and Respiration Rates in Rivers in Amazonas and Acre: 2005-2006. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1125

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in September of 2012. Users who download the data between September 2012 and August 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA website [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Carbon Dynamics

Team ID: CD-06 (Richey / Victoria)

The investigators were Richey, Jeffrey E.; Victoria, Reynaldo Luiz; Souza, Reginaldo; Aalto, Rolf Erhart; Abdo, Mara Silvia Aguiar; Alin, Simone Rebecca; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Ballester, Maria Victoria Ramos; Barbosa, Roosevelt Passos; Bernardes, Marcelo Correa; Bezerra de Barros Lima, Roberta ; Bolson, Marcos Alexandre; Bolson, Marcos Alexandre; Bonelle, Nilton; Brito, David Silva; Cabianchi, Giovana; Cogo, Michelle Cristine; da Silva, Luis Vilmar Souza; Dalmagro, Higo Jose; de Oliveira, Carolina Barisson Marques; Deus, Fabiano Alves de ; Devol, Allan H.; do Nascimento, Clive Reis; Ellis, Erin Elizabeth; Ferro, Jaderson Coradi; Filho, Walter Jorge do Nascimento; Frickmann, Fernando Cruz ; Gamero Guandique, Manuel Enrique; Gomes, Beatriz M.; Gomes, Viviane; Gouveia Neto, Sergio Candido; Hanada, Lais de Carvalho; Holtgrieve, Gordon William; Kelly Batalha Silva, Roberta ; Krusche, Alex ; Kurzatkowski, Dariusz ; Lacerda, Francisco A. Siebra; Leite, Nei  Logsdon, Miles Grant; Macedo, Gelson de; Marcondes, Renata; Marilheuza, Campos Paro; McGeoch, Lauren; Melo, Emanuele Gurgel de Freitas; Mendes, Francisco de Assis; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Munhoz, Kelli; Neu, Vania; Ometto, Jean Pierre; Pimentel, Tania Pena; Priante Filho, Nicolau  Rabelo, Claudenir Silva; Rasera, Maria de Fatima Fernandes Lamy; Remington, Sonya Marie; Rodda, Sarah; Ruiz Mateus, Neuza Maria; Salimon, Cleber; Santiago, Alailson Venceslau; Santos, Arnoldo Marcilio dos; Silva, Cleoni Virginio da; Silva, Jonismar; Silva, Simao Correa da; Sousa, Eliete; Souzapetro, Petronio Lopes de; Toledo, Andre Marcondes Andrade; Tumang, Cristiane Azevedo; Umetsu, Cristiane Akemi  Victoria, Daniel de Castro and Xavier, Farley de Oliveira.  You may contact Ellis, Erin Elizabeth (ellise@u.washington.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: CD06_Carbon_respiration

This data set provides measured and calculated variables describing the carbon pools in river waters, CO2 respired from the water and total amount of CO2 evaded, dissolved oxygen isotopes (delta 18O-O2), and concentration of bacterial cells in river water.

Samples were collected from 10 white-water rivers, two clear-water streams (one each in Amazonas and Acre), and two black-water rivers in Amazonas from July to September 2005, which coincided with a severe drought in the western and southern regions of the Amazon Basin (Zeng et al. 2008). Eight of these sites were resampled during August through September 2006 of the following year (no drought).

2. Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in one ASCII comma separated file:

CD06_River_respiration_survey.csv

Column Heading Unit/format Description
1 Site Name   Name of the river of stream sampled
2 Sampling Year YYYY Year in which samples were collected
3 Date YYYYMMDD Date on which samples were collected
4 Latitude decimal degrees Geographic coordinates for the sampling site reported in degrees latitude
5 Longitude decimal degrees Geographic coordinates for the sampling site reported in degrees longitude
6 Area_watershed km2 Area of the watershed for the river sampled reported in square kilometers
7 Hydrograph_stage   Hydrograph stage indicating if the river level was falling, at a minimum, rising or at a maximum
8 Water_type   Water type: clear, black or white
9 Depth m Sampling depth reported in meters
10 DO umol/L Dissolved oxygen concentration reported in micromoles of oxygen per liter of water (umol/L)
11 pCO2 Pa Partial pressure of CO2 gas in water reported in pascals
12 DIC umol/L Dissolved inorganic carbon concentration reported in micromoles of C per liter of water (umol/L)
13 delta_13C _DIC per mil delta 13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon component reported in per mil relative to the PDB standard
14 ph   ph of the river water
15 Temp degrees C Temperature of the river water at the time of sampling reported in degrees Celcius
16 Respiration umol CO2/m2/s Depth integrated respiration rate. Flux of CO2 reported in micromoles of CO2 per square meter per second (umol CO2/m2/s)
17 SE_Respiration umol CO2/m2/s Standard error of the calculated respiration flux (N=3) reported in micromoles of CO2 per square meter per second (umol CO2/m2/s)
18 Evasion_CO2 umol CO2/m2/s Evasion flux of CO2 reported in micromoles of CO2 per square meter per second (umol CO2/m2/s)
19 SE_Evasion umol CO2/m2/s Standard error of the calculated evasion flux of CO2. Error was propagated using Monte Carlo boot strapping procedures. Reported in micromoles of CO2 per square meter per second (umol CO2/m2/s)
20 Resp/Evas percent Percent of CO2 evasion flux attributed to respiration calculated as respiration/ evasion *100. Reported in percent
21 SE_R/E percent Standard error of the calculated fraction of evasion represented by respiration
22 WC_Respir_Rate umol O2/L/h Water-column respiration rate reported in micromoles of oxygen per liter per hour (umol O2/L/h)
23 O2_Sat   The concentration of oxygen measured in the river water relative to the concentration that would be expected if the water-column was 100% saturated with oxygen at that temperature. Data are reported as proportions with values ranging from 0 to 1, to convert the value to percent multiply the current value by 100
24 delta_18O_DO per mil delta 18O of the dissolved oxygen in the river water reported in per mil relative to the SMOW (standard mean ocean water) standard
25 TSS mg/L Concentration of total (CSS + FSS) suspended sediment reported in milligrams per liter (mg/L)
26 CSS mg/L Concentration of coarse suspended sediment (63 micrograms) reported in milligrams per liter (mg/L)
27 FSS mg/L Concentration of fine suspended sediment (between 0.7 micrograms and 63 micrograms) reported in milligrams per liter (mg/L)
28 TOC mg C/L Concentration of total organic carbon reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
29 CPOC mg C/L Concentration of coarse particulate organic carbon reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
30 FPOC mg CL Concentration of fine particulate organic carbon reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
31 DOC mg C/L Concentration of dissolved organic carbon reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
32 DOC_high_MW mg C/L Concentration of high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon defined as greater than 100 kDa in size and reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
33 DOC_med_MW mg C/L Concentration of medium molecular weight dissolved organic carbon defined as less than 100 kDa but greater than 5 kDa in size and reported in milligrams C per liter (mg C/L)
34 DOC_low_MW mg C/L Concentration of low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon defined as less than 5 kDa in size and reported in milligrams per liter (mg/L)
35 C:N_CPOC per mil The atomic carbon to nitrogen ratio of the coarse particulate organic carbon reported in milliliters
36 C:N_FPOC per mil The atomic carbon to nitrogen ratio of the fine particulate organic carbon reported in milliliters
37 delta_13C_CPOC per mil delta 13C of the dissolved coarse particulate organic carbon component reported in per mil relative to the PDB standard.
38 delta_13C_FPOC per mil delta 13C of the dissolved fine particulate organic carbon component reported in per mil relative to the PDB standard
39 delta_13C_DOC per mil delta 13C of the dissolved organic carbon component reported in per mil relative to the PDB standard
40 delta_13C_CO2resp per mil delta 13C of the carbon dioxide resulting from respiration reported in per mil relative to the PDB standard
41 Conc_bacteria cells/ml Concentration of bacterial cells reported in number of cells per milliliter of water (cells/ml)
 
missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records

Site Name,SamplingYear,Date,Latitude,Longitude,Area_watershed,Hydrograph_stage,Water_type,Depth,DO,
pCO2,DIC,delta_13C _DIC,ph,Temp,Respiration,SE_Respiration,Evasion_CO2, SE_Evasion,Resp/Evas,SE_R/E,
WC_Respir_Rate,DO_Sat,delta_18O_DO,TSS,CSS,FSS,TOC,CPOC,FPOC,DOC,DOC_high_MW,DOC_med_MW,
DOC_low_MW, C:N_CPOC,C:N_FPOC,delta_13C_CPOC,delta_13C_FPOC,delta_13C_DOC,delta_13C_CO2resp,Conc_bacteria

Campina,2006,20060817,-2.589,-60.033,10,falling,black,0.3,102.6,
1308,344.7,-26.6,4,25.1,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,
-9999,-9999,-9999,4,3.1,0.9,32.8,1.3,0.18,31.3,3.6,21.1,
6.6,29.6,23.6,-29,-29.2,-9999,-9999,-9999
Barro_Branco,2005,20050716,-2.93,-59.974,10,falling,clear,0.4,186.9,
970,327.4,-22.4,4.6,25.6,0.014,0.007,12.41,-9999,0.11,0.05,
0.13,0.76,25.7,0.5,0.5,-9999,3.4,0.17,0.08,3.2,-9999,-9999,
2.2,23.8,10.7,-29.9,-28.2,-9999,-9999,-9999
Barro_Branco,2006,20060829,-2.93,-59.974,10,falling,clear,0.4,196.1,
731,279.9,-24.3,4.7,25.8,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,
0.03,0.83,25.2,0.3,0.1,0.2,2.4,0.03,0.07,2.2,0.1,1.3,
0.9,23.5,16,-29.7,-27,-29.8,-9999,164355
...
Negro,2005,20050802,-3.062,-60.285,716770,falling,black,34,101.3,
659,208.5,-25.2,5.1,29.2,1,0.4,12.7,0.8,8,3,
0.11,0.55,27,0.4,0,0.4,9.6,0,0.56,9,2.9,3,
3.1,11.6,11.7,-31.5,-29.6,-9999,-9999,-9999
Negro,2006,20060811,-3.062,-60.285,716770,falling,black,34,93.7,
491,222.8,-25.6,4.8,29.1,0.8,0.4,4.3,0.5,20,10,
0.08,0.51,27.3,6.6,1.4,5.1,7.6,0.06,0.35,7.2,1.3,4.1,
1.9,18.9,11.1,-29.8,-28.9,-29.7,-30.1,2137375
...
Catuaba,2005,20050830,-10.073,-67.614,10,Low,clear,0.5,207.7,
201,121,-16.9,6.2,23.5,0,0.008,2.87,-9999,1,0,
0.17,0.88,24.7,4.2,0.2,4,2.1,0.01,0.5,1.6,0.8,0.2,
0.5,18,11.4,-30,-28.6,-9999,-9999,-9999
Catuaba,2006,20060925,-10.073,-67.614,10,Low,clear,0.5,217.9,
163,108.5,-20.2,5.1,24,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,
0.36,0.86,25.3,9.3,0.3,9,2.6,0.03,1.05,1.5,0.8,0,
0.7,20.7,9.9,-29.5,-29.1,-28.7,-28.3,2208262
Humaita,2005,20050826,-9.751,-67.672,10,Low,white,0.3,156.5,
281,104.9,-17.1,5.6,27.9,0.1,0.03,1.13,-9999,6,2,
0.76,0.62,27,4.6,0.6,4,4.2,0.05,0.48,3.7,1.1,-9999,
-9999,18.4,8.5,-29.7,-27.4,-9999,-9999,-9999

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

 
Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Amazon Basin (Amazon Basin) -72.7 -58.746 -2.589 -10.073 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The purpose of this work was to understand the factors that control the range of water-column respiration rates observed in rivers and streams across the Amazon Basin. Accordingly, the investigators sampled rivers with a range of water chemistry types and respiration rates to determine how in situ concentrations of various parameters affected respiration rates. They then performed a series of statistical analyses, including partial correlation, step-wise backward multiple linear regression, and standard linear regression. To be considered a candidate for the multiple linear regression, input variables were excluded if they were highly correlated with each other (i.e. had a value of r that exceeded 0.7), or if there was more than one missing datum per variable.

Much of the details on the derivitization of the data is reported in the methods section below and users are encouraged to view Ellis et al., (2012),  for full details. Many parameters were processed minimally post field collection.

4. Quality Assessment:

We list the precision below for the following variables analyzed in this study:

All measures of organic carbon concentration

All measures of suspended sediment concentration

Bacterial concentration:

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study area:

Samples were collected during 2005 and 2006 in the Brazilian states of Acre and Amazonas, which are located in southwestern and central Amazonia. Locations were chosen to represent a range of water types and conditions found in these regions. Due to the predominance of white-water Rivers in both Amazonas and Acre and the logistical challenges of reaching a variety of river types in this large region, investigators sampled 10 white-water rivers of varying sizes. They also sampled two clear-water streams (one each in Amazonas and Acre), and two black-water rivers in Amazonas. Watershed areas ranged from less than 10 km2 to 2,910,510 km2, which were calculated as in Mayorga et al. (2005). Not all sites were in the same stage of the hydrograph at the time of sampling. All rivers in Acre were in the low water stage, whereas rivers draining Amazonas were in the falling-water stage. Investigators collected samples from 14 sites from July to September 2005, which coincided with a severe drought in the western and southern regions of the Amazon Basin (Zeng et al. 2008). Eight of these sites were resampled during August through September 2006 of the following year (no drought).

Sample collection:

Analysis methods:

Carbon isotopic analyses and C:N ratios

Stable isotopes (13:12C) of carbon were measured in both the inorganic and organic size fractions to aid in partitioning among end-member sources. Results are given in delta notation with units of per mil, and were normalized relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite.

Calculation of  CO2 gas evasion flux

Most of the gas evasion rates were also published in Alin et al. (2010) and were determined using a floating chamber equipped with a fan. However, not all sites were analyzed by Alin et al. (2010). Thus, for these sites, the gas evasion flux (in µmol/(m2*s)) was determined by using the difference between the pCO2 measurements of the atmosphere and the water (as described in detail in Ellis et al. (2012)) using the following equation:

F= kCO2 * gamma* (PCO2_atm- PCO2_s)

where:

kCO2 was determined as a function of wind speed (Alin et al. 2010). A value of k600, the gas transfer velocity for freshwater at 20°C, was selected for each wind speed based on the relationship between k600 and u10 values presented in Alin et al. (2010).

Monte Carlo error-propagation techniques were used to determine the error of our calculated gas evasion flux.

In situ respiration rates

Respiration rates were calculated at all sites by measuring the consumption of oxygen over a 24-h period.

Calculation of the depth-integrated respiration rate

The depth-integrated respiration rate for a given site was calculated from the respiration rate (i.e. measurements of oxygen consumption (in umols L-1 h-1). This rate was converted to CO2 production by using a respiratory coefficient of 1. It was then multiplied by the depth of the river to yield a depth-integrated respiration rate in terms of umols CO2 m-2 s-1. The error was determined using Monte Carlo error propagation techniques.

Bacterial abundance measurements

Bacterial abundance measurements were made by epifluorescence microscopy using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI) optical filters in 2006.

Measurements of delta 18O-O2 and delta 18O-H2O

Stable isotopes of oxygen dissolved in water delta 18O-O2) were measured to assess the origin of O2 (Holtgrieve et al. 2010).

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Alin, S.R., M.F.F.L. Rasera, C.I. Salimon, J.E. Richey, G.W. Holtgrieve, A.V. Krusche and A. Snidvongs. 2010. Physical controls on carbon dioxide transfer velocity and flux in low-gradient river systems and implications for regional carbon budgets. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. 116: GO1009, doi:10.1029/2010JG001398

A.K., J.I. Hedges, J.E. Richey, A.V. Krusche and C.A. Llerena. 2001. Sorptive fractionation of dissolved organic nitrogen and amino acids onto fine sediments within the Amazon Basin. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46: 1921-1935, doi:10.4319/lo.2001.46.8.1921

Barth, J.A., C.A. Tait, and M. Bolshaw. 2004. Automated analyses of 18O/16O ratios in dissolved oxygen from 12-mL water samples. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 2: 35-41, doi:10.4319/lom.2004.2.35

Burdige, D.J., and K.G. Gardner. 1998. Molecular weight distribution of dissolved organic carbon in marine sediment pore waters. Mar. Chem. 62: 45-64, doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(98)00035-8

Clark., and P. Fritz. 1997. Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology. Lewis.

Cole, J.J., N.F. Caraco, G.W. Kling, and T.K. Kratz. 1994. Carbon dioxide super saturation in the surface waters of lakes. Science 265: 1568-1570, doi:10.1126/science.265.5178.1568

Goericke, R., and B. Fry. 1994. Variations of marine plankton d13C with latitude, temperature, and dissolved CO2 in the world ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 8: 85-90, doi:10.1029/93GB03272

Holtgrieve, G.W., D.E. Schindler, T.A. Branch and Z. Teresa Amar. 2010. Simultaneous quantification of aquatic ecosystem metabolism and re-aeration using a Bayesian statistical model of oxygen dynamics. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53:1047-1063, doi:10.4319/lo.2010.55.3.1047

Mayorga, E. 2004. Isotopic constraints on sources and cycling of riverine dissolved inorganic carbon in the Amazon Basin. Ph.D. thesis. Univ. of Washington

Mayorga, E., M.G. Logsdon, M.V. Ballester and J.E. Richey. 2005. Estimating cell-to-cell land surface drainage paths from digital channel networks, with an application to the Amazon basin. J. Hydrol. 315: 167-182, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.03.023

Quay, P.D., D.O. Wilbur, J.E.Richey, J.I. Hedges, A.H. Devol and R. Victoria. 1992. Carbon cycling in the Amazon River: Implications from the 13C compositions of particles and solutes. Limnol.Oceanogr. 37: 857-871, doi:10.4319/lo.1992.37.4.0857

Schmidt, J.L., J.W. Deming, P.A. Jumars and R.G. Keil. 1998. Constancy of bacterial abundance in surficial marine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43: 976-982, doi:10.4319/lo.1998.43.5.0976

Sioli, H. 1984. The Amazon: Limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its basin. Kluwer Academic

Wetzel, R.G., AND G.E. Likens. 1991. Limnological analyses, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag.

Wilde F.D. and D.B. Radtke. 2003. National field manual for the collection of water-quality data, U.S. Geological Survey.

Zeng, N., J.-H. Yoon, J.A. Marengo, A. Subramaniam, C.A. Nobre, A. Mariotti and J.D. Neelin. 2008. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought. Environ. Res. Lett. 3:014002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/1/014002

Zhang, J., P.D. Quay and D.O. Wilbur. 1995. Carbon isotope fractionation during gas-water exchange and dissolution of CO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59: 107-114, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)91550-D

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