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LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001
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Revision date: September 11, 2012

Summary:

This data set contains meteorological data collected during CIRSAN (Circulation in Santarem), an atmospheric intensive field campaign conducted around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem, Brazil, in July and August 2001. The objective of CIRSAN was to study the local circulation in the region around the confluence of the two major rivers. Boundary layer and upper air measurements were collected with an acoustic sounder – sodar instrument, pilot balloons with optical theodolites, and radiosondes. Radiosondes also measured pressure, temperature, and relative humidity in addition to wind speed and direction. Measurements were made from five local stations at varying frequencies. There are 41 comma-delimited data files with this data set.

Supporting information provided with the data set as companion files include:

Weather forecasts: Weather forecasts were used to determine the presence of favorable conditions for the balloon flights during the CIRSAN experiment, as well as to help decide the radiosonde launch frequency. The daily observed and forecast weather descriptions for the study period (Weather_forecasts_Santarem.txt) are included.

Satellite images: All the satellite images during the CIRSAN period are provided. This is a compilation of images from various instruments and satellite platforms. (See readme_sat.txt). There are 42 images in .gif format.

CPTEC Analysis files: The CIRSAN measurement data were used in the CPTEC Global Analysis modeling activity. Model output results for the Pacific and South American region are provided in GRIB format. (See readme_GPSA.txt)

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Dias, M.A., P.L.S. Dias, M. Longo, D.R. Fitzjarrald, and A.S. Denning. 2012. LBA-ECO CD-01 Meteorological Data, Tapajos and Amazon Rivers, Santarem, Brazil: 2001. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov ] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1114

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in September of 2012. Users who download the data between September 2012 and August 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA website [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-CIRSAN (Local Circulations in Santarem) Experiment

LBA Science Component: Physical Climate

Team ID: CD-01 (Denning / Dias)

The investigators were Denning, Allan Scott; Dias, Pedro Leite da Silva; Anhuf, Dieter Volkhard; Dias, Maria Assuncao Faus da Silva; Gevaerd, Rodrigo; Inazawa, Elicia Eri; Longo, Marcos; Lu, Lixin; Rist, Jason; Uliasz, Connie and Uliasz, Marek . You may contact Dias, Maria Assuncao Faus da Silva (mafdsdia@model.iag.usp.br).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: CD01_CIRSAN_Meteorology_2001

This data set contains meteorological data collected around the confluence of the Tapajos River with the Amazon River in the Amazon Basin near Santarem, Brazil, in July and August 2001. Boundary layer and upper air measurements were collected with an acoustic sounder – sodar instrument, pilot balloons with optical theodolites, and radiosondes. Radiosondes also measured pressure, temperature, and relative humidity in addition to wind speed and direction. Measurements were made from five local stations at varying frequencies.

2. Data Characteristics:

Measurements from pilot balloons, radiosonde and sonic radar were collected in July and August of 2001 from multiple locations and at varying frequencies. There are 39 comma-delimited ASCII data files.

Radiosonde Data (2 files):

File #1: CIRSAN_radiosonde_Belterra_July_2001.csv

File #2: CIRSAN_radiosonde_Belterra_August_2001.csv

Radiosonde Data File Contents and Organization:

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1 DateYYYYMMDDSample date (YYYYMMDD)
2YearyyyyYear sampled. All samples were collected in 2001
3MonthmmMonth sampled. All samples included in this file were collected in July
4DayddDay sampled (day of the month)
5T_lunchGMT, Time balloon was launched given in GMT. Local time is GMT-5
6Asc_ratem/sBalloon ascention rate reported in meters per second (m/s)
7Ht_geospmGeopotential height in meters (m) at time measurements were recorded
8Air_presshPaAir pressure recorded in hPa
9Air_Tdegrees CAir temperature reported in degrees Celsius
10U_rel%Relative humidity reported in percent
11T_dewpointdegrees CDewpoint temperature reported in degrees Celsius
12Wind_dirdegreesWind direction
13Windspeedm/sWind magnitude in meters per second
14T_potdegrees KPotential temperature
15R_mixg/kgWater vapor mixing ratio
Missing data are represented by -9999.9

Example data records for the Radiosonde data files:

Date,Year,Month,Day,T_launch,Asc_rate,Ht_geosp,Air_press,Air_T,U_rel,T_dewpoint,
Wind_dir,Windspeed,T_pot,R_mix
20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.1,191,989.3,27.9,89,26,
0,0,302,21.8
20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.1,207,987.6,25.7,87,23.4,
141,2.7,300,18.5
20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.2,223,985.8,25.8,87,23.5,141,2.7,300.2,18.8 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.2,239,984,25.9,86,23.4,
130,3.7,300.5,18.6
20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.3,256,982.1,26,86,23.5,130,3.7,300.7,18.9 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.3,274,980.1,26,86,23.5,
120,4.7,300.9,18.8
20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.6,294,977.9,25.9,86,23.4,120,4.7,301,18.9 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,3.6,315,975.6,25.8,86,23.3,
110,5.6,301.1,18.6 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,4,336,973.2,25.6,86,23.1,110,5.6,301.1,18.6 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,4,358,970.9,25.4,86,22.9,101,6.5,301.1,18.3 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,4.3,380,968.4,25.3,86,22.8,101,6.5,301.3,18.4 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,4.3,403,965.9,25.1,86,22.6,94,7.4,301.3,18 20010718,2001,7,18,22:40,4.4,425,963.4,25,86,22.5,94,7.4,301.4,18.1

Pilot Balloon Data (3 files):

File #3: CIRSAN_pilot_balloon_Belterra_August_2001.csv

File #4: CIRSAN_pilot_balloon_Boim_July_2001.csv

File #5: CIRSAN_pilot_balloon_Pindobal_July_2001.csv

Pilot Balloon Data File Contents and Organization:

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1 DateYYYYMMDDSample date (YYYYMMDD)
2YearyyyyYear sampled. All samples were collected in 2001
3MonthmmMonth sampled. All samples included in this file were collected in August
4DayddDay sampled (day of the month)
5HourGMTTime at start of the sampling period in 24 hour clock. Time reported is GMT time
6TimesElapsed time since the start of measurements
7Dist_EWmBalloon distance in meters (m) on WEST-EAST axis from launching point (negative values indicate west) at sampling point
8Dist_NSmBalloon distance in meters(m) on SOUTH-NORTH axis from launching point ( negative values indicate south) at sampling point
9HeightmBalloon height in meters above ground level ( m) at sampling point
10U_windspeedm per sZonal wind speed in meters per second
11V_windspeedm per sMeridional wind speed In meter per second
12Mag_windspeedm per sWind magnitude in meters per second
13Direct_winddegreesWind direction in degrees with north represented by 0 and south by 180

Example data records for the Pilot Balloon data files:

Date,Year,Month,Day,Hour,Time,Dist_EW,Dist_NS,Height,U_windspeed,V_windspeed,
Mag_windspeed,Direct_wind
20010803,2001,8,3,14,0,-17.4,17.2,1.1,0,0,
0,0
20010803,2001,8,3,14,20,-88.2,-9.6,51.1,-4.2,-1.3,
4.4,72.9
20010803,2001,8,3,14,40,-185,-34.5,101.1,-4.7,-1.2,
4.9,76
20010803,2001,8,3,14,60,-277,-56.5,151.1,-4.6,-1,
4.7,77.9
20010803,2001,8,3,14,80,-370.5,-74.3,201.1,-4.4,-0.7
4.5,80.3
20010803,2001,8,3,14,100,-452.9,-86.4,251.1,-3.6,-0.4,
3.6,83.7
20010803,2001,8,3,14,120,-514.5,-90.2,301.1,-2.8,-0.1,
2.8,87.9
20010803,2001,8,3,14,140,-564,-90.5,351.1,-2.2,0,
2.2,89.6
20010803,2001,8,3,14,160,-603.1,-90.9,401.1,-2,-0.1,
2,86.4
20010803,2001,8,3,14,180,-645.2,-95.6,451.1,-2.3,-0.3,
2.3,82.7
20010803,2001,8,3,14,200,-693.9,-102.4,501.1,-2.9,-0.5,
2.9,81
20010803,2001,8,3,14,220,-760, -113.7,551.1,-3.5,-0.5,
3.6,81.2
20010803,2001,8,3,14,240,-834.6,-124.1,601.1,-4,-0.4,
4,84.1
20010803,2001,8,3,14,260,-918.8,-130.1,651.1,-4.2,-0.2,
4.3,87.2
20010803,2001,8,3,14,280,-1004.4,-132.4,701.1,-4.4,0.1,
4.4,91.8
20010803,2001,8,3,14,300,-1093.9,-124.6,751.1,-4.5,0.4,
4.5,94.9
20010803,2001,8,3,15,0,-17.5,17.1,0.9,0,0
,0,0

Sonic radar (sodar) data

The 36 data files are named as follows:

YYYYMMDD_Santarem_sodar.csv. Each file contains data for one day, and includes days 20010713 - 20010816.

YYYY = year
MM = month
DD = day

Example file name: 20010713_santarem_sodar.csv

File format for 36 sonic radar data files:

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1YearYYYYYear in which measurements were collected (YYYY)
2MonthMMonth in which measurements were collected (M)
3DayDDDay on which measurements were collected (DD)
4Hour Hour at which measurement series started on a 24 hour clock. Time reported is GMT and local time is GMT -4
5Minute  Minute at which measurement series started on a 24 hour clock. Time reported is GMT and local time is GMT -4
6Inv_layerm Inversion layer depth
7AltmHeight above ground level
8C_tempsquared Temperature structure function
9Velm per sWind magnitude
10DirdegreesWind direction
11Sd_dirdegreesWind direction standard deviation
12Vert_velm per sVertical velocity
13Sd_vert_velm per sVertical velocity standard deviation
14Sd_Zonal_velm per sZonal wind standard deviation
15Sd_meridional_velm per sMeridional wind standard deviation
16Stability_index  “See Automatic Stability Classification Routine description in Section 5 of the guide documentation”
Missing data are represented by -9999.9

Example data records for the sonic radar data files:

Year,Month,Day,Hour,Minute,Inv_layer,Alt,C_tempsquared,Vel,Dir,Sd_dir,Vert_vel,Sd_vert_vel,Sd_Zonal_vel,Sd_meridional_vel,Stability_index
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1200,210,17.17,73,9,-1.55,1.26,3.19,2.28,3
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1160,206,17.51,74,11,-1.44,1.18,2.78,2,3
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1120,204,17.5,78,14,-1.33,1.08,2.24,1.83,3
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1080,202,15.63,83,18,-1.24,0.99,1.79,1.77,4
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1040,198,12.11,91,21,-1.2,0.93,1.59,1.76,4
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,1000,192,7.93,104,22,-1.21,0.91,1.67,1.82,4
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,960,186,5,130,23,-1.26,0.93,1.91,1.88,5
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,920,180,4.11,157,23,-1.31,0.92,2.13,1.87,5
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,880,174,3.92,160,24,-1.34,0.89,2.26,1.85,5
2001,7,23,0,0,1060,840,168,3.89,150,25,-1.37,0.88,2.35,1.91,5

Companion Files:

Santarem Weather Forecasts File:

Weather_forecasts_Santarem.txt

An ASCII text file with all the daily observed and forecast weather descriptions for the study period combined into one file.

Satellite Images

This is a compilation of images from various instruments and satellite platforms (See readme_sat.txt).

LBA-CIRSAN satellite imagery, Santarem, Brazil for 2001, includes all the satellite images stored in MASTER Laboratory (www.master.iag.usp.br) during the CIRSAN investigation.

Start Date: 2001-06-01

End Date: 2001-08-16

Temporal Resolution: 30 minutes (some 3 hours)

Please contact  (http://www.master.iag.usp.br/lba/) for appropriate citation before using these satellite images in publication.

CPTEC Analysis: LBA-CIRSAN CPTEC/GPSA Atmospheric Analysis Data in Grib Format: 2001

The CIRSAN measurement data were used in the CPTEC Global Analysis modeling activity. Model output results for the Pacific and South American region are provided in GRIB format. (See readme_GPSA.txt)

File naming conventions are as follows:

Stratospheric analyses: GPSASTSYYYYMMDDHHYYYYMMDDHHP.grb

Tropospheric analyses: GPSATRSYYYYMMDDHHYYYYMMDDHHP.grb

ST indicates stratospheric analyses.

TR indicates tropospheric analyses.

YYYYMMDDHH represents the date and time period included in the analysis for each file.

Data are in the Grib format. For the stratospheric analyses each time period has a grb file and an associated ctl file.

For the tropospheric analyses each time period is represented by three files (grb, ctl and gmp).

CTL files allow the grib data to be accessed by GrADS. = Start Date: 2001-06-01 End Date: 2001-08-16.

Temporal Resolution: 6-hour.

 If you have any questions, please contact: saplba@master.iag.usp.br

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Para Western (Santarem)  - Belterra (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.94400 -54.94400 -2.64300 -2.64300 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - Boim (Para Western (Santarem)) -55.17 -55.17 -2.78 -2.78 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - Pindobal (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.97 -54.97 -2.78 -2.78 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - Airport (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.72 -54.72 -2.43 -2.43 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

CIRSAN (Circulation in Santarem) was an atmospheric intensive field campaign conducted near Santarem, Brazil, close to the Tapajos and the Amazon Rivers in the Amazon Basin. The objective was to study the local circulation in the region around the confluence of two major rivers.

4. Quality Assessment:

Radiosonde data
The data goes through three steps of quality control whereby it is screened for large errors when compared to climatology, for continuity errors in the vertical structure, superadiabatic layers and temporal continuity at each level. Flagged data are subject to further investigation and either maintained or removed according to the presence of phenomena such as cloudiness or rainfall (Dias et al., 2004).

Pilot balloon data
The vertical continuity of zonal and meridional components were examined and when it was determined that errors had ocured, the corresponding azimuth and elevation angles were removed and positions were calculated with the remaining points. Zonal and meridional components were interpolated to a regular 50m resolution vertical coordinate above the local surface.

Sodar data
Data was processed by the manufacturer’s software (REMTECH,Inc).

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site Description

CIRSAN (Circulation in Santarem) was an atmospheric intensive field campaign conducted near Santarem, Brazil, close to the Tapajos and the Amazon Rivers in the Amazon Basin. The objective was to study the local circulation in the region around the confluence of two major rivers.

Eastward of the Tapajos River, in a narrow strip of forest about (20 km wide), instrumented towers measure fluxes of heat, moisture and trace gases as well as pressure temperature, humidity, windspeed and radiation profiles below and above the forest canopy. There are a network of automatic weather stations in deforested areas to the east of the forest, as well as a flux tower.

Measurements from pilot balloons, radiosonde and sonic radar were collected in July and August of 2001 from Belterra, Santarem airport, Pindobal, and Boim, and at varying frequencies. The radiosonde station at Belterra is located at 176m above sea level on a plateau which is approximately 100m above the level of the River Tapajos and about 7 km to the east of the river margin. The pibal station of Pindobal was located at the river margin while the Boim station was 100m from the margin and about 5m above the river level.

Radiosonde Data from Belterra, Santarem 2001:
Soundings were normally launched each 6 hours (00, 06, 12, 18 UTC), or each 3 hours whenever favorable conditions to development of Tapajos river breeze or squall line approaching were observed. The data were processed using a FORTRAN program.

Pibal balloon data from Santarem 2001:
Pilot balloons (pibals) were released and tracked on both sides of the Tapajos, in the small villages of Pindobal and Boim (Dias et al., 2004). These data were collected during the CIRSAN experiment, in July and August 2001. Pibal soundings were performed each hour during the morning and afternoon.

Automatic Stability Classification Routine:

This is a real time direct determination of stable/neutral/unstable categories as a function of height and time. Pattern recognition algorithms use echo profiles, wind, wind shear (pseudo Bulk Richardson approach) and needs sigma w, sigma theta and automatic inversion detection routines. The Richardson Bulk approach is defined to identify the mentioned stability classes. In the case of PA2 Remtech sodar, we believe that potential temperature information can be obtained from the temperature structure function, CT^2, also available in the data provided.


Table 1. Summary of CIRSAN data collection activities.

Site Instrument
Vertical resolution
Depth reached
Data period Temporal frequency Variables measured
BelterraVaisala RS-80 radiosonde
approx. 10 hPa
approx. 20 km
25 July to 15 August 6 hours, and occasionally 3 hours Pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction
Santarem Airport Remtech Acoustic Sounder–Sodar
50 m
1500 m
15 July to 15 August 30 minutes Height, wind speed and direction, vertical velocity, Standard deviation of the 3 wind components, CT (turbulence intensity),height of thermal inversion
PindobalPibal with optical theodolite
100 m
variable, usually up to 4000 m
20 to 31 July Hourly from 07:00 to 18:00 LT Height, elevation and azimuth angle, converted into position, using constant rate of ascent of 250 m
Boim Pibal with optical theodolite
100 m
variable, usually up to 4000 m
24 to 31 July Hourly from 07:00 to 18:00 LT Height, elevation and azimuth angle, converted into position, using constant rate of ascent of 250 m
BelterraPibal with optical theodolite
100 m
variable, usually up to 4000 m
3 to 15 August Hourly from 07:00 to 18:00 LT Height, elevation and azimuth angle, converted into position, using constant rate of ascent of 250 m

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Dias, M.A.F.S., P.L.S. Dias, M. Longo, D.R. Fitzjarrald, and A.S. Denning. (2004) River breeze circulation in eastern Amazonia: observations and modelling results. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 78(1-3):111-121.

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