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Regional and Global Data

Biogeochemical Dynamics Data

Regional and global biogeochemical dynamics data can be used to improve our understanding of the structure and function of various ecosystems; to enable prediction across spatial and temporal scales; and to parameterize and validate terrestrial ecosystem models. The ORNL DAAC compiles, archives, and distributes more than 150 products from the following projects:

Climate Collections

Climate collections include measured and modeled values for variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation, wind velocity, and cloud cover. Climate holdings include station measurement data as well as gridded mean values for the aforementioned variables.


Daymet is a collection of algorithms and computer software designed to interpolate and extrapolate from daily meteorological observations to produce gridded estimates of daily weather parameters. Weather parameters generated include daily surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, humidity, and radiation produced on a 1 km X 1 km gridded surface over the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada.

Hydroclimatology Collections

Hydroclimatology is an aspect of climatology that is exclusively concerned with the atmosphere. The hydroclimatology data collections project contains data that are suitable for the study of surface-water conditions, and are focused primarily on North America.


The International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) is part of the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) project and is responsible for process modeling, data retrieval algorithms, field experiment design and execution, and the development of global data sets.

Net Primary Production (NPP)

The Net Primary Production (NPP) data collection contains field measurements of biomass and estimated NPP for terrestrial sites worldwide. It includes data for 65 intensive study sites in boreal forests, croplands, grasslands, multi-biomes, temperate forest, tropical forest, and Alaskan tundra. This project was sponsored by the Terrestrial Ecology Program of NASA's Office of Earth Science, and ran 1997 through 2005.

River Discharge (RIVDIS)

The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) data set contains monthly discharge measurements for 1018 stations located throughout the world. The period of record varies widely from station to station, with a mean of 21.5 years from 1807 through 1991.

Russian Land Cover (RLC)

The Russian Land Cover (RLC) project provides 12 digital map data products containing landcover, forested area, forest carbon content, and administrative information for Russia and the former USSR from 1984 through 1993. These data were produced by scientists at the Woods Hole Research Center and originally distributed in 2001 on CD-ROM.

Soil Collections

Soil Collections contain data on the physical and chemical properties of soils including: soil carbon and nitrogen; soil water-holding capacity; soil respiration, and soil textures.


The Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom) was sponsored by a task force of the International Geosphere-Biosphere (IGBP) called Global Analysis, Integration, and Modeling (GAIM) to quantify and diagnose the uncertainty in inversion calculations of the global carbon budget that result from errors in simulated atmospheric transport. TransCom began in 1993, and to date consists of four phases: TransCom 01, TransCom 02, TransCom 03, and TransCom 04. The first three phases are complete, while TransCom 04 has just been initiated.

Vegetation Collections

Vegetation regulates the flow of numerous biogeochemical cycles, most critically those of water, carbon, and nitrogen; it is also of great importance in local and global energy balances. Vegetation collections data include: biomass; biome characteristics; litter chemistry and decomposition; geocology; root biomass, nutrient concentration, profiles, and turnover; global fire emissions, vegetation, and lai; ecosystem structure and function; phenoregions; and carbon flux.

Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling (VEMAP)

The Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) was a multi-institutional, international effort that addressed the response of biogeography and biogeochemistry to environmental variability in climate and other drivers in both space and time domains. The project began in 1996 and concluded in 2001.

Additional Regional and Global data resources

Additional Regional and Global data have been identified by the ORNL DAAC's User Working Group as important for the Global Change research community. These data reside at other data centers and are searchable through the Mercury Search System.