Please note that this version was superseded by Version 2 on 2012/03/01.|
Follow this link to the latest version:
Bond-Lamberty, B.P. and A.M. Thomson. 2012. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 2.0. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1170
Contact ORNL DAAC User Services (firstname.lastname@example.org) if you need additional assistance.
This data set provides a soil respiration
data database (SRDB), a
near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil
respiration, the flux of
autotrophically- and heterotrophically-generated CO2 from the soil to
the atmosphere remains the least well-constrained component
terrestrial C cycle. The
database encompasses all published studies that
report at least one of the following data measured in the field (not
laboratory): annual RS, mean seasonal RS, a seasonal or annual
partitioning of RS into its sources fluxes, RS temperature response
(Q10), or RS at 10 degrees C. Its orientation is thus to seasonal and
fluxes, not shorter-term or chamber-specific measurements and
is dominated by temperate, well-drained forest measurement
database includes a file of RS data and a linked file of study
bibliographic data. Both files are in comma-separated format.
Figure 1. Location of SRDB database observations (dots), by ecosystem type. From Bond-Lamberty and Thomson. 2010. A Google Earth data layer (kmz) is included with this data set as a companion file for easy geographic visualization of the included studies.
The compilers of the SRDB database (Bond-Lamberty and Thomson, 2010) make it available to the scientific community both as a traditional static archive (ORNL DAAC) and as a dynamic community database that will be updated over time by interested users.
The dynamic version of the database is hosted on Google Code: http://code.google.com/p/srdb/. This site uses version control software (Subversion, http://subversion.tigris.org/), so that researchers can use (check out) current as well as previous versions of the database. It also features online wiki documentation, a mailing list, and other aspects typical of any open source project. Both archives include the database itself, metadata, and usage notes. Initially the two repositories will hold identical copies, but we anticipate that the dynamic version will expand and change with time. Instructions for making a contribution are listed on the Google Code site. For this reason we recommend that citations to this database always include a version number and download date.
The ORNL DAAC will release Version 1.0 and update this version on an annual basis to incorporate changes and additions submitted by the RS community via the Google Code site and by Bond-Lamberty and Thomson. Transaction logs for the srdb-data and srdb-study files will be maintained.
|SRDB Version||ORNL DAAC Release Date||Studies Included||Records||Date Range|
Version 1.0: Data from 818 studies have been entered into the database, constituting 3,379 records. The data span the measurement years 1961-2007 and are dominated by temperate, well-drained forests.
Cite this data set as follows:
Bond-Lamberty, B.P. and A.M. Thomson. 2010. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 1.0. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/984
Project: Soil Collections
The investigators are Bond-Lamberty, B. and Thomson, A.M.
The SRDB was designed to capture and make available for analysis the large number of RS studies published over the last four decades. It will also be one of the first such databases in the earth sciences to leverage open-source software technologies, resulting in a dynamic, shared, and more powerful data resource for interested users. The science community will determine how, and if, it changes in the future, and the uses to which these data will be put. A Google Earth data layer (kmz)is included with the database for easy geographic visualization of the included studies.
Related Data Set:
Raich, J. W., and W. H. Schlesinger. 2001. Global Annual Soil Respiration Data (Raich and Schlesinger 1992). Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/622
The main data file "srdb-data_v1.csv" is a comma-separated file of all the soil respiration data; column names appear in the first row.
Bibliographic information for the studies that appear in the main data file can be found in the "srdb-studies_v1.csv" file; column names are in the first row and values are comma-separated.
Data file index: The assigned four-digit study number is common to both files and indexes the srdb-studies to srdb-data.
Missing values: In both files, if a value (numeric or text) is missing for a study, that field is left blank.
User notes: Fields marked with an asterisk may have values that were subjectively determined. Some additional notes are included in a table below.
File Description: srdb-data_v1.csv
|Column Number||Column Name||Column Description and Units|
|1||Record_number||Record number, permanent record identifier|
|2||Entry_date||Entry date, yyyy/mm/dd|
|3||Study_number||Study number; index into srdb_studies.csv|
|4||Author||Name of first author, last name only|
|5||Duplicate_study_record||This record is a duplicate of study-record (Study_number-Record_number)|
V0 default, no qualification (blank cell)
V01 estimated from figure
V02 data from another study
V03 data estimated--other
V04 potentially useful future data
V10 potential problem with data
V11 suspected problem with data
V12 known problem with data
|7||Contributor||Data contributor to database|
|9||Region||State or province|
|10||Site_name||Name of study site|
|11||Study_midyear||Year study was performed (middle year if multiple years)|
|12||Years_of_data||Years of data reported by study; always equal to or greater than 1|
|13||Latitude||Latitude, decimal; positive=north, negative=south|
|14||Longitude||Longitude, decimal; positive=east, negative=west|
|16||Manipulation||Manipulation performed (CO2, fertilization, etc.)|
|17||Manipulation_level||Level of manipulation performed|
|18||Age_ecosystem||Age since ecosystem established, years|
|19||Age_disturbance||Age since disturbance, years|
|20||Species||Dominant species (sp1;sp2;sp3)|
|21||Biome||Biome (boreal, temperate, etc)*|
|22||Ecosystem_type||Ecosystem type (grassland, forest, etc.)*|
|23||Ecosystem_state||Ecosystem state (managed, unmanaged, natural)*|
|24||Leaf_habit||Leaf habit (deciduous, evergreen)|
|25||Stage||Stage (aggrading, mature)*|
|27||Soil_drainage||Soil drainage (dry, wet)*|
|28||Soil_BD||Soil bulk density, g/cm3|
|29||Soil_CN||Soil C:N ratio|
|30||Soil_sandsiltclay||Soil sand:silt:clay ratio|
|31||MAT||Reported mean annual temperature, C|
|32||MAP||Reported mean annual precipitation, mm|
|33||PET||Reported potential annual evapotranspiration, mm|
|34||Study_temp||Annual mean temperature in year study was performed, C|
|35||Study_precip||Annual precipitation in year study was performed, mm|
|36||Chamber_method||Chamber method used (static, closed, open)|
|37||CO2_method||CO2 measurement method (IRGA, Soda lime, etc.)|
|38||Partition_method||Method used to partition Rs source fluxes*|
|39||Rs_annual||Annual C flux from soil respiration, gC/m2|
|40||Rs_spatial_err||Plot-to-plot error reported for Rs_annual, gC/m2|
|41||Rs_interann_err||Interannual error reported for Rs_annual, gC/m2|
|42||Rs_max||Maximum Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|43||Rs_maxday||Day of maximum Rs flux|
|44||Rs_min||Minimum Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|45||Rs_minday||Day of minimum Rs flux|
|46||Rlitter_annual||Annual Rs flux from litter, gC/m2|
|47||Ra_annual||Annual Rs flux from autotrophic sources, gC/m2|
|48||Rh_annual||Annual Rs flux from heterotrophic sources, gC/m2|
|49||RC_annual||Root contribution to Rs_annual, fraction|
|50||Rs_spring||Mean spring Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|51||Rs_summer||Mean summer Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|52||Rs_autumn||Mean autumn Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|53||Rs_winter||Mean winter Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|54||Rs_growing||Mean growing Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|55||Rs_wet||Mean wet season Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|56||Rs_dry||Mean dry season Rs flux, umol/m2/s|
|57||RC_seasonal||Root contribution to season Rs, fraction|
|58||RC_season||Season of RC_seasonal|
|59||Model_type||Type of temperature-response model used|
|60||Temp_effect||Temperature effect on Rs (none, positive, negative)|
|61||Model_output_units||Model output units (e.g., umol/m2/s)|
|62||Model_temp_range||Temperature range model fitted over|
|65||T_depth||Depth at which soil temperature recorded, cm|
|66||Model_paramA||Model parameter A|
|67||Model_paramB||Model parameter B|
|68||Model_paramC||Model parameter C|
|69||Model_paramD||Model parameter D|
|70||Model_paramE||Model parameter E|
|71||WC_effect||Water effect on Rs (none, positive, negative)|
|72||R10||Rs at 10 C, umol/m2/s|
|73||Q10_0_10||Q10 temperature response, 0-10 C|
|74||Q10_5_15||Q10 temperature response, 5-15 C|
|75||Q10_10_20||Q10 temperature response, 10-20 C|
|76||Q10_0_20||Q10 temperature response, 0-20 C|
|77||Q10_other1||Q10 temperature response, other temp range|
|78||Q10_other1_range||Temperature range of Q10_other1, C|
|79||Q10_other2||Q10 temperature response, other temp range|
|80||Q10_other2_range||Temperature range of Q10_other2, C|
|81||GPP||Annual gross primary production at site, gC/m2|
|82||ER||Annual ecosystem respiration at site, gC/m2|
|83||NEP||Annual net ecosystem production at site, gC/m2|
|84||NPP||Annual net primary production at site, gC/m2|
|85||ANPP||Annual aboveground NPP at site, gC/m2|
|86||BNPP||Annual belowground NPP at site, gC/m2|
|87||NPP_FR||Annual fine root NPP at site, gC/m2|
|88||TBCA||Total belowground carbon allocation at site, gC/m2|
|89||Litter_flux||Annual aboveground litter flux, gC/m2|
|90||Rootlitter_flux||Annual belowground litter flux, gC/m2|
|91||TotDet_flux||Annual total litter flux, gC/m2|
|92||Ndep||Annual nitrogen deposition, gN/m2|
|93||CH4_flux||Annual methane flux, gC/m2|
|94||N2O_flux||Annual nitrous oxide flux, gN/m2|
|95||LAI||Leaf area index at site, m2/m2|
|96||BA||Basal area at site, m2/ha|
|97||C_veg_total||Total carbon in vegetation, gC/m2|
|98||C_AG||Total carbon in aboveground vegetation, gC/m2|
|99||C_BG||Total carbon in belowground vegetation, gC/m2|
|100||C_CR||Total carbon in coarse roots, gC/m2|
|101||C_FR||Total carbon in fine roots, gC/m2|
|102||C_litter||Total carbon in standing litter, gC/m2|
|103||C_soilmineral||Total carbon in soil organic matter, gC/m2|
|104||C_soildepth||Depth to which soil C recorded, cm|
* Data Provider Note: Fields marked with an asterisk have values that are highly subjective.
Example Data Records:
Picea mariana; Pinus banksiana; Populus tremuloides,Boreal,Forest,Natural,Evergreen,Aggrading,Gray luvisol (Boralf),Medium,,,,0.8,450,,,,Closed,IRGA,Exclusion,255,,,,,,,,-7,262,-0.03,,,,,1.3,,,-0.05,Growing,"Arrhenius, R=a*exp(-b/c(T-d)),
T in K",Positive,umol/m2/s,"3,22",80,0.82,2,17.45,93.96,1,251,,,0.94,3.74,2.54,2,2.74,1.5,"5,15",1.3,"15,25",,,-136,111,
106,5,5,,0,5,5,,,,0,0,150,80,120,70,50,,41800,70,LAI from Bond-Lamberty (2002); C from Wang (2003) and Gower (1997),
Picea mariana; Pinus banksiana; Populus tremuloides,Boreal,Forest,Natural,Deciduous,Aggrading,Gray luvisol (Boralf),Dry,,,,0.8,450,,,,Closed,IRGA,Exclusion,85,,,,,,,,9,76,0.11,,,,,0.6,,,0.25,Growing,"Arrhenius, R=a*exp(-b/c(T-d)),
T in K",Positive,umol/m2/s,"3,22",53,0.75,2,9.79,71.72,1,251,,,1.05,2.74,2.04,1.7,2.16,1.5,"5,15",1.3,"15,25",,,-134,188.5,
183.5,5,20.3,,2,20.3,22.3,,,,0.1,0.5,130,90,70,40,30,,41800,70,LAI from Bond-Lamberty (2002); C from Wang (2003) and Gower (1997),
|1||Study_number||Study number; used as a lookup from srdb-data|
|4||Source||Study source (usually journal name)|
|13||DE||Data entry: entered into srdb-data (Y, N)?|
|14||DLD||Downloaded: study acquired (Y/N)?|
|15||DOI||Digital object identifier|
|16||nonEnglish||Is study in a non-English language (Y/N)?|
|17||Rank||Rank (1=highly relevant, 4=not relevant)|
|18||Search_date||Date search performed|
|19||Search_term||Web of Science search term used|
Example Data Records:
14,"Maldague, M.E.; Hilger, F.",Observations fauntistique et microbiologiques dans quelques biotopes forestiers equatoriaux,"Soil organisms (ed: Doeksen, van der Drift)",,,368,374,1963,,,,Valya,Y,Y,,N,2,9/26/2008,R&S1992,,,
17,Monteith,Crop photosynthesis and the flux of carbon dioxide below the canopy,Journal of Applied Ecology,1,,321,337,1964,,,,,Y,Y,,N,1,9/26/2008,R&S1992; B-L2004,,,
4675,"Martins FR, Matthes LAF
","Respiracao edafica e nutrientes na Amazonia (Regiao de Manaus): floresta arenicola, campinarana e campina", Acta Amazonica,8,,233,244,1978,,,,,Y,Y,,Y,,,,,,
Expanded descriptions and usage notes for a number of fields in the soil respiration data file "srdb-data_v1.csv"
Ecosystem_state: This and a number of the other 'subjective' fields (marked with an asterisk) are highly subjective.
Age_ecosystem: This is used when, e.g., the time of conversion of forest to agriculture is known. In contrast, age_disturbance records time of last disturbance in general.
Partition_method: See Bond-Lamberty et al. (2004) in Global Change Biology for an explanation of the categories used here.
Rs_spatial_err: Note that spatial scale is typically that of the plot (tens of meters) but can vary by several orders of magnitude.
Rs_interann_err: This is defined simply as the standard deviation between year i and year i+1, so n=2 always, and this field will be blank in at least one observation for each study.
T_depth: Depth at which soil temperature recorded given in cm; a value of -200 (i.e., 2 m above ground is used for air temperature).
Litter_flux: This is reported very inconsistently--leaf only, leaf and fine woody material, all material, etc. Generally this should not include large woody material.
TotDet_flux: This should be the sum of Litter_flux and Rootlitter_flux.
C_veg_total: This should be the sum of C_AG and C_BG. For this and all "C_" fields, biomass has been converted to carbon using a ratio of 0.5.
Last updated: 2010/04/23
Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in degrees and fractions)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude||Geodetic Datum|
|Global (point) ()||-159.62||175.5||78||-78.02||Unknown|
This is a database compiled from published studies about soil surface CO2 flux (soil respiration) measured in the field and intended to serve as a resource for scientific analysis.
The primary RS units used were gC/m2/yr (for annual fluxes) and μmol/m2/s (for mean seasonal fluxes); values were converted as necessary from those given by study authors. A variety of ancillary data were also entered when reported, including site-related and experimental data, information on ecosystem structure and function, methods used, etc.; we assumed a 12:44 ratio of C to CO2 molecular weights, and that biomass was 50% C (unless specified otherwise in the study).
Data were crosschecked against a number of other RS data collections and meta-analyses (Hibbard et al., 2005; Chen and Tian, 2005; Burton et al., 2008; Sotta et al., 2004). Quality flags were assigned based on information provided in a given study and best judgment.
Investigators collected all available studies in the peer-reviewed scientific literature reporting RS measured in the field; lab incubation studies were not included. The ISI Web of Science™ constituted the primary source of published studies; search terms used included “soil respiration,” “soil CO2 evolution,” etc., and were conducted through the 2008 publication year. We used each study’s title and abstract to decide whether to acquire it; ~40% of the almost 4700 studies were acquired and examined.
Short term experiments (i.e., RS measurements made over less than 1-2 weeks) were not entered unless the study authors extrapolated their results to seasonal or annual values; the database is in general not designed to accommodate instantaneous or short-term measurements. In general we did not do additional research to find older publications that might not be listed in the Web of Science. To qualify for inclusion, a study had to report at least one of the following data:
If at least one of these data was reported, or could be calculated with few or no assumptions, e.g., easily estimated from points in a figure, the study was entered into the database. For example, sometimes a study will show monthly soil respiration in a figure but not compute an annual flux, and so estimates were made from the figure. This was noted in a Quality flag.
When it was necessary to calculate or estimate annual flux for one of the studies, these calculations and notes were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet which may be opened in MSExcel, OpenOffice, etc. File names start with the assigned four-digit study number that indexes the srdb-studies and srdb-data files. For example, "0020 Witkamp Ecology 1966.xlsx" and "4634 Webster JGR 2008.xlsx". These spreadsheets are provided as a companion file and have been compiled and compressed into a single file, srdb_dataset.zip.
This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Bond-Lamberty, B. and A.M. Thomson. 2010. A global database of soil respiration measurements, Biogeosciences (submitted).
Burton, A. J., Melillo, J. M., and Frey, S. D. 2008.: Adjustment of forest ecosystem root respiration as temperature warms, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50, 1467-1483, doi:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00750.x.
Chen, H., and Tian, H.-Q. 2005. Does a general temperature-dependent Q(10) model of soil respiration exist at biome and global scale?, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 47, 1288-1302.
Hibbard, K. A., Law, B. E., and Sulzman, J. 2005. An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystems, Biogeochemistry, 73, 29-70, doi:10.1007/s10533-004-2946-0.
Sotta, E. D., Meir, P., Malhi, Y., Nobre, A. D., Hodnett, M., and Grace, J. 2004. Soil CO2 efflux in a tropical forest in the central Amazon, Global Change Biol., 10, 601-617, doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00761.x.