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NPP Grassland: Vindhyan, India, 1986-1989, R1
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Revision date: May 11, 2015

Summary:

This data set contains four data files in text format (.txt). Three files provide above- and below-ground productivity data for three derived savannas on the Vindhyan plateau in northern India from 1986 to 1989, one file for each of three treatments. Each study site (Ranitali, Hathinala, Telburva) contains three treatment areas: ungrazed; grazed annually for 30-40 years; and grazed but temporarily fenced for 2-6 years prior to the study. The fourth file provides climate data from a weather station at Daltonganj, India, for the period 1893-1990.

Monthly dynamics of above- and below-ground biomass were measured by harvest methods in each treatment area at each site for two annual cycles (1986/1987 and 1987/1988). Additional above-ground peak biomass data (live shoot + dead shoot) for October 1988 from ungrazed and grazed plots represent the 1988/1989 annual cycle.

Annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) was estimated using trough-peak analysis of increments in live biomass, standing dead matter, and litter. Annual below-ground production (BNPP) was estimated from biomass increments combined with root in-growth studies. Mean ANPP for the ungrazed treatment areas on the three sites ranged from 377 to 664 g/m2/yr over the 1986 to 1989 period. Mean BNPP in the same areas was estimated at 510 and 727 g/m2/yr for 1986/1987 and 1987/1988, respectively. Mean total ungrazed NPP (ANPP + BNPP) was estimated at 1,082 and 1,391 g/m2/yr for 1986/1987 and 1987/1988, respectively.

Revision Notes: The NPP data for the temporarily fenced grassland sites for the 1987/1988 annual cycle have been revised to correct previously reported BNPP estimates. Please see the Data Set Revisions section of this document for detailed information.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Pandey, C.B., and J.S. Singh. 2015. NPP Grassland: Vindhyan, India, 1986-1989, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/197

This data set was originally published as:

Pandey, C.B., and J.S. Singh. 2012. NPP Grassland: Vindhyan, India, 1986-1989, R[evision]1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/197

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

NPP was determined for three derived savanna study sites (Ranitali, Hathinala, Telburva) on the Vindhyan plateau about 100-km south from the city of Varanasi (Benares) in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. The three study sites (24.2-24.4 N 82.9-83.1 E) are situated 6-24 km apart at an elevation of between 315 and 485 m. Each study site contains three treatment areas: ungrazed; grazed annually for 30-40 years (at the time of the study); and grazed but temporarily fenced (2-6 years prior to the study). Monthly dynamics of above- and below-ground plant biomass were measured in each treatment area at each site for two annual cycles (1986/1987 and 1987/1988). Additional above-ground sampling was done at the grazed and ungrazed sites for peak canopy biomass (live shoot + dead shoot) in October 1988. These data represent the 1988/1989 annual cycle.

Annual ANPP was estimated using trough-peak analysis of increments in live biomass, standing dead matter, and litter (which avoids over-estimation of increments and hence NPP). Annual BNPP was estimated from biomass increments combined with root in-growth studies.

The climate of the region is tropical monsoonal, with a rainy season from June to September, a cool dry season (November-February) and a hot dry season (April-May). Short-term climate data for the Ranitali and Hathinala sites were derived from the Renukoot weather station (annual 1981-1988 precipitation 1,145 mm), and for the Telburva site from the Obra weather station (annual 1981-1988 precipitation 926 mm). An alternative long-term climate data set is provided in this data set from the weather station at Daltonganj, India, for the period 1893-1990.

The savanna grasslands, which cover about 23% of the region, have been derived from tropical dry forest over the past 30-40 years, due to increasing anthropogenic pressure and a change in land use to heavy uncontrolled grazing.

2. Data Description:

Spatial Coverage

Site: Vindhyan, India

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Elevation (m)
Vindhyan, India 82.90 83.10 24.40 24.20 315-485

The study involved three treatments at each study site: ungrazed; grazed annually for 30-40 years (at the time of the study); and grazed but temporarily fenced (2-6 years prior to the study).

Climate data are provided in this data set from a nearby weather station at Daltonganj, India (24.05 N 84.07 E) for the period 1893-1990.

Spatial Resolution

The study areas were 1-3 hectares. Above-ground harvest plots were 1-m2. Below-ground soil monoliths were 15-cm x 15-cm x 10-cm deep. Once every four months, soil monoliths were sampled to a depth of 50 cm.

Temporal Coverage

ANPP data are available for each treatment area at each site for two annual cycles (1986/1987 and 1987/1988). Additional above-ground peak canopy biomass data were obtained in October 1988 from the grazed and ungrazed sites. These data represent ANPP for the 1988/1989 annual cycle. There are no ANPP data for the temporarily fenced areas for 1988/1989.

BNPP data are available for ungrazed and grazed treatments at Ranitali and Hathinala sites for the 1986/1987 and 1987/1988 annual cycles, but not for 1988/1989. There are no BNPP data for the temporarily fenced areas for 1986/1987 or for any of the sites for the 1988/1989 annual cycle.

Climate data are available from 1893/05/01 through 1990/11/30.

Temporal Resolution

Above- and below-ground biomass measurements were made monthly. An additional below-ground sample was taken quarterly. Only annual data are provided in this data set. All NPP estimates are based on plant dry matter accumulation, expressed as g/m2/yr. Climate data are expressed as monthly and annual precipitation amounts (mm) and monthly and annual average maximum/minimum temperature (degrees C). Monthly and annual climatic means are provided for the 1893-1990 period.

Data File Information

Table 1. Data file descriptions

FILE NAME TEMPORAL COVERAGE FILE CONTENTS
vnd1_npp.txt Annual cycles 1986/87 - 1988/89 NPP data for three ungrazed grasslands at Vindhyan, India
vnd2_npp.txt Annual cycles 1986/87 - 1988/89 NPP data for three grazed grasslands at Vindhyan, India
vnd3_npp.txt Annual cycles 1986/87 - 1988/89 NPP data for three temporarily fenced grasslands at Vindhyan, India
vnd_cli.txt1893/05/01 - 1990/11/30 Monthly and annual climate data from weather station at Daltonganj (dlt) near Vindhyan, India

NPP Data. NPP estimates for the Vindhyan sites are provided in three files, one for each treatment. The data sets are ASCII files (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semicolons. NPP estimates are provided for three annual cycles for the grazed and ungrazed treatments and for two annual cycles for the temporarily fenced treatment. Mean values for the three sites combined are provided for each annual cycle and treatment, where available. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values. All NPP units are in g/m2/yr (dry matter weight).

Table 2. Column headings in NPP files

COLUMN HEADING DEFINITION UNITS
Site Site where data were gathered (code refers to site identification) text
Sub-site Sub-site where data were gathered (name of sub-site). Also MEAN (for 3 sites combined for each annual cycle).
Treatmt Long term management of site (code refers to treatment described in metadata in data file)
Year Year in which data were collected Numeric
ANPP Above-ground net primary production (estimated from trough-peak analysis of increments in live biomass, standing dead matter, and litter)1 g/m2/yr
BNPP Below-ground net primary production (estimated from biomass increments combined with root in-growth studies)

Source: Pandey and Singh (1992).

Sample NPP Data Record: vnd1_npp.txt

Site;Sub-site;Treatmnt;year;ANPP; BNPP

vnd;Ranitali ;lngtrm ;1986/87; 590.0; 528.0
vnd;Ranitali ;lngtrm ;1987/88; 703.0; 823.0
vnd;Ranitali ;lngtrm ;1988/89; 437.0;-999.9
...

Sample NPP Data Record: vnd2_npp.txt

Site;Sub-site;Treatmnt;year;ANPP; BNPP

vnd;Ranitali ;grazed ;1986/87; 99.0; 323.0
vnd;Ranitali ;grazed ;1987/88; 79.0; 285.0
vnd;Ranitali ;grazed ;1988/89; 49.0;-999.9
...

Sample NPP Data Record: vnd3_npp.txt

Site;Sub-site;Treatmnt;year;ANPP; BNPP

vnd;Ranitali ;tmpfence;1986/87; 614.0;-999.9
vnd;Ranitali ;tmpfence;1987/88; 732.0;477.0
vnd;Hathinala;tmpfence;1986/87; 819.0;-999.9
...

Climate Data. The climate data set is an ASCII file (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semicolons. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values.

Sample Climate Data Record

Site;Temp;Parm; Jan; Feb; Mar; Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep; Oct; Nov; Dec; Year

dlt ;mean;prec; 2.5; 2.7; 1.9; 0.9; 1.4; 15.3; 33.7; 33.4; 19.6; 5.3; 1.1; 0.5; 116.9
dlt ;mean;tmax; 24.4; 26.9; 32.1; 37.6; 41.1; 38.0; 32.5; 31.7; 31.8; 30.6; 27.1; 24.4; 41.2
dlt ;mean;tmin; 8.8; 11.4; 16.5; 22.1; 26.1; 27.4; 25.8; 25.0; 24.6; 20.6; 13.8; 8.8; 8.3
dlt ;numb;prec; 86; 88; 84; 81; 87; 89; 93; 87; 87; 81; 82; 83; 68
dlt ;numb;tmax; 84; 87; 85; 81; 86; 88; 92; 86; 85; 83; 85; 81; 67
dlt ;numb;tmin; 84; 87; 85; 81; 86; 88; 92; 86; 85; 83; 85; 81; 67
dlt ;stdv;prec; 3.1; 2.8; 2.2; 1.3; 1.8; 11.5; 15.2; 13.3; 10.4; 5.3; 2.3; 1.2; 27.9
dlt ;stdv;tmax; 1.2; 1.1; 1.2; 1.2; 1.2; 1.6; 0.8; 0.6; 0.5; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0; 1.1
dlt ;stdv;tmin; 1.2; 1.1; 1.2; 1.2; 1.2; 1.6; 0.8; 0.6; 0.5; 0.8; 0.9; 1.0; 1.0
dlt ;1893;prec; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 0.8; 27.0; 33.6; 21.4; 34.7; 7.5; 0.6; 0.0; -999.9
dlt ;1893;tmax; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 39.7; 35.9; 31.6; 31.7; 31.2; 30.2; 27.8; 24.1; -999.9
dlt ;1893;tmin; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 24.7; 25.3; 25.0; 25.1; 24.0; 20.2; 14.4; 8.5; -999.9
dlt ;1894;prec; 0.3; 0.2; -999.9; -999.9; 0.0; 20.5; 40.3; 53.8; 13.4; 12.4; 1.2; 0.0; -999.9
dlt ;1894;tmax; 25.6; 29.0; 31.5; 37.5; 42.8; 37.2; 31.4; 30.9; 31.9; 31.1; 26.8; 24.9; 42.8
dlt ;1894;tmin; 10.0; 13.4; 15.9; 21.9; 27.8; 26.6; 24.8; 24.3; 24.7; 21.1; 13.4; 9.3; 9.3
...
Where,
Temp (temporal) - specific year or long-term statistic:
  mean = mean based on all years
  numb = number of years
  stdv = standard deviation based on all years
Parm (parameter):
  prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
  tmax = mean maximum temperature for month or year (C)
  tmin = mean minimum temperature for month or year (C)

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The accumulation of biomass, or NPP, is the net gain of carbon by photosynthesis that remains after plant respiration. While there are many fates for this carbon, this data set accounts for above-ground NPP estimated from trough-peak analysis of increments in live biomass, standing dead matter and litter and below-ground NPP estimated from biomass increments combined with root in-growth studies.

The results of this study suggest that mid rainy season droughts could have serious adverse effects on the primary productivity of the savannas in this region, and that any perturbation in precipitation pattern due to global change could affect savanna productivity. The affects of grazing intensity on above- and below-ground productivity can also be derived from the results of this study.

The grassland biomass dynamics data for three Vindhyan grassland sub-sites are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.

 

4. Quality Assessment:

The results of this study were compared to other productivity studies in low rainfall areas as well as to studies involving varying levels of grazing intensity (Pandey and Singh, 1992).

Sources of Error

There are several ways of estimating NPP from a time series of biomass. The more complicated methods take into consideration the different functional and specific components of biomass. Most commonly NPP is equated with increments in biomass, and errors leading to underestimation result from such things as missing peaks in biomass and the simultaneous nature of increments and losses. However, the random errors associated with field estimates of NPP can result in a positive bias and thus an overestimation of NPP (Singh et al., 1984, Sala et al., 1988). The overestimation increases with increases in biomass variance, frequency of sampling, and number of taxonomic (species) and tissue (live, dead, etc.) components sampled (Biondini et al., 1991). In the present study, maximum (83-94%) mean annual live shoot biomass was contributed by three dominant perennial grasses that had synchronized life cycles. In addition, size of the harvest plots (1.0-m2) and of the monoliths (225-cm2) were sufficiently large to reduce the variance of biomass estimates.

 

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site Information

The three study sites (Ranitali, Hathinala, Telburva) are situated 6-24 km apart on the Vindhyan plateau at an elevation of between 315 and 485 m in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. The study sites are derived dry tropical savannas (modified Bailey ecoregion savanna, #413). They were tropical dry deciduous forests before then. The herbaceous vegetation is dominated by Heteropogon contortus, Chrysopogon fulvus, and Bothriochloa pertusa, and is under heavy use through free range grazing. Soil type is sandy loam, reddish/dark gray residual ultisol.

Methods

The study involved three treatments at each study site: ungrazed; grazed annually for 30-40 years (at the time of the study); and grazed but temporarily fenced (2-6 years prior to the study).

Each study site contained three treatment areas: ungrazed; grazed annually for 30-40 years (at the time of the study); and grazed but temporarily fenced (2-6 years prior to the study).

Above-ground biomass was measured by using five 1.0 x 1.0-m random harvest plots in each treatment on each site. The harvested material was separated into live and dead components. Litter was collected by hand from harvested plots. Below-ground biomass was sampled simultaneously by taking one monolith (15-cm x 15-cm x 10-cm deep) from each harvested plot. Regular sampling at 30 day intervals was done for two annual cycles (1986-87 and 1987-88) in each treatment area. Monoliths were sampled to a depth of 50-cm once in each season (i.e., at 4-mo intervals). Additional l-yr sampling was done for peak canopy biomass (live shoot + dead shoot) in the permanently protected and grazed treatments in October 1988. All samples were oven-dried at 80 degrees C to constant mass and weighed. Ash content in below-ground samples was determined by combusting the oven-dried samples in a muffle furnace, and ash-free dry masses were calculated.

ANPP was determined by trough - peak analysis of biomass time series by summing monthly increments of live shoot biomass + dead shoot biomass + litter biomass for the 1986-87 and 1987-88 sampling years. In the third year of the study, only peak canopy biomass was measured. Effect of grazing on above-ground net primary production and efficiency of water use (represented by the ratio of net primary production to rainfall) were also calculated; data are provided in Pandey and Singh, 1992).

BNPP was calculated as the sum of increments in the below-ground biomass on successive sampling dates combined with root in-growth studies.

Climate data were collected at weather stations near each site for the period 1981-1988. However, the climate data provided in this data set come from a nearby weather station at Daltonganj, India (24.05 N 84.07 E) which has a longer for period of record (1893-1990).

 

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Olson, R.J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Pandey, C.B., and J S. Singh. 1992. Rainfall and grazing effects on net primary production in a tropical savanna, India. Ecology 73, 2007-2021.

Additional Sources of Information:

Biondini, M.E., W.K. Lauenroth, and O.E. Sala. 1991. Correcting estimates of net primary production: are we overestimating plant production in rangelands? Journal of Range Management 44: 194-198.

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615

Sala, O. E., M. E. Biondini, and W. K. Lauenroth. 1988. Bias in estimates of primary production: an analytical solution. Ecological Modelling 44:43-55.

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2002. Terrestrial net primary productivity - A brief history and a new worldwide database. Environ. Rev. 10(2): 91-109. doi:10.1139/a02-002

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2013. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653

Scurlock, J.M.O., K. Johnson, and R.J. Olson. 2002. Estimating net primary productivity from grassland biomass dynamics measurements. Global Change Biology 8(8): 736-753. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00512.x

Singh, J.S., W.K. Lauenroth, H.W. Hunt, and D M. Swift. 1984. Bias and random errors in estimators of net root production: a simulation approach. Ecology 65: 1760-1764.

8. Data Set Revisions:

Revision Summary:

Below-ground NPP (BNPP) values for the temporarily fenced treatment at Ranitali, Hathinala, and Telburva study sites and mean BNPP for all three sites for the 1987/1988 annual cycle in the data file, vnd3_npp.txt, have been replaced with those reported in Table 3 on Page 2,013 of Pandey and Singh (1992). The BNPP values previously reported in vnd3_npp.txt were values for total NPP (ANPP + BNPP).

All other NPP values in the data file are not affected.

Data File Changes:

BNPP values have been corrected by replacing them with values in the source described above. The data values in vnd3_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter in Data Set * (g/m2/yr) Study Site Date Uncorrected in vnd3_npp.txt Corrected in vnd3_npp_r1.txt
BNPP Ranitali 1987/1988 1,209 477
Hathinala 1987/1988 1,528 652
Telburva 1987/1988 1,347 553
Mean BNPP Aaverage for all three sites 1987/1988 1,361 561

*See data set guide document for parameter definitions.

Data User Action: If you downloaded the referenced data set from the ORNL DAAC on-line archive before 05-15-2015, you should download it again from the ORNL DAAC.

Revision History:

Original Citation:

Pandey, C.B., and J.S. Singh. 1997. NPP Grassland: Vindhyan, India, 1986-1989. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/197