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NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990, R1
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Revision date: October 15, 2013

Summary:

This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil studied between 1963 and 1990, and one file contains monthly and annual climate data for the period 1910-1993.

The Manaus NPP study sites occur along a hydrologic gradient and include several stands of terra firme (dry land) forest located in and adjacent to the Walter Egler Forest Reserve, a riverine forest in the Ducke Forest Reserve (intermittent wet and in small terra firme valleys), and a varzea forest subject to seasonal inundation adjacent to Rio Tiruma Mirim (a small tributary of the Rio Negro). Additional sites include a primary terra firme forest on a plateau in the Bacia Modelo Reserve and a mixed-species lowland terra firme forest at Highway 174 south of Fazendo Dimona.

The net primary productivity (NPP) measurements for the Manaus sites are based on total annual litterfall, giving a minimum estimate of above-ground NPP ranging from 640 to 800 g/m2/year. These estimates are within the recorded values for litterfall in other tropical rainforests. The seasonality of leaf litterfall for several of the sites is also provided. Total above- and below-ground biomass and vegetation bioelement concentrations were also determined for one of the terra firme sites ("km64") from destructive sampling. Above-ground biomass and LAI estimates for the Highway 17 FD site are provided as well.

Revision Notes: The NPP data files for km64 and Bacia Modelo sites have been revised to correct previously reported data and information, and to add new data from published sources. Please see the Data Set Revisions section of this document for detailed information.

Additional Documentation:

The Net Primary Productivity (NPP) data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored by the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visit the NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html.

Other Data Access Links:

Additional site ancillary data for study sites in the Manaus area are available on the FLUXNET project web site: http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/. Investigators collected data on site vegetation, soil, hydrologic, and meteorological characteristics at the flux tower sites.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Piedade, M.T.F., and W.J. Junk. 2013. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/579.

This data set was originally published as:

Piedade, M.T.F., and W.J. Junk. xxxx. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

The net primary productivity measurement presented here is based on total annual litterfall, giving a minimum estimate of above-ground NPP.

Biomass and components of productivity for several types of tropical forest were determined for a number of study sites around Manaus, Brazil, from 1963 to the present. The study sites include:

Most studies of NPP around Manaus were carried out by or under the auspices of the Brazilian National Institute of Amazon Research (INPA). Much of the research work on NPP has also involved the participation of the Max Planck Institute of Limnology, Germany. Detailed data on biomass and nutrient content of different forest components at "km 64" are available from studies carried out for the International Biological Programme in 1970 (together with data from 116 other forest sites; much of these data are also contained in the IBP Woodlands Data Set maintained by the ORNL DAAC).

The net primary productivity (NPP) measurements for the Manaus sites are based on total annual litterfall, giving a minimum estimate of above-ground NPP ranging from 640 to 800 g/m2/year. These estimates are within the recorded values for litterfall in other tropical rainforests.

ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values for the "km 64" site reported in DeAngelis et al. (1981), Olson et al. (2001b, c), and Clark et al. (2001a, b) differ from values presented herein due to different calculation methods (Table 1).

Table 1. ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values for the "km 64" site reported by various published data sources

File Name or Description Data Source(s) Site ANPP BNPP TNPP
  gC/m2/year
mns1_npp_r1.txt
Klinge & Rodrigues (1968)1
mns1 mns trfm_k64 ("km 64")
395 NA
NA
DeAngelis et al. (1981)
335 NA
NA
365 NA
NA
Franken et al. (1979)
390 NA
NA
400 NA
NA
woodland.txt
DeAngelis et al. (1981)2
#3 (Manaus, Brazil)
365 NA
NA
GPPDI_ClassA_NPP_162_R2.csv 
Olson et al. (2012a, b); Clark et al. (2001a)3 based on Klinge (1973, 1976); Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a, b)
Class A 26 (MI 28) ("km 64")
640 448
1,088
EMDI_ClassA_NPP_81_R2.csv
Class A 26 ("km 64")
Table 1 in Clark et al. (2001a)
Clark et al. (2001a)3 based on Klinge (1973, 1976); Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a, b)
Brazil: Egler Reserve ("km 64")
640 130-770 (av 450)
770-1,410 (av 1,090)
Appendix A in Clark et al. (2001a)  
Appendix A in Clark et al. (2001a)
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Murphy (1975); Raich et al. (1991); McGuire et al. (1992)4
Brazil: Egler Reserve ("km 64")
NA NA
840-1,110 (av 1023)
tropfornpp.csv
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Klinge (1973, 1976, 1978); Klinge & Rodrigues (1968); Klinge et al. (1975)5
Brazil - Walter Egler Reserve
365 NA
NA

Notes: NA = Not available. MI = Measurement ID number. The differences in NPP values reported in this table are mainly due to differences in calculation methods, as explained in these notes. Please consult original references for details. Revised data sets (R1, R2, etc) are accompanied by ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information files. Please see the corresponding documentation for reasons why the data values were revised. 1For this table, NPP data from the original data source were converted from grams of dry weight per meter square per year to grams of carbon per meter square per year using a conversion factor of 0.5. The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation, giving a minimum estimate of NPP. 2Based on field measurements of leaf, flower/fruit, and branch litterfall, converted from grams of dry weight per meter square per year to grams of carbon per meter square per year using a conversion factor of 0.5. 3Clark et al. (2001a) used a different approach to calculate net primary production values. ANPP was calculated by summing reported above-ground biomass increment + reported fine litterfall + estimated losses to consumers + estimated VOC emissions. BNPP was calculated by summing 0.2 x estimated ANPP for a low BNPP estimate + 1.2 x estimated ANPP for a high BNPP estimate. TNPP was calculated as the range between the low and high values of ANPP + BNPP. Average BNPP and TNPP estimates were also calculated. See Clark et al. (2001a) for a discussion of calculation methods, including how unmeasured components of ANPP were estimated and the basis for setting bounds on BNPP. 4In Raich et al. (1991) and McGuire et al. (1992), estimates are based on annual fine litterfall (Klinge and Rodrigues, 1968a, b; Franken et al., 1979), wood biomass (Klinge, 1976), wood mortality (Swaine et al., 1987) and 50% of the difference between annual soil respiration and annual litterfall (Raich and Nadelhoffer, 1989). 5Based on mean litterfall from 1963 and 1964; includes leaves, fruit and flowers, and wood.

 

2. Data Description:

Spatial Coverage

Site: Manaus, Brazil

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Elevation (m)
Manaus, Brazil  -60.12 -59.95 -2.5 -3.0
30-90

The Manaus studies were carried at several sites: (1) stands of terra firme (dry land) forest located in and adjacent to the Walter Egler Forest Reserve northeast of Manaus; (2) a riverine forest in the Ducke Forest Reserve 26 km north-northeast of Manaus on the Itacoatiara road; (3) a varzea forest subject to inundation adjacent to Rio Tiruma Mirim, a small tributary of the Rio Negro, about 20 km west of Manaus; (4) a primary terra firme forest on a plateau at Bacia Modelo 80 km north of Manaus; and (5) a mixed-species lowland terra firme rainforest at Highway 174 south of Fazendo Dimona approximately 50 km north of Manaus.

Table 2. Site boundaries and descriptions:

Sub-Sites Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Elevation (m) Description
"km64," "km26," and other nearby sub-sites, Manaus, Brazil -59.7 -59.7 -3.0 -3.0
90
Four primary upland terra firme evergreen tropical forests northeast of Manaus studied in 1963-64, 1970, and 1974-75
"Ducke," Manaus, Brazil -59.95 -59.95 -2.95 -2.95
80
A tropical riverine forest where litterfall was measured in 1976 and 1977
Rio Tiruma Mirim, Manaus, Brazil -60.0 -60.0 -3.0 -3.0
NA
A tropical inundation (varzea) forest where litterfall was measured in 1976 and 1977
Bacia Modelo, Manaus, Brazil -60.12 -60.12 -2.57 -2.57
NA
A lowland terra firme rainforest located on a plateau where litterfall was measured in 1979
"Highway 174 FD," Manaus, Brazil -60.08 -60.08 -2.50 -2.50
30
A mixed-species primary lowland terra firme rainforest where above-ground biomass and LAI were measured in 1990

Additional Site Information

This data set contains NPP data from five study sites located near Manaus, Brazil. The forests differ with respect to floristic composition, soils, and hydrological regimes. The location of the study sites is shown above. They are described as follows:

The climate data in this data set are available from a weather station for the city of Manaus (-3.13 S -60.02 W). Monthly and annual precipitation amounts and average and maximum/minimum air temperature are reported for the period 1910-1993. Means are reported for the 1910-1983 period (no missing values).

Spatial Resolution

The study areas varied in size as shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Spatial resolution of the Manaus study plots, by parameter and investigation

SITE

ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW-GROUND BIOMASS

LITTER-FALL

LITTER

BIO-ELEMENT CONC.

LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
"km64" 0.2 ha (40 x 50 m) area, subdivided into 8 tracts of 50 m long by 5 m wide, with fifty 50 sq m (5 x 10 m) plots1, 2, 3 0.2 ha (40 x 50 m) area, subdivided into 8 tracts of 50 m long by 5 m wide, with fifty 50 sq m (5 x 10 m) plots1, 2, 3 Ten 0.25 sq m litter traps4, 5, 7 Five 0.25 sq m quadrats1, 6 Samples from destructive harvest of above- and below ground biomass1, 2, 3, 8
--
Various studies
Ducke
--
--
Ten 0.25 sq m litter traps7
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Rio Tiruma Mirim
--
--
Ten 0.25 sq m litter traps7
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Bacia Modelo (Plateau site)
--
--
15 conical litter traps (80 cm in diameter, one m high) distributed over one ha area
--
--
--
Luizao & Schubart (1987); Luizao 1989)
"Highway 174 FD" 400 m2 with 100 m2 subplots
--
--
--
--
Distribution with height in four 100 m2 subplots McWilliam et al. (1993)

Notes: 1Klinge and Rodrigues (1971). 2Rodrigues et al. (2000). 3Klinge and Rodrigues (1973). 4Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a; b). 5Rodrigues et al. (2001). 6Klinge (1973c). 7Franken et al. (1979). 8Golley et al. (1980).

Temporal Coverage

NPP measurements were made during different time periods between 1963/02/15 and 1990/10/31 (Table 4). Climate data are available from 1910/01/01 through 1993/12/31. Monthly and annual climatic means are provided for the 1910-1983 period (no missing values).

Table 4. Temporal coverage of the studies at Manaus study plots, by parameter and investigation

SITE

ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW GROUND BIOMASS

LITTER-FALL

LITTER

BIO-ELEMENT CONC.

LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
"km64" June-Nov. 19701, 2, 3 Nov. 19701, 2, 3 Feb. 1963 - Jan. 19654; March 1974 - Jan. 19765, 7 June and Nov. 19701, 5 June-Nov. 19701, 2, 3, 8
--
Various studies
Ducke
--
--
Nov. 1976 - Dec. 1977
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Rio Tiruma Mirim
--
--
Sept. 1976 - July 1977
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Bacia Modelo (Plateau site)
--
--
Jan. 1979 - Sept. 1982
--
--
--
Luizao & Schubart (1987); Luizao 1989)
"Highway 174 FD" Oct. and Nov. 1990
--
--
--
--
Oct. and Nov. 1990 McWilliam et al. (1993)

Notes: 1Klinge and Rodrigues (1971). 2Rodrigues et al. (2000). 3Klinge and Rodrigues (1973). 4Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a; b). 5Rodrigues et al. (2001). 6Klinge (1973c). 7Franken et al. (1979). 8Golley et al. (1980).

Temporal Resolution

NPP measurements were made at different time intervals (Table 5). All NPP estimates are based on plant dry matter accumulation, expressed as g/m2/year (dry matter weight). Climate data are expressed as monthly and annual precipitation amounts (mm) and monthly and annual average and maximum/minimum temperature (C). Monthly and annual climatic means are provided for the 1910-1983 period (no missing values).

Table 5. Temporal Resolution of the Studies at Manaus, by Parameter and Investigation

SITE

ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW GROUND BIOMASS

LITTER-FALL

LITTER

BIO-ELEMENT CONC.

LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
"km64" Single clearcut harvest1, 2, 3 Single clearcut harvest1, 2, 3 Weekly4, 5; Monthly7 At beginning and end of study1 Samples from a single clearcut harvest1, 2, 3, 8
--
Various studies
Ducke
--
--
Monthly
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Rio Tiruma Mirim
--
--
Monthly
--
--
--
Franken et al. (1979)
Bacia Modelo (Plateau site)
--
--
Weekly
--
--
--
Luizao & Schubart (1987); Luizao 1989)
"Highway 174 FD" Single clearcut harvest
--
--
--
--
Measurements at four subplots on the fresh, living material using a Leaf Area Measurement System (Delta-T Devices Ltd, Cambridge, UK) McWilliam et al. (1993)

Notes: 1Klinge and Rodrigues (1971). 2Rodrigues et al. (2000). 3Klinge and Rodrigues (1973, 1974). 4Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a, b). 5Rodrigues et al. (2001). 6Klinge (1973c). 7Franken et al. (1979). 8Golley et al. (1980).

Data File Information

Table 6. Data files in this data set archive

FILE NAME

FILE SIZE

TEMPORAL COVERAGE

FILE CONTENTS

mns1_npp_r1.txt

 6.1 KB

1963/01/01-1990/10/31

Above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, and bio-element data for "km64" and "km26" terra firme forests and nearby sites near Manaus, Brazil

mns2_npp.txt

 1.4 KB

1976/11/01-1980/12/31 Litterfall data for "Ducke" tropical riverine forest near Manaus, Brazil

mns3_npp.txt

 1.9 KB

1976/09/01-1977/07/31 Litterfall data for "varzea" tropical inundation forest near Manaus, Brazil

mns4_npp_r1.txt

 1.8 KB

1979/01/01-1979/12/31 Litterfall data for "Bacia Modelo" lowland terra firme rainforest on a plateau near Manaus, Brazil

mns5_npp.txt

 1.3 KB

1990/10/31-1990/10/31 Above-ground biomass and LAI data for "Highway 174 FD" mixed-species lowland terra firme rainforest near Manaus, Brazil

mns_cli.txt

 20 KB

1910/01/01-1993/12/31

Monthly and annual climate data from a weather station at Manaus, Brazil

NPP Data. NPP estimates for the Manaus site are provided in five ASCII files (.txt format), one for each study area (Table 6). The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values. Biomass and NPP units are in g/m2 and g/m2/year (dry matter weight), respectively.

Table 7. Column headings in NPP files

COLUMN HEADINGS

DEFINITION

UNITS

Site

Site where data were gathered (code refers to site identification)

Text

Treatmt

Study area or forest subsystem type where measurements were made; treatment and long term management of site are described in metadata in data file

Text

Year

Year in which data were collected

Numeric

Month

Month in which data were collected

Numeric

Day

Day on which data were collected

Numeric

parameter

Parameters measured (see definitions in Tables 7-11)

Text

amount

Data values

Numeric

units Unit of measure Text
References / Comments Primary and secondary references plus explanatory comments, where provided Text

Table 8. Parameter definitions in <mns1_npp_r1.txt> ("km64") file

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

leaves

Biomass of tree leaves (total leaf matter of dicotyledonous trees and palms)1, 2

g/m2

Table 9-1, Klinge et al. (1975)

trunks

Biomass of tree trunks and stems (total trunk and stem wood matter of dicotyledonous trees and palms > 1.5 m height plus wood of plants < 1.5 m)1, 2

branches

Biomass of tree branches and twigs (total branch and twig wood matter of dicotyledonous trees > 1.5 m height plus wood of palms < 1.5 m)1, 2

branches_+_trunks

Total woody biomass (sum of trunk + stem + branch+ twig biomass)1, 2

frtflowr

Biomass of vascular epiphytes and parasitic plants1, 2, 3

ABbiomass

Total above-ground biomass1, 2, 3

fineroots

Biomass of fine roots1, 4

largeroots

Biomass of other roots1, 4

Totroots

Total below-ground biomass (sum of above)

Totbiomass

Total biomass (sum of above-and below-ground)1

stdead

Biomass of standing dead wood1

g/m2

Table 9-2, Klinge et al. (1975)

fallenwood

Biomass of fallen trunks and stems1

g/m2

leaves-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in leaves harvested from destructive sampling plot

percent

Golley et al. (1980)

trunks-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in trunks harvested from destructive sampling plot

branches-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in branches harvested from destructive sampling plot

fineroots-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in fine roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

largeroots-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in large roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

stdead-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in standing dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

fallenwood-N

Mean nitrogen concentration in fallen dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

leaves-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in leaves harvested from destructive sampling plot

ppm

Golley et al. (1980)

trunks-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in trunks harvested from destructive sampling plot

branches-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in branches harvested from destructive sampling plot

fineroots-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in fine roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

largeroots-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in large roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

stdead-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in standing dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

fallenwood-P

Mean phosphorous concentration in fallen dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

leaves-K

Mean potassium concentration in leaves harvested from destructive sampling plot

percent

Golley et al. (1980)

trunks-K

Mean potassium concentration in trunks harvested from destructive sampling plot

branches-K

Mean potassium concentration in branches harvested from destructive sampling plot

fineroots-K

Mean potassium concentration in fine roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

largeroots-K

Mean potassium concentration in large roots harvested from destructive sampling plot

stdead-K

Mean potassium concentration in standing dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

fallenwood-K

Mean potassium concentration in fallen dead wood harvested from destructive sampling plot

leaflittfall

Biomass of leaf litter in 1963 and 19645

g/m2

Table 1, Klinge & Rodrigues (1968a, b)

otherlittfall

Biomass of wood and fruit litter in 1963 and 19645

Totlittfall

Total biomass of litter in 1963 and 19645

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall in 19706

g/m2/year

p. 575, Klinge (1981)7

woodlittfall

Annual branch litterfall in 19706

frtflolittfall

Annual fruit and flower litterfall in 19706

Totlittfall

Annual total litterfall in 19706

g/m2/year

by addition

leaflitt

Leaf litter on the forest floor (dry season, 1970)

g/m2

p. 221, Rodrigues et al. (2000)

leaflitt

Leaf litter on the forest floor (wet season, 1970)

woodlitt

Wood litter (trunks and branches on the forest floor (wet season, 1970)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall in 19748

g/m2/year

Table 5, Rodrigues et al. (2001); Table 2, Franken et al. (1979)

otherlittfall

Other annual fine litterfall (fruits, flowers, twig, and bark fragments) in 19748

Totlittfall

Total fine litterfall in 19748

leaflittfall

Monthly leaf litterfall (September-December 1974)8

g/m2

Figure 1, Rodrigues et al. (2001); Figure 1, Franken et al. (1979)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall in 19758

g/m2/year

Table 5; Rodrigues et al. (2001); Table 2, Franken et al. (1979)

otherlittfall

Other annual fine litterfall (fruits, flowers, twig, and bark fragments) in 19748

Totlittfall

Total fine litterfall in 19758

Notes: 1The study site for these phytomass data is Sub-site 2, a primary terra firme forest located at "km64" adjacent to the Walter Egler Forest Reserve. 2Derived from fresh weight in source, assuming leaf and fruit/flower dry matter biomass = 51% fresh weight and woody dry matter biomass = 48% fresh weight. 3Does not include 2,220 g/m2 of biomass from lianas harvested during clear felling study. 4Derived from fresh weight in source, assuming fine root dry matter biomass = 81% fresh weight and other root dry matter biomass = 13% fresh weight. 5The study site for these litterfall data is Sub-site 1, an upland terra firme evergreen tropical forest in the Walter Egler Forest Reserve. 6The study site for these litterfall data is Sub-site 3, an upland terra firme evergreen tropical forest in the Walter Egler Forest Reserve adjacent to Sub-site 1. 7Reported in the Woodlands Data Set, DeAngelis et al. (1981), p. 575. 8The study site for these litterfall data is Sub-site 4, a primary terra firme forest located at km 26 in the Ducke Forest Reserve, about 35 km from the km64 terra firme forest of Klinge and Rodrigues (1968).

Sample NPP Data Record <mns1_npp_r1.txt> ("km64") file

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units

mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; leaves; 930; g/m2
mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; trunks; 29890; g/m2
mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; branches; 9770; g/m2
mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; branches_+_trunks; 39660; g/m2
mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; frtflowr; 10; g/m2
mns; trfm_k64; 1970; 11; -999.9; AGbiomass; 40600; g/m2 ...

Table 9. Parameter definitions in <mns2_npp.txt> (Ducke riverine site) file

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

leaflittfall

Monthly leaf litter production

g/m2

Figure 1, Franken et al. (1979)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Franken et al. (1979)

woodlittfall

Annual wood litter production

frtflolittfall

Annual fruit and flower litter production

Totlittfall

Annual total litter production (leaves + wood + fruits and flowers)

Sample NPP Data Record <mns2_npp.txt> (Ducke riverine site) file

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units

mns; rivr_Dck; 1980; -999.9; -999.9; height; 3500; cm

mns; rivr_Dck; 1976; 11; -999.9; leaflittfall; 21.0; g/m2
mns; rivr_Dck; 1976; 12; -999.9; leaflittfall; 18.0; g/m2
mns; rivr_Dck; 1977; 1; -999.9; leaflittfall; 18.0; g/m2
mns; rivr_Dck; 1977; 2; -999.9; leaflittfall; 16.0; g/m2
mns; rivr_Dck; 1977; 3; -999.9; leaflittfall; 25.0; g/m2 ...

Table 10. Parameter definitions in <mns3_npp.txt> (Rio Tiruma Mirim inundation site) file

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

leaflittfall

Monthly leaf litter production

g/m2

Figure 1, Franken et al. (1979)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Franken et al. (1979)

woodlittfall

Annual wood litter production

frtflolittfall

Annual fruit and flower litter production

Totlittfall

Annual total litter production (leaves + wood + fruits and flowers)

Sample NPP Data Record <mns3_npp.txt> (Rio Tiruma Mirim inundation site) file

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units

mns; varzea; 1976; 9; -999.9; leaflittfall; 26.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1976; 10; -999.9; leaflittfall; 26.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1976; 11; -999.9; leaflittfall; 31.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1976; 12; -999.9; leaflittfall; 28.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1977; 1; -999.9; leaflittfall; 14.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1977; 2; -999.9; leaflittfall; 22.0; g/m2
mns; varzea; 1977; 3; -999.9; leaflittfall; 20.0; g/m2 ...

Table 11. Parameter definitions in <mns4_npp_r1.txt> (Bacia Modelo Plateau site) file

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

Totlittfall

Monthly litter production (leaves plus other components)1

g/m2

Figure 1, Luizao and Schubart (1987)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Luizao and Schubart (1987)

Totlittfall

Annual total litter production 1979 (leaves plus other components)1

Totlittfall

Annual total litter production 1979-80, 1980-81, 1981-82 (leaves plus other components)1

g/m2/year

Table 1, Luizao (1989)

Notes: 1Other litterfall components include reproductive structures (flowers, fruits and seeds); fine woody material (up to 2.5 cm in diameter, including twigs, fine branches and bark); pieces of animal bodies or faeces, and residues, finely divided material.

Sample NPP Data Record <mns4_npp_r1.txt> (Bacia Modelo Plateau site) file

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; References / Comments

mns; bcm; 1979; 1; -999.9; Totlittfall; 26.5; g/m2; Monthly data from Luizao and Schubart (1987)
mns; bcm; 1979; 2; -999.9; Totlittfall; 50.5; g/m2;
mns; bcm; 1979; 3; -999.9; Totlittfall; 52.6; g/m2;
mns; bcm; 1979; 4; -999.9; Totlittfall; 85.6; g/m2;
mns; bcm; 1979; 5; -999.9; Totlittfall; 54.6; g/m2;
mns; bcm; 1979; 6; -999.9; Totlittfall; 48.5; g/m2;
mns; bcm; 1979; 7; -999.9; Totlittfall; 59.8; g/m2; ...

Table 12. Parameter definitions in <mns5_npp.txt> ("Highway 174 FD") file

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

height

Forest canopy height

m

p. 315, McWilliam et al. (1993)

leaves

Leaf biomass (mean over 4 subplots)

g/m2

Table 2, McWilliam et al. (1993)

branches_+_trunks

Woody biomass (mean over 4 subplots)

g/m2

AGbiomass

Total above-ground biomass (leaf + woody biomass)

g/m2

by addition

specific_leaf_area

Specific leaf area (mean over 4 subplots)

cm2/g

Table 4, McWilliam et al. (1993)

LAI

Leaf area index, based on leaf weight (mean over 4 subplots)

m2/m2

LAI_ceptometer

Leaf area index, measured using a ceptometer prior to harvest

m2/m2

p. 315, McWilliam et al. (1993)

Sample NPP Data Record <mns5_npp.txt> ("Highway 174 FD") file

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units

mns; Hwy174FD; 1990; 10; 31; height; 29; m
mns; Hwy174FD; 1990; 10; 31; leaves; 630; g/m2
mns; Hwy174FD; 1990; 10; 31; branches_+_trunks; 26500; g/m2
mns; Hwy174FD; 1990; 10; 31; AGbiomass; 27130; g/m2 ...

Climate Data. The climate data set is an ASCII file (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The value -999.99 is used to denote missing values.

Sample Climate Data Record

parameter year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total/Avg

prec mean 267.3 260.2 302.9 288.7 209.2 103.8 67.2 45.1 64.4 115.7 163.6 220.7 2108.8
tavg mean 26.08 25.97 25.94 26.03 26.23 26.37 26.49 27.21 27.60 27.54 27.19 26.65 26.61

parameter year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total/Avg

prec 1910 225.43 247.03 271.23 259.83 137.53 125.63 64.23 38.03 10.03 100.03 177.83 289.63 1946.46
prec 1911 199.03 208.63 211.43 160.83 99.43 152.83 24.23 12.03 7.43 59.43 94.13 126.43 1355.86
prec 1912 31.03 74.83 96.03 227.83 193.83 73.83 27.83 20.43 144.23 111.03 37.63 377.23 1415.76
prec 1913 326.83 174.23 227.23 231.23 374.23 61.63 66.23 34.63 50.83 124.63 74.83 233.63 1980.16
prec 1914 255.03 296.43 228.43 177.23 176.80 85.63 21.20 47.83 28.83 172.00 179.80 281.63 1950.84
prec 1915 142.23 132.63 183.03 217.03 81.60 150.03 69.00 30.63 56.43 109.80 120.80 118.83 1412.04 …

Where,
Parameter:
  prec mean = mean annual and monthly precipitation (mm) 1910-1983 (no missing values)
  tavg mean = average annual and monthly temperature (C) 1910-1983 (no missing values)
  prec = precipitation for month (mm)
  tmin = minimum temperature for month (C)
  tmax = maximum temperature for month (C)
  tavg = average temperature for month (C)

 

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The accumulation of biomass, or NPP, is the net gain of carbon by photosynthesis that remains after plant respiration. While there are many fates for this carbon, this data set accounts for total annual litterfall, giving a minimum estimate of above-ground NPP.

When the NPP litterfall study at "km64" (Walter Egler Forest Reserve sub-plot) was conducted by Klinge and Rodrigues (1968a), beginning in 1963, there were no data on litter production in equatorial lowland forests of Amazonia and only scanty determinations in rainforests of other tropical regions. Later, in 1974 and 1975, Rodrigues et al. (2001) conducted similar litterfall studies at the nearby "km 26" study site in order to compare the litterfall in the undisturbed equatorial rainforest with that in a 14-year-old secondary forest.

The phytomass study at "km64" (Klinge and Rodrigues, 1973; 1974) was a precursor to studying Amazonian forest nutrient storage, turnover, and releases.

The objective of Golley et al. (1980) was to measure, describe, and compare the distribution and mean concentrations of 17 selected bio-elements in leaves, branches, stems and roots of 118 species of trees growing in a terra firme forest at "km64" near Manaus.

Litterfall in the inundation forest at Rio Tiruma Mirim near Manaus was measured in connection with the study of litter decomposition by the soil fauna. The litterfall of the riverine forest near Manaus (Ducke Forest Reserve) was measured in connection with the study of inputs of organic matter and nutrients from the forest into the nearby creek.

The investigation of litterfall at the Bacia Modelo site (Luizao and Schubert, 1987; Luizao, 1989) was conducted to examine the litterfall seasonal pattern and the relationships between the fine litter production and the input of mineral elements to the soil during three years, at two different sites of "terra firme" forest in the Central Amazon. The work was conducted as part of the "Bacia Modelo" project, conducted by INPA (National Institute for Amazon Research) from 1976 to 1984.

The NPP study at the Highway 174 FD site (McWilliam et al., 1993) was part of a wider research programme, the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) which provided measurements of the energy and water balance and near-surface climate for both tropical rainforest and adjacent clearings at paired virgin rainforest and clearing sites in the Amazon basin. In order to compare these two extreme environments, it was essential to have information on the structural aspects of these two vegetation types. Data for the rainforest at Highway 174 FD are reported in this data set and in McWilliam et al. (1993); data for the adjacent clearing sites are presented McWilliam et al. (1993). Results are discussed in relation to other similar types of rainforests in Central and South America in particular, and also in the general context of rainforests around the world.

The biomass dynamics data for the Manaus sites are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.

 

4. Quality Assessment:

The amount of the annual litterfall measured in the Central Amazonian rainforests near Manaus was generally below the respective average values of tropical moist forests elsewhere. This observation emphasizes that Amazon forest ecosystems, in particular those of Central Amazonia, are less productive than tropical forests in general. This relatively low productivity of natural vegetation is believed to reflect the relative poverty in nutrients of the Amazon soils.

Litterfall measurements at "km64" (Walter Egler Forest Reserve sub-plot; Klinge and Rodrigues, 1968a) did not include litterfall of bigger branches and stems which contribute a large portion to total dead plant material returned yearly to the forest floor. Nonetheless, litter production at "km64" corresponds more or less to that of Dipterocarp and secondary forests of Malaya, of tropical rainforest in Colombia, and deciduous forests in Venezuela. The total annual litter production is, however, lower to that reported from lowland forests of the Congo and Ghana, but higher than in forests of Nigeria and the Ivory Coast.

Phytomass estimates for the "km64" site are within the range of values determined at other Central Amazon forest stands. However, Klinge and Rodrigues (1973, 1975) suggest that their plot size of 0.2 ha was somewhat too small and should have been twice as large as that used.

The above-ground biomass of the terra firme forest of the Amazon Basin at the Highway 174 FD site tended to be on the lower end of the range of biomass recorded for similar types of rainforests (McWilliam et al., 1993). The lower biomass measured for Amazonia in this study is thought to be a consequence of the oligotrophic soil on which the forests grow, but may also be related to altitude and other factors peculiar to the specific region such as age, history of land use, climatic and edaphic conditions, and topographic position of the forest.

Prior to Golley et al. (1980), relatively little information was available on the elemental chemistry of tropical forests. Further, much of the available data is for only a few macroelements; very little information exists on trace element distribution in tropical forests.

Sources of Error

Information not available.

 

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Above- and below-ground biomass ("km64" site) (Klinge and Rodrigues, 1973). Above- and below-ground biomass was determined by destructive sampling in a 50 x 50 m plot adjacent to the Walter Egler Forest Reserve which was subdivided into 50 m2 subplots in June 1970. First all plants below 1.5 m in height were extracted by hand and grouped into four height classes (<20, 20-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm). Leaves were picked by hand and roots separated from shoots. Leaves, roots, and shoots for each height class were weighed fresh and then dried (first in the field and a week later in an oven at 80-100 C) for determination of dry matter and nutrient content.

Next living and dead dicotyledonous trees and palms above 1.5 m were mapped and their circumference at breast height (at 1.5 m above the soil, or in case of buttressing directly above the buttressed roots), total height, maximum and minimum crown diameters, and stem length were measured. Measures which could not be taken from standing plants were taken after felling. Crown diameters of the most tall trees were measured from the projection of crown shape to the soil. Stems were separated from crowns at the insertion of lowest branching. Saw dust was collected, often separately for upper, middle and inferior parts of larger stems. Leaves were picked off by hand. The total amount of each of these fractions was weighed. The root systems of 381 dicotyledonous plants and of 51 palms in various subplots were pulled out, weighed and sampled as above. Additionally soil samples of known volume were taken to a depth of about 1 m. The fine root mass of these samples was handpicked and determined by weighing. The few epiphytic orchids, bromeliads, Loranthaceae and Araliaceae growing on the trees were collected, individually weighed, and sampled. Lianas having a dbh of about 5 or more cm were mapped; mostly their stems were harvested and weighed individually. Other parts of lianas were heaped with smaller lianas of each subplot and weighed. Lianas were sampled like other plants. Dead trunks and branches resting on the soil surface were collected in each subplot, heaped, and weighed. Random samples were taken for bioelement analysis.

Standing crop of litter ("km64" site) (Klinge and Rodrigues, 1971; 1973). Litter resting on the soil was collected in June 1970 (dry season) and November 1970 (wet season) at 5 locations, each quadrat being 0.25 m2 in size. At some of locations, litter in between both months was also measured.

Litterfall

Litter production (Bacia Modelo, Plateau site) (Luizao and Schubart, 1987; Luizao, 1989). Litter produced in the primary forest on the plateau was collected weekly in 15 conical traps (80 cm in diameter, 1 m high) distributed over an area one ha in size. Some collections during the dry season were at two-weekly intervals. No correction was applied to compensate the possible losses of mass during the time the litter was in the trap. The litterfall samples were air-dried in the laboratory and pooled into monthly samples and then were sorted into: (1) leaves and leafy material; (2) reproductive structures (flowers, fruits and seeds); (3) fine woody material (up to 2.5 cm in diameter, including twigs, fine branches and bark); (4) pieces of animal bodies or faeces, and (5) residues, finely divided material. After sorting, samples were dried at 60 C for 2-3 days, weighed, and then finely milled and stored for chemical analysis.

Bio-element Concentrations (Golley et al., 1980). Representative samples of leaves, branches, stems and roots were taken from the majority of trees harvested by Klinge and Rodrigues (1973) so that for many taxa several samples were collected. There were 118 taxa represented, with 184 samples of leaves, 182 samples of branches, 217 stem samples, and only 78 root samples. Clearly, not all roots were excavated in the study. Each sample represented a separate tree; no trees were sampled several times. The samples of vegetation of several kilograms weight were dried in an oven at about 60 C, ground in a mill, and stored in plastic containers until chemical analysis. These analyses were performed at the Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, on the plasma emission spectrograph.

Above-ground biomass (Highway 174 FD site) (McWilliam et al., 1993). Sampling occurred towards the end of the dry season in October and November 1990. Vegetation was harvested in 3-m layers for the lowest 9 m of the forest. Above this, individual trees were harvested according to increasing size in girth. Canopy length and total tree height were measured. Samples of the tree trunks were taken at breast height (1.3 m), mid-way up the trunk, and at the base of the crown. Fresh weight, diameter and length of trunk samples were measured, from which estimates of total trunk fresh weight could be made. For the tree crown, the plant material from each tree was immediately divided into leaf and stem components, and their fresh weights determined. The subsamples of both the leaf and stem fractions of the trees, and the tree trunks, were later dried at 80 C to constant weight, and their dry weights then determined.

Specific leaf area and LAI (Highway 174 FD site) (McWilliam et al., 1993). LAI was measured in two ways:

Climate was monitored at weather station for the city of Manaus (-3.13 S -60.02 W). Monthly and annual precipitation amounts and average and maximum/minimum air temperature are reported for the period 1910-1993. Means are reported for the 1910-1983 period (no missing values).

 

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

 

7. References:

Franken, M., U. Irmler, and H. Klinge. 1979. Litterfall in inundation, riverine and terra firme forests of Central Amazonia. Tropical Ecology 20: 225-235.

Golley, F.B., J. Yantko, T. Richardson, and H. Klinge. 1980. Biogeochemistry of tropical forests: I. The frequency distribution and mean concentration of selected elements in a forest near Manaus, Brazil. Trop. EcoJ. 21: 59-70.

Klinge, H., and W.A. Rodrigues. 1968a. Litter production in an area of Amazonian terra firme forest. Part I. Litterfall, organic carbon and total nitrogen contents of litter. Amazoniana 1: 287-302.

Klinge, H., and W.A. Rodrigues. 1968b. Litter production in an area of Amazonian terra firme forest. Part II. Mineral nutrient content of the litter. Amazoniana 1: 303-310.

Klinge, H., W.A. Rodrigues, E. Brunig, and E.J. Fittkau. 1975. Biomass and structure in a Central Amazon rain forest, pp. 115-122. IN: Golley, F.B., and E. Medina (eds.). Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in Terrestrial and Acquatic Research. Vol. II. Springer-Verlag, New York. 396 p.

Klinge, H., and W.A. Rodrigues. 1971. Matéria orgânica e nutrientes na mata de terra firme perto de Manaus. Acta Amazônica 1: 69-72.

Klinge, H. 1973a. Struktur und Artnreichtum des zentralamazonischen Regenwaldes. Amazoniana 4: 283-292.

Klinge, H. 1973b. Root mass estimation in lowland tropical rain forest of Central Amazonia, Brazil. I. Tropical Ecology 14: 29-38.

Klinge, H. 1973c. Biomasa y materia orgánica del suelo em el ecosistema de la pluviselva centro-amazónica. Acta Científica Venezuelana 24: 174-181.

Klinge, H. 1973d. Root mass estimation in lowland tropical rain forest of Central Amazonia, Brazil. II. “Coarse root mass” of trees and palms in different height classes. Anais Acad. Bras. Ciências 45: 595-609.

Klinge, H. 1977a. Preliminary data in nutrient release from decomposing soil leaf litter in a neotropical rain forest. Amazoniana 6(2): 193- 202.

Klinge, H. (1977b): Fine litter production and nutrient return to the soil in three natural forest stands of eastern Amazonia. Geo-Eco-Trop 1(2): 159-167.

Klinge, H. 1976. Bilanzierung von Hauptnährstoffen im Ökosystem tropischer Regenwald (Manaus) - vorläufige Daten. Biogeographica 7: 59-77.

Klinge, H. 1985. Foliar nutrient levels of native tree species from Central Amazonia. 2. Campina. Amazoniana 9 (3): 281-295.

Klinge, H., and W.A. Rodrigues. 1973. Biomass estimation in a Central Amazonian rain forest. Acta Científica Venezuelana 24: 225-237.

Klinge, H., and W.A. Rodrigues. 1974. Phytomass estimation in a Central Amazonian rain forest. – H. A. YOUNG (ed.). IUFRO biomass studies, University Press, Orono, Maine: 337-350.

Klinge, H., J. Adis, and M. Worbes. 1995. The vegetation of a seasonal várzea forest in the lower Solimões River, Brazilian Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 25 (3/4): 201 – 234.

Luizao, F.J., and H.O.R. Schubart. 1987. Litter production and decomposition in a terra-firme forest of Central Amazonia. Experientia 43: 259-264.

Luizao, F.J. 1989. Litter production and mineral element input to the forest floor in a Central Amazonian forest. GeoJournal 19(4): 407-417.

McWilliam, A-L.C., Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R., Leitao, M.V.B.R., de Costa, A.C.L. Maitelli, G.T. and Zamparoni, C.A.G.P. (1993) Leaf area index and above-ground biomass of terra firme rain forest and adjacent clearings in Amazonia. Functional Ecology 7: 310-317.

Olson, R. J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001a. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge , Tennessee , U.S.A.

Rodrigues, W.A., K. Furch, and H. Klinge. 2001. Comparative study of the litterfall in a primary and secondary terra firme forest in the vicinity of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Amazoniana, 16(3-4): 441-462.

Rodrigues, W.A., H. Klinge, and E.J. Fittkau. 2000. Structure and functioning of an amazonian upland rain forest ecosystem beside the Walter Egler Forest Reserve, Rio Preto da Eva municipality, Amazonas, Brazil. Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba, 29 (1, 2, 3, 4): 219-243.

Additional Sources of Information:

Clark, D. A., S. Brown, D. W. Kicklighter, J. Q. Chambers, J. R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E. A. Holland. 2001a. Net primary production in tropical forests: an evaluation and synthesis of existing field data. Ecological Applications, 11(2): 371-384.

Clark, D.A., S. Brown, D.W. Kicklighter, J.Q. Chambers, J.R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E.A. Holland. 2001b. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/616

DeAngelis, D.L., R.H. Gardner, and H.H. Shugart. 1981. Productivity of forest ecosystems studied during the IBP: the woodlands data set, pp. 567-672. IN: Reichle, D.E. (ed.). Dynamic Properties of Forest Ecosystems, IBP 23. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 683 p.

Fittkau, E. J., and H. Klinge. 1973. On biomass and trophic structure of the central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica 5: 2-14.

McGuire, A.D., J.M. Melillo, L.A. Joyce, D.W. Kicklighter, A.L. Grace, B. Moore III, and V.J. Vörösmarty. 1992. Interactions between carbon and nitrogen dynamics in estimating net primary productivity for potential vegetation in North America. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 6: 101-124.

Murphy, P.G. 1975. Net primary productivity in tropical terrestrial ecosystems. Pages 222-231 in H. Lieth and R.H Whittaker, editors. Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2001b. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2001c. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615

Raich, J.W., and K.J. Nadelhoffer. 1989. Belowground carbon allocation in forest ecosystems: global trends. Ecology 70: 1346-1354.

Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, B.J. Peterson, A.L. Grace, B. Moore III, and C.J. Vörösmarty. 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model. Ecological Applications 1: 399-429.

Ribeiro, M. N. G. 1976. Aspectos climatologicos de Manans. Acta Amazonica 6: 229-233.

Saldarriaga, J.G., and R. J. Luxmoore. 1991. Solar Energy Conversion Efficiencies During Succession of a Tropical Rain Forest in Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 7(2): 233-242.

Swaine, M.D., D. Lieberman, and F.E. Putz. 1987. The dynamics of tree populations in tropical forest: a review. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 359-366.

8. Data Set Revisions

Revision Summary:

Above- and below-ground biomass monthly collection dates for "km64" site in the data file, mns1_npp.txt, have been corrected with that reported in Klinge et al. (1975). Litter on the forest floor for dry and wet seasons in 1970 have been added from Rodrigues et al. (2000). Site location for 1974 and 1975 litterfall data has been corrected with that reported in Franken et al. (1979). Monthly litterfall collection dates for "km26" site have been corrected with that reported in Rodrigues et al. (2001).

Total litterfall biomass (Totlittfall) accumulation for January 1979 in the data file, mns4_npp.txt, has been replaced with that reported in Figure 1 on Page 260 in Luizao & Schubart (1987). Annual total litterfall estimates for 1979-80, 1980-81, and 1981-82 and 3-year mean (1979-1982) total litterfall accumulation from Luizao (1989) have been added to the data file. A References / Comments column has been added.

All other NPP values in the data file are not affected.

 

Data File Changes:  

The mns1_npp.txt data file has been revised. The data values and parameter labels in mns1_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter in Data Set *

Uncorrected in mns_npp.txt

Corrected in mns_npp_r1.txt

Temporal coverage for above- and below-ground biomass collection dates for "km64" site (Month)

-999.9

11

Site location for 1974 and 1975 litterfall data

trfrm_k64

trfrm_k26

Monthly litterfall collection dates for "km26" in 1974

9

11

Monthly litterfall collection dates for "km26" in 1974

10

12

leaflitt (dry season, 1970) (g/m2)

**

580.0

leaflitt (wet season, 1970) (g/m2)

**

750.0

woodlitt (wet season, 1970) (g/m2)

**

1820.0

The mns4_npp.txt data file has been revised. The data values in mns4_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter in Data Set *

Uncorrected in mns4_npp.txt

Corrected in mns4_npp_r1.txt

Totlittfall (January 1979) (g/m2)

16.5

26.5

Totlittfall (1979-80) (g/m2/year)

**

779.0

Totlittfall (1980-81) (g/m2/year)

**

812.0

Totlittfall (1981-82) (g/m2/year)

**

883.0

Totlittfall (1979-82) (g/m2/year; 3-year mean)

**

825.0

  Notes:
* = See data set Guide document for parameter definitions.
** = not reported.

 

Cited References:

Franken, M., U. Irmler, and H. Klinge. 1979. Litterfall in inundation, riverine and terra firme forests of Central Amazonia. Tropical Ecology 20: 225-235.

Klinge, H., W.A. Rodrigues, E. Brunig, and E.J. Fittkau. 1975. Biomass and structure in a Central Amazon rain forest, pp. 115-122. IN: Golley, F.B., and E. Medina (eds.). Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in Terrestrial and Acquatic Research. Vol. II. Springer-Verlag, New York. 396 p.

Luizao, F. J., and H. O. R. Schubart. 1987. Litter production and decomposition in a terra-firme forest of Central Amazonia. Experientia 43: 259-264.

Luizao, F.J. 1989. Litter production and mineral element input to the forest floor in a Central Amazonian forest. GeoJournal 19(4): 407-417.

Rodrigues, W.A., K. Furch, and H. Klinge. 2001. Comparative study of the litterfall in a primary and secondary terra firme forest in the vicinity of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Amazoniana, 16(3-4): 441-462.

Rodrigues, W.A., H. Klinge, and E.J. Fittkau. 2000. Structure and functioning of an amazonian upland rain forest ecosystem beside the Walter Egler Forest Reserve, Rio Preto da Eva municipality, Amazonas, Brazil. Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba, 29 (1, 2, 3, 4): 219-243.

Data User Action: If you downloaded this data set from the ORNL DAAC on-line archive before 10/15/2013, you should download it again.

Original Citation

Piedade, M.T.F., and W.J. Junk. 2001. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.