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NPP Tropical Forest: Luquillo, Puerto Rico, 1946-1994, R1
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Revision date: January 24, 2014

Summary:

This data set contains ten files in .txt format, one Net Primary Productivity (NPP) file for each of the nine different montane tropical rainforest sites within the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico, and one file containing climate data. Field measurements were carried out from 1946 through 1994.

Estimates of above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in LEF are based on summation of litterfall accumulation, biomass increment, and herbivory estimates. ANPP values range from 370-1,950 g/m2/year, with ANPP decreasing with elevation. The lowest ANPP was in the Dwarf cloud rainforest. The Palm floodplain and Bisley (tabonuco) forests have the highest ANPP (1,950 g/m2/year and 1,630 g/m2/year, respectively). Below-ground NPP was measured at only two of the sites (Guzman and Bisley) and was estimated for the Dwarf site. TNPP estimates for these sites are 1,945, 2,160, and 383 g/m2/year, respectively.

Climate data are available from a weather station at the El Verde forest study site.

Revision Notes: The temporal coverage for some of the data collection dates has been corrected in some of the NPP data files. ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP estimates for Bisley in the post-hurricane period (1989-94) have been corrected. Additional data have been added where available. Please see the Data Set Revisions section of this document for detailed information.

Additional Documentation:

The NPP data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored by the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visit the NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Lugo, A.E., F. Scatena, and C.F. Jordan. 2013. NPP Tropical Forest: Luquillo, Puerto Rico, 1946-1994, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/476

This data set was originally published as:

Lugo, A.E., F. Scatena, and C.F. Jordan. 1999. NPP Tropical Forest: Luquillo, Puerto Rico, 1963-1994. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

Productivity of lower montane tropical forest tracts was determined at various study sites within the Luquillo Experimental Forest from 1963 to 1994. The NPP measurements are mainly ANPP estimates based on litterfall accumulation, biomass increment increases, and herbivory estimates. Below-ground NPP was measured at only two of the sites (Guzman and Bisley).

The Luquillo Experimental Forest is situated in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico (18.32 N, 65.82 W), about 35-km east-southeast of San Juan, and operates under the auspices of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico. Most of the upper elevation slopes are old-growth dwarf cloud forest, colorado forest, and palm forest which have been under some form of protection since Europeans landed in Puerto Rico in 1494. Vegetation on the lower elevations of the reserve, which was established in 1903, is old or cut-over colorado and tabonuco-type forests. Most of the Luquillo Experimental Forest has never been clear-cut and has remained forested. However, selective logging, subsistence agriculture, and shade coffee-growing took place during and before World War II (1939-1945).

Intense rainfall occurs nearly every year triggering landslides and causes localized disturbance to soil and vegetation. Every 5 to 10 years a hurricane passes close enough to the island of Puerto Rico to cause more severe heavy rains and localized damage to vegetation. Approximately once every 21 years, a hurricane crosses over some part of the island, and once every 50 to 60 years a hurricane crosses directly over the Luquillo Experimental Forest. The largest hurricanes to damage the Luquillo Experimental Forest research areas this century occurred in 1932 and 1989. Hurricanes in 1928, 1956, and 1998 also resulted in localized damage.

Climate data are available from a weather station at the El Verde forest study site. Additional climate data sets from several stations are available from the Luquillo LTER web site.

ANPP based on litterfall accumulation, biomass increment increases, and herbivory estimates ranges from 370-1,950 g/m2/year, with ANPP decreasing with elevation. The lowest ANPP was in the Dwarf cloud rainforest. The Palm floodplain and Tabonuco forests have the highest ANPP (1,950 g/m2/year and 1,630 g/m2/year, respectively). Below-ground NPP was measured at only two of the sites where total NPP was estimated at 1,945 g/m2/year (Guzman) and 2,160 g/m2/year (Bisley). BNPP was estimated for the Dwarf forest as being 30% of above-ground biomass increment, giving a TNPP estimate of 383 g/m2/year.

ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values for some of the Luquillo study sites are also reported in Olson et al. (2012a, b), Scurlock and Olson (2012), and Clark et al. (2001, 2013). Some of these values differ from the values presented herein due to different calculation methods (Table 1).

Table 1. ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values reported by various published data sources

File Name or Description Data Source(s) Sub-Site ANPP BNPP TNPP
  gC/m2/year
lql1_npp_r1.txt Weaver and Murphy (1990)1,2 lql Elverde525 NANA
lql1a_npp_r1.txt Lugo (1992)1,3 lql Elverde2 722 NANA
lql2_npp_r1.txt Scatena et al. (1993); Scatena et al. (1996)1,4 lql Bisley 815 2651,080
lql3_npp_r1.txt Lugo (1992)1,5 lql Guzman550 423973
lql4_npp_r1.txt Lugo (1992)1,6 lql Cubuy 522 NANA
lql5_npp_r1.txt Lugo (1992)1,6 lql Sabana 458 NANA
lql6_npp_r1.txt Weaver and Murphy (1990)1,2 lql Colorado 380 NANA
lql7_npp_r1.txt Frangi and Lugo (1985)1,7 lql Palm 975 NANA
lql8_npp_r1.txt Weaver and Murphy (1990)1,8 lql Dwarf 185 7192

NPP_Multibiome_EnvReview
_Table_A1_R1.csv

Scurlock and Olson (2013) based on Lugo (1992) lql Guzman 550 423973
GPPDI_ClassA_NPP_162_R2.csv Olson et al. (2013a); Clark et al. (2001a)9 based on Weaver et al. (1986) Class A 63 (MI 61) (Dwarf)288 202491
Class A 64 (62) (Colorado)562 394956
EMDI_ClassA_NPP_81_R2.csv Olson et al. (2013b); Clark et al. (2001a)9 based on Weaver et al. (1986) Class A 64562 394956
Table 1 in Clark et al. (2001a) Clark et al. (2001a)10 Colorado forest perm.plot560 110-670 (av 390)670-1,240 (av 955)
Palm floodplain forest 720140-860 (av 500) 860-1,580 (av 1,220)
Appendix A in Clark et al. (2001a) Clark et al. (2001a) based on Lugo (1992)11 #1 Cubuy500 NA NA
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Raich et al. (1991)12 #2 El Verde NANA1,090
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Odum and Jordan (1970)13 #2 El Verde NANA610
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Lugo (1992)11 #4a Guzman 400 NANA
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Cuevas et al. (1991)14 #4b Guzman 550 420970
Clark et al. (2001a) based on Lugo (1992)11 #5 Sabana 430 NANA
tropfornpp.csv Clark et al. (2001b) based on Lugo (1992)15 Cubuy - secondary forest 522 NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Lugo (1992)15 El Verde - secondary forest 659NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Weaver and Murphy (1990)15 Colorado Forest 351NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Lugo (1992)15 Guzman - sceondary forest 414 NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Frangi and Lugo (1986)15 Palm floodplain forest 642 NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Lugo (1992)15 Sabana - secondary forest 459 NANA
Clark et al. (2001b) based on Scatena et al. (1996)15 Bisley16 435 NANA


Notes: NA = Not available. MI = Measurement ID number.

The differences in NPP values reported in this table are mainly due to differences in calculation methods, as explained in these notes. Please consult original references for details.

Revised data sets (R1, R2, etc) are accompanied by ORNL DAAC data set change information files. Please see the corresponding documentation for reasons why the data values were revised.

1For this table, ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP data from the original data sources were converted from grams of dry weight per meter square per year to grams of carbon per meter square per year using a conversion factor of 0.5.

2The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment + herbivory over the period 1946-1982.

3The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment in 1981-83.

4The NPP estimates are based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment + root growth during the post-hurricane period (1989-94).

5The NPP estimates are based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment + root growth in 1988.

6The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment in 1981-83.

7The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of litterfall accumulation (leaf, flower/fruit, and other) + trunk biomass increment + wood decomposition in 1980-81. Wood litterfall is not included in the ANPP estimate.

8The ANPP estimate is based on field measurement of total litterfall accumulation + trunk biomass increment + herbivory over the period 1976-1982.

9The BNPP estimate is 30% of above-ground biomass increment.

10Clark et al. (2001a) used a different approach to calculate net primary production values. ANPP was calculated by summing reported above-ground biomass increment + reported fine litterfall + estimated losses to consumers + estimated VOC emissions. BNPP was calculated by summing 0.2 x estimated ANPP for a low BNPP estimate + 1.2 x estimated ANPP for a high BNPP estimate. TNPP was calculated as the range between the low and high values of ANPP + BNPP. Average BNPP and TNPP estimates were also calculated. See Clark et al. (2001a) for a discussion of calculation methods, including how unmeasured components of ANPP were estimated and the basis for setting bounds on BNPP.

11Based on total aboveground production (leaves and wood) plus annual litter production during 1982.

12Based on ANPP from Odum (1970), large root turnover, litterfall and soil respiration.

13Based mostly on rates of CO2 exchange.

14Based on biomass accumulation over 12 years, annual litterfall and fine root growth from in-growth cylinders and sequential coring.

15Based on litterfall and above-ground biomass increment, converted to grams of carbon per square meter per year (dry weight) using a carbon conversion factor of 0.5.

16Pre-hurricane estimate.

2. Data Description:

This data set contains ten files in .txt format, one NPP file for each of the nine different sites and one file containing climate data. Field measurements were carried out from 1946 through 1994.

Table 2. File names and descriptions

FILE NAME TEMPORAL COVERAGE FILE CONTENTS
lql1_npp_r1.txt 1946/01/01-1983/12/31 ANPP, LAI, and other tropical forest data for El Verde mature Tabonuco rainforest (200-400-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (several sources)
lql1a_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for El Verde2 mature secondary Tabonuco rainforest (200-400-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql2_npp_r1.txt 1988/06/01-1994/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Bisley mature secondary rainforest (350-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Scatena et al., 1993)
lql3_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1989/12/31 Above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, and NPP data for Guzman old-field succession rainforest (350-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Cuevas et al., 1991; Lugo, 1992)
lql4_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Cubuy young secondary rainforest (550-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql5_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Sabana young secondary rainforest (170-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql6_npp_r1.txt 1946/01/01-1982/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, LAI, and ANPP data for montane Colorado rainforest (725-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Weaver and Murphy, 1990)
lql7_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1989/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, ANPP, and other tropical forest data for virgin montane Palm floodplain forest (750-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Frangi and Lugo, 1985; 1991)
lql8_npp_r1.txt 1951/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, LAI, and ANPP data for montane Dwarf cloud forest (1,000-m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Weaver and Murphy, 1990; Weaver et al., 1986)
lql_cli.txt 1975/01/01-1992/12/31 Mean monthly and annual climate data from weather station at El Verde forest study site, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico


Spatial Coverage

Site: Luquillo, Puerto Rico

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Elevation (m)
Luquillo, Puerto Rico -65.82 -65.7318.3318.27 100-1,075


 MAP =  mean annual precipitation.

Mean monthly and annual climate data in the data set are available from the weather station at the El Verde forest study site. Mean minimum/maximum temperature varies from 18.62 to 27.39 degrees C with a mean annual precipitation of 3,574 mm (1975-1992). Although there is no obvious dry season in the area, a period of reduced rainfall occurs between January and April.

Spatial Resolution

The plot sizes vary by study area and investigation (Table 3).

Table 3. Spatial resolution of the study plots in the Luquillo Mountains, by site and parameter

SITE ABOVE- GROUND BIOMASS BELOW- GROUND BIOMASS LITTERFALL LITTER HERBIVORY LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
El Verde Plots of 314 and 627-m2 (Ovington and Olson, 1970); 113 m2(Zou, 1995)-- 1-m2 (Zou, 1995) 0.25-m2 (Zou, 1995) 0.5-m2 3.76-m2 (Odum, Copeland, and Brown (1963); 231-m2 (Odum and Jordan; 1970) Several
El Verde2 0.2 ha with 10-m x 10-m tree inventory/allometry plots, 10-m x 10-m understory harvest plots, and 1-m x 1-m grass & forbs harvest plots (Lugo, 1992); supplemental tree harvest 0.5 x 0.5-m x 1-m deep 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 -- -- Lugo (1992)
Bisley Harvested plots 32-m x 32-m (trees) and 4-m x 4-m (understory & groundcover); 5-m diameter circular inventory plots 4.1-cm diameter x 35-cm deep cores (fine roots); above- to below-ground biomass ratios (coarse roots) 0.25-m2 litter traps Information not available in reference -- -- Scatena et al. (1993; 1996)
Guzman 0.2 ha with 10-m x 10-m tree inventory/allometry plots, 10-m x 10-m understory harvest plots, and 1-m x 1-m grass & forbs harvest plots (Lugo, 1992); 0.25-ha with 20 x 20-m inventory/allometry plots (Cueves et al., 1991); supplemental tree harvest 0.5-m x 0.5-m x 1-m deep soil pit (Lugo, 1992); soil cores to 30-cm depth & 10-cm x 7-cm in-growth cylinders to 10-cm depth (Cueves et al., 1991) 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 quadrats -- -- Lugo (1992);Cueves et al. (1991)
Cubuy 0.2-ha with 10-m x 10-m tree inventory/allometry plots, 10-m x 10-m understory harvest plots, and 1-m x 1-m grass & forbs harvest plots (Lugo, 1992); supplemental tree harvest 0.5 x 0.5-m2 x 1-m deep 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 ---- Lugo (1992)
Sabana 0.2-ha with 10-m x 10-m tree inventory/allometry plots, 10-m x 10-m understory harvest plots, and 1-m x 1-m grass & forbs harvest plots (Lugo, 1992); supplemental tree harvest 0.5 x 0.5-m x 1-m deep 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 -- -- Lugo (1992)
Colorado 0.4-ha plots inventory/allometry plots -- 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 Subjective; 1-m radius around tree 15 sampling stations, 10-m apart Weaver and Murphy (1990)
Palm 2,525-m2 with 5-m x 5-m grids (trees) & 0.25-m2 plots (understory) 100 x 50-cm x 1-m deep 1-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 plots; 1-m x 0.5-m plots -- 30 points Frangi and Lugo (1985; 1991)
Dwarf 0.14, 0.06, and 0.02-ha plots (inventory); 36-m2 plots (allometry & biomass increment); 1-m2 plots (leaf harvest) -- 0.25-m2 litter traps 0.25-m2 frame Estimated by Benedict (1976) Three 1 -m2 areas Weaver et al. (1986); Benedict (1976) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)

Temporal Coverage

Biomass and NPP measurements were made between 1946 and 1994. Temporal coverage varies by study area and investigation (Table 4). Climate data are available from 1975/01/01 through 1992/12/31.

Table 4. Temporal coverage of data collection in the Luquillo Mountains, by site and parameter

SITE ABOVE- GROUND BIOMASS BELOW- GROUND BIOMASS LITTERFALL LITTER HERBIVORY LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
El Verde 11/1963 (Ovington & Olson, 1970) 11/1963-2/1964 (Ovington & Olson, 1970) 11/1980-10/1981(Zou, 1995) 3/1981 and 9/1981 1964 Several studies, 1957-1967 (see Odum, 1970) Several
El Verde2 1981 and 1984 1982 2/1981-9/1983 2/1981-9/1983 -- -- Lugo (1992)
Bisley 6/1988 and 6/1989 6/1989 6/1988-9/1989 1989 -- -- Scatena et al. (1993; 1996)
Guzman 1981 and 1984 (Lugo, 1992); 1988 (Cueves et al., 1991) 1982 (Lugo, 1992); 1988 (Cueves et al., 1991) 2/1981-9/1983 (Lugo, 1992); 1/1987-1/1989 (Cueves et al., 1991) 2/1981-9/1983 -- -- Cueves et al. (1991); Lugo (1992)
Cubuy 1981 & 1984 1982 2/1981-9/1983 2/1981-9/1983 -- -- Lugo (1992)
Sabana 1981 & 1984 1982 2/1981-9/1983 2/1981-9/1983 -- -- Lugo (1992)
Colorado 1946; 1981-- 01/01/1981-12/31/1982 1/1982-12/1982 1981-82 4/1981 & 6/1981 Weaver and Murphy (1990)
Palm 1980-81; 6/1990 1980-81 3/1980-6/1981 3/1980-1/1981; 8/1990 -- 1980 Frangi and Lugo (1985; 1991)
Dwarf 12/1976; 6/1978 (biomass increment) -- 1976-1978 1976-1978 197? 1981 Weaver et al. (1986); Benedict (1976) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)

Temporal Resolution

The temporal resolution of biomass and NPP measurements vary by study area and investigation (Table 5). All NPP estimates are based on plant dry matter accumulation, expressed as g/m2/year (dry matter weight). Climate data are expressed as monthly and annual precipitation amounts (mm) and monthly and annual average maximum/minimum temperature (C). Monthly and annual climatic means are provided for the 1975-1992 period.

Table 5. Temporal resolution of data collection in the Luquillo Mountains, by site and parameter

SITE ABOVE- GROUND BIOMASS BELOW- GROUND BIOMASS LITTERFALL LITTER HERBIVORY LAI SOURCE (unless otherwise indicated)
El Verde Single harvest (Ovington & Olson, 1970) -- Monthly (Wiegert, 1970); 2-wk intervals (Zou, 1995) Dry season (March); wet season (September) (Zou, 1995) Monthly (Odum and Ruiz-Reyes, 1970) Several studies, 1957-1967 (Odum, 1970) Several
El Verde2 Single tree inventory & harvest; understory & groundcover harvest; allometry Once Bi-weekly Monthly  -- -- Lugo (1992)
Bisley Single tree inventory (1988); one time clearcut harvest (1989); understory & groundcover harvest (1989); allometry Once Bi-weekly Information not available in reference -- -- Scatena et al. (1993; 1996)
Guzman Tree inventories (Lugo, 1992; Cueves et al., 1991); supplemental harvest; understory & groundcover harvest; allometry Once; (Lugo, 1992); semi-annual (root biomass), bi-monthly & semi-annual (root growth) (Cueves et al., 1991) Bi-weekly Monthly (Lugo, 1992); semi-annual (Cueves et al., 1991)  -- -- Cueves et al. (1991); Lugo (1992)
Cubuy Single tree inventory & harvest; understory & groundcover harvest; allometry Once Bi-weekly Monthly  -- -- Lugo (1992)
Sabana Single tree inventory & harvest; understory & groundcover harvest; allometry Once Bi-weekly Monthly -- -- Lugo (1992)
Colorado Inventories 35 years apart-- Periodically (bi-weekly, first year; monthly, second year) Monthly One time (standing herbivory); 90 day interval (herbivory rate) Measurements taken during calm days in April and June at 15 sampling stations Weaver and Murphy (1990)
Palm Inventories (pre- and post-Hurricane Hugo); selective harvest Once Bi-weekly Monthly -- Measurements taken during summer at 30 randomly selected points Frangi and Lugo (1985; 1991)
Dwarf Twice, 1.5 years apart-- Bi-weekly Ten times over two years Information not available in reference Measurements taken during calm days in April and June at 15 sampling stations Weaver et al. (1986); Benedict (1976) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)

Data File Information

Table 6. Data files in this data set archive

FILE NAME TEMPORAL COVERAGE FILE CONTENTS
lql1_npp_r1.txt 1946/01/01-1983/12/31 ANPP, LAI, and other tropical forest data for El Verde mature Tabonuco rainforest (200-400 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (several sources)
lql1a_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for El Verde2 mature secondary Tabonuco rainforest (200-400 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql2_npp_r1.txt 1988/06/01-1994/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Bisley mature secondary rainforest (350 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Scatena et al., 1993)
lql3_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1989/12/31 Above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, and NPP data for Guzman old-field succession rainforest (350 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Cuevas et al., 1991; Lugo, 1992)
lql4_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Cubuy young secondary rainforest (550 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql5_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, and ANPP data for Sabana young secondary rainforest (170 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Lugo, 1992)
lql6_npp_r1.txt 1946/01/01-1982/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, LAI, and ANPP data for montane Colorado rainforest (725 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Weaver and Murphy, 1990)
lql7_npp_r1.txt 1980/01/01-1989/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, ANPP, and other tropical forest data for virgin montane Palm floodplain forest (750 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Frangi and Lugo, 1985; 1991)
lql8_npp_r1.txt 1951/01/01-1983/12/31 Above-ground biomass, litterfall, LAI, and ANPP data for montane Dwarf cloud forest (1,000 m elevation) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (Weaver and Murphy, 1990; Weaver et al., 1986)
lql_cli.txt 1975/01/01-1992/12/31 Mean monthly and annual climate data from weather station at El Verde forest study site, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

NPP Data. NPP estimates for the Luquillo Mountains sites are provided in eight (8) files, one file for each study area (Table 6). The data sets are ASCII files (.txt format). The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values. Biomass and NPP units are in g/m2 and g/m2/year (dry matter weight), respectively.

Table 7. Column headings in NPP files

COLUMN HEADING DEFINITION UNITS
SiteSite where data were gathered (code refers to site identification) Text
Treatmt Study area or forest subsystem type where measurements were made; treatment and long-term management of site are described in metadata in data file Text
Year Year in which data were collected Numeric
Month Month in which data were collected
Day Day on which data were collected
parameter Parameters measured (see definitions in tables for individual data files) Text
amount Data values Numeric
units Unit of measure Text
References/Comments Reference to primary and secondary data sources and/or explanatory comments Text


Table 8. Parameter definitions in <lql1_npp_r1.txt> (El Verde) file

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE
height Forest canopy height m Table 6 (Weaver and Murphy, 1990)
density Number of trees per unit area stems/ha Table 6 (Weaver and Murphy, 1990)
leaves Leaf biomass in Tabonuco forest g/m2 Table 3, H-59; Table 7, p. I-204 (Odum, 1970)
bark Bark biomass; sum of bole bark plus branch bark g/m2 Table 23, p. I-216 (Odum, 1970)
branches Branch wood biomass g/m2 Table 23, p. I-216 (Odum, 1970)
trunks Bole wood biomass g/m2 Table 23, p. I-216 (Odum, 1970)
trunk+branch Sum of branch + trunk biomass g/m2 By addition
AGBiomass Above-ground biomass (sum of above; leaves + bark + branch+ trunk biomass) g/m2 By addition
Totlitter Annual mean standing crop of loose litter on forest floor g/m2 Table 7, p. H-100; Table 17, p-213 (Odum, 1970); Zou et al. (1995)
largeroots Large root biomass (> 0.5 cm); sum of medium and butt roots plus root bark biomass g/m2 Table 3, p. H-59; Table 13, I-207; Table 23, p. I-216 (Odum, 1970)
fineroots Fine root biomass (fibrous small 0.5 cm) g/m2 Table 13, I-207; Table 23, p. I-216 (Odum, 1970)
leaflittfall Annual leaf litterfall accumulation g/m2/year Reagan et al. (1982); Zou et al. (1995) Table 3, p. 152 and Fig 1, p. 151
woodlittfall Annual wood litterfall accumulation g/m2/year
frtflwlittfall Annual fruit and flower litterfall accumulation, sum of components; annual rate determined by summing monthly totals g/m2/year
otherlittfallAnnual miscellaneous litterfall g/m2/year
Totlittfall Total annual litterfall accumulation g/m2/year
ANPP Above-ground net productivity g/m2/year Table 7, Weaver and Murphy (1990)
trunk_inc Change in biomass increment (1946-1976) g/m2/year Crow (1980) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
herbivory Herbivory rate, based on amount of leaf weight eaten g/m2/year Wiegert (1970), p. H-91; Odum and Ruiz-Reyes (1970), p. I-70; Table 7, Weaver and Murphy (1990)
LAI_ave Average leaf area index (LAI) by plumb bob technique and correlation of spectral ratio to biomass m2/m2 Odum (1970) in Weaver and Murphy (1900)
LAI_total Leaf area index (LAI) by several methods m2/m2 Table 8, I-204 (Odum, 1970)
AGbiomass-N Nitrogen concentration in above-ground biomass, per cent of oven-dry weight % H-2, Ovington and Olson (1970); Tables 4 and 5, Scatena et al. (1993)
leaves-N Nitrogen concentration in leaves, per cent of oven-dry weight %
AGbiomass-P Phosphorous concentration in above-ground biomass, per cent of oven-dry weight %
leaves-P Phosphorous concentration in leaves, per cent of oven-dry weight %


Sample NPP Data Record <lql1_npp_r1.txt> (El Verde)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ Comments

lql; Elverde; 1951-83; -999.9; -999.9; height; 20-30; m; various studies in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Elverde; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; density; 1750; stems/ha; Weaver (1983) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Elverde; 1969; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 939; g/m2; Odum (1970)
lql; Elverde; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 790; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Elverde; 1963; 11; -999.9; bark; 1721; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Odum (1970)
lql; Elverde; 1963; 11; -999.9; branches; 3339; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Odum (1970)
lql; Elverde; 1963; 11; -999.9; trunks; 13948; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Odum (1970)
lql; Elverde; 1964; -999.9; -999.9; trunk+branch; 19000; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Elverde; 1964; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 26500; g/m2; Ovington and Olson (1970) in Scatena et al. (1993)
...


Table 9. Parameter definitions in <lql1a_npp_r1.txt> (El Verde2), <lql3_npp_r1.txt> (Guzman), <lql4_npp_r1.txt> (Cubuy), and <lql5_npp_r1.txt> (Sabana)

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE
height Forest canopy height m Table 5
age Stand age years Table 1
density Number of overstory trees per unit area stems/ha Table 4
leaves Leaf biomass g/m Table 7
trunks+branches Biomass of tree stems + branches g/m2
Understory Understory biomass (biomass of woody plants < 4 cm stem diameter + biomass of nonwoody plants) /m2
AGBiomass Above-ground biomass (sum of above; leaves + trunks & branches + understory biomass) g/m2
leaflitter Average biomass of leaf, fruit, and miscellaneous organic material on forest floor2 g/m2 Table 9
woodlitter Average biomass of woody litter on forest floor g/m2
coarseroots Large root biomass (1 to > 10 mm diameter to a depth of 1 m) g/m2 Table 8, by difference (total root mass minus fine root mass)
fineroots Fine root biomass (< 1 mm to a depth of 1 m) g/m2 Table 8
Totroots Total root biomass to a depth of 1 m g/m2
leaflittfall Annual accumulation of leaf, fruit, and miscellaneous litterfall g/m2/year Table 9
woodlittfall Annual wood litterfall accumulation g/m2/year
Totlittfall Total annual litterfall accumulation (average) g/m2/year
woodgrowth Diameter measurements converted to biomass using allometric equations; change in tree biomass, corrected for mortality and expressed on a area basis = change in biomass increment (1981-1983) g/m2/year Table 11
ANPP Above-ground net primary production (sum of litterfall and wood growth) g/m2/year Tables 9 and 11
leaflitterfall-N Nitrogen input to the forest floor from leaf litterfall g/m2/year Table 17
woodlittfall-N Nitrogen input to the forest floor from wood litterfall3 g/m2/year
Totlittfall-N Total nitrogen input to the forest floor from litterfall g/m2/year
leaflitterfall-P Phosphorus input to the forest floor from leaf litterfall g/m2/year
woodlittfall-P Phosphorus input to the forest floor from leaf litterfall g/m2/year
Totlittfall-P Phosphorus input to the forest floor from leaf litterfall g/m2/year

Notes:

1All data from Lugo (1992).

2n = 6 monthly collections in 1981, n = 12 monthly collections in 1982, and n = 8 monthly collections in 1983. Each monthly collection consisted of 10 0.5 x 0.5 m samples.

3A value of 0 in data file = trace amount.

Sample NPP Data Record <lql1a_npp_r1.txt> (El Verde2)*

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ Comments

lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; height; 24; m; Lugo (1992), Table 5
lql; Elverde2; 1980; -999.9; -999.9; age; >50; years; Lugo (1992), Table 1
lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; density; 1593; stems/ha; Lugo (1992), Table 4
lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 500; g/m2; Lugo (1992), Table 7
lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; trunks+branches; 7300; g/m2; Lugo (1992), Table 7
lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; Understory; 165; g/m2; Lugo (1992), Table 7
lql; Elverde2; 1982; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 7965; g/m2; Lugo (1992), Table 7
...

Note: *The file layout for <lql3_npp_r1.txt> (Guzman), <lql4_npp_r1.txt> (Cubuy), and <lql5_npp_r1.txt> (Sabana) are similar to that shown for <lql1a_npp_r1.txt> (El Verde2).

Table 10. Parameter definitions in <lql2_npp_r1.txt> (Bisley) file

COLUMN HEADING DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE
leaves Biomass of tree leaves from stems > 2.5-cm DBH (harvest data) g/m2 Table 11
branches Biomass of branches from stems > 2.5-cm DBH (harvest data)
trunks Biomass of trunks from stems > 2.5-cm DBH (harvest data)
bark Biomass of bark from stems > 2.5-cm DBH (harvest data)
Understory Biomass of understory palms, saplings (< 2.5-cm DBH), herbs, and ferns (harvest data; sum of components)
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass (harvest data; sum of tree leaf, branch, trunk, bark, and understory biomass)
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass (inventory data) g/m2 Table 12
coarseroots Biomass of coarse roots (> 0.5-cm) g/m2 Table 11
fineroots Biomass of fine roots (< 0.5-cm) g/m2 Table 11
Totlitter Information not available g/m2
leaflittfall Leaf litterfall biomass (based on daily accumulation reported in source) g/m2/year Table 42
woodlittfall Wood litterfall biomass (based on daily accumulation reported in source)
otherlittfall Fruit + flowers + miscellaneous litterfall biomass (based on daily accumulation reported in source)
Totlitterfall Total litterfall biomass (leaf + wood + fruit + flowers + miscellaneous fractions) (based on daily accumulation reported in source)
woodgrowth Trunk biomass incement g/m2/year Scantena et al. (1993)
ANPP Pre-Hurricane Hugo above-ground biomass accumulation g/m2/year By summation (litterfall + woodgrowth)
rootgrowth Post-Hurricane Hugoroot growth g/m2/year Difference between ANPP and TNPP
ANPP Post-Hurricane Hugo above-ground net primary production g/m2/year p. 434, Scantena et al. (1996)
TNPP Post-Hurricane Hugo total NPP g/m2/year p. 434, Scantena et al. (1996)
leaves-N Nitrogen concentration in tree leaves of stems > 2.5 cm DBH

g/m2 Table 11
branches-N Nitrogen concentration in branches of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

trunks-N Nitrogen concentration in trunks of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

bark-N Nitrogen concentration in bark of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

Understory-N Nitrogen concentration in understory palms, saplings (< 2.5-cm DBH), herbs, and ferns (sum of components)
AGbiomass-N Nitrogen concentration in total above-ground biomass (sum of tree leaf, branch, trunk, bark, and understory nutrient concentrations)
coarseroots-N Nitrogen concentration in coarse roots (> 0.5-cm)
fineroots-N Nitrogen concentration in fine roots (< 0.5-cm)
leaves-P Phosphorus concentration in tree leaves of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

g/m2 Table 11
branches-P Phosphorus concentration in branches of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

trunks-P Phosphorus concentration in trunks of stems > 2.5 cm-DBH

bark-P Phosphorus concentration in bark of stems > 2.5-cm DBH

Understory-P Phosphorus concentration in understory palms, saplings (< 2.5-cm DBH), herbs, and ferns (sum of components)
AGbiomass-P Phosphorus concentration in total above-ground biomass (sum of tree leaf, branch, trunk, bark, and understory nutrient concentrations)
coarseroots-P Phosphorus concentration in coarse roots (> 0.5-cm)
fineroots-P Phosphorus concentration in fine roots (< 0.5-cm)
AGbiomass-N Average nitrogen concentrations per unit dry weight of total above-ground biomass percent Table 41
trunks+branches-N Average nitrogen concentrations per unit dry weight of trunk plus branch biomass percent by difference
leaves-N Average nitrogen concentrations per unit dry weight of tree leaf biomass percent Table 51
AGbiomass-P Average phosphorus concentrations per unit dry weight of total above-ground biomass percent Table 41
trunks+branches-P Average phosphorus concentrations per unit dry weight of trunk plus branch biomass percent by difference
leaves-P Average phosphorus concentrations per unit dry weight of tree leaf biomass percent Table 51

Notes: 1Data from Scantena et al. (1993). 2Data from Scantena et al. (1996).

Sample NPP Data Record <lql2_npp_r1.txt> (Bisley)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ Comments

lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; leaves; 700; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; branches; 2810; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; trunks; 18210; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; bark; 410; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; Understory; 431; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; AGbiomass; 22561; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1988; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 22630; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1996)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; coarseroots; 7240; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
lql; Bisley; 1989; 6; 26; fineroots; 220; g/m2; Scatena et al. (1993)
...

Table 11. Additional parameter definitions in <lql3_npp_r1.txt> (Guzman)

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE 1
age Forest age Years Cueves et al. (1991)
AGbiomass Biomass of trees g/m2 Table 2
Totfineroots Standing stock of fine roots (< 2-mm), sum of samples 0-30 cm depth g/m2 Table 2 & Figure 7
liveroots Standing stock of fine live roots, sum of samples 0-30 cm depth g/m2 Table 2 & Figure 7
deadroots Standing stock of fine dead roots, sum of samples 0-30 cm depth g/m2 Table 2 & Figure 7
Totlitter Total standing stock of above ground litter (leaves + fine wood + reproductive parts + miscellaneous material) g/m2 Table 2 & Figure 6
litterfall Production of above ground litter g/m2/year Table 2
woodgrowth Wood production g/m2/year Table 2
rootgrowth Fine root production g/m2/year Table 2
ANPP Above-ground net primary production g/m2/year Sum of annual litterfall and wood production
NPP Net primary production g/m2/year Sum of annual litterfall, wood production, and fine root production

Notes: 1All data from Cueves et al. (1991).

Table 12. Parameter definitions in <lql6_npp_r1.txt> (Colorado)

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE 1
height Forest canopy height m Table 6
density Number of trees per unit area stems/ha Table 6
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass measured in 1946 g/m2 Table 5
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass measured in 1981 g/m2 Table 5
leaves Leaf biomass in 1981 g/m2 Table 6
trunks+branches Above-ground woody biomass in 1981 g/m2 Table 6
Totlitter Loose litter on forest floor (unincorporated detritus composed of leaves, other plant materials, and woody fragments) g/m2 Table 6
Totlitterfall Total litterfall (leaves, wood, fruit and flowers, and miscellaneous material); data extracted from graph g/m2/month Figure 2
leaflittfall Annual leaf litterfall g/m2/year Table 7
woodlittfall Annual litterfall accumulation of woody material
frtflwlittfall Annual litterfall accumulation of fruit and flowers
otherlittfall Annual litterfall accumulation of miscellaneous other material
Totlittfall Total annual litterfall accumulation
trunk_incr Above-ground growth in woody biomass g/m2/year Table 7
herbivory Standing herbivory (standing leaf biomass in 1981 x herbivory rate) g/m2/year Table 5
ANPPAbove-ground net primary production (sum of litterfall, herbivory, and above-ground biomass increment) g/m2/year Table 5
LAI_trees Leaf area index of trees m2/m2 Table 1
LAI_total Total mean leaf area index for all vegetation (trees, epiphytes, herbs + grasses, and bryophytes) m2/m2 Table 1

Notes:1Data from Weaver and Murphy (1990).

Sample NPP Data Record <lql6_npp_r1.txt> (Colorado)

lql; Colordo; 1951-83; -999.9; -999.9; height; 8-20; m; All data from
lql; Colordo; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; density; 1850; stems/ha; Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Colordo; 1946; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 14900; g/m2
lql; Colordo; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 16960; g/m2
lql; Colordo; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 580; g/m2
lql; Colordo; 1981; -999.9; -999.9; trunks+branches; 13000; g/m2
lql; Colordo; 1981-82; -999.9; -999.9; Totlitter; 875; g/m2
...

Table 13. Parameter definitions in <lql7_npp_r1.txt> (Palm)

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE
height Forest canopy height m Frangi and Lugo (1985)
density Number of trees per unit area (pre-Hurricane Hugo) stems/ha Frangi and Lugo (1985)
density Number of trees per unit area (post-Hurricane Hugo) stems/ha Frangi and Lugo (1991)
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass for tree species (1989); values correspond to trees with diameter at breast height >4 cm and palms taller than 0.7 m g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
trunks Trunk (bole) biomass for tree species (1989) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
branches Branch biomass for tree species (1989) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
leaves Leaf biomass for tree species (1989) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
AGbiomass Above-ground biomass (1980-81) (sum of palms, dictyledonous trees, epiphytes on palms, seedlings, and herbs) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1985)
roots Palm and other roots to 1 m depth (1980-81) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1985)
Totbiomass Total biomass (AGbiomass + roots) (1980-81) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1985)
Totlitter Mean standing crop of loose litter on soil surface (1980-81) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1985)
leaflittfall Leaf litterfall (palms and leaves of other species) (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
woodlittfall Wood litterfall (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
frtflwlittfall Fruit and flower litterfall (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
otherleaflittfall Other litterfall (miscellaneous material (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
Totlitterfall Total annual litterfall rate, based on average daily rate (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
decomposition Palm leaf decomposition rate (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
trunk_incr Wood production (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
ANPP Above-ground net primary production (excluding wood fall) (1980-81) g/m2/year Frangi and Lugo (1985)
LAI_total Leaf area index (summer 1980) m2/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1985)
AGbiomass-N Above-ground nitrogen content of tree biomass before the passage of Hurricane Hugo (9/1989); values correspond to trees with diameter at breast height >4 cm and palms taller than 0.7 m g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
trunks-N Above-ground nitrogen content in tree trunks (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
branches-N Above-ground nitrogen content in tree branches (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
leaves-N Above-ground nitrogen content in tree leaves (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
AGbiomass-P Above-ground phosphorus content of tree biomass before the passage of Hurricane Hugo (9/1989); values correspond to trees with diameter at breast height > 4 cm and palms taller than 0.7 m g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
trunks-P Above-ground phosphorus content in tree trunks (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
branches-P Above-ground phosphorus content in tree branches (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)
leaves-P Above-ground phosphorus content in tree leaves (pre-Hurricane Hugo) g/m2 Frangi and Lugo (1991)

Sample NPP Data Record <lql7_npp_r1.txt> (Palm)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ Comments

lql; Palm; 1980-81; -999.9; -999.9; height; 17; m; Frangi and Lugo (1985)
lql; Palm; 1980-81; -999.9; -999.9; density; 3059; stems/ha; Frangi and Lugo (1985)
lql; Palm; 1989-90; -999.9; -999.9; density; 2278; stems/ha; Frangi and Lugo (1991)
lql; Palm; 1989; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 18100; g/m2; Frangi and Lugo (1991)
lql; Palm; 1989; -999.9; -999.9; trunks; 13200; g/m2; Frangi and Lugo (1991)
lql; Palm; 1989; -999.9; -999.9; branches; 2100; g/m2; Frangi and Lugo (1991)
lql; Palm; 1989; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 2800; g/m2; Frangi and Lugo (1991)
lql; Palm; 1980-81; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 22320; g/m2; Frangi and Lugo (1985)
...

Table 14. Parameter definitions in <lql8_npp_r1.txt> (Dwarf)

PARAMETER DEFINITION UNITS SOURCE
height Forest canopy height (based on several studies) m Table 6, Weaver & Murphy (1990)
density Number of trees per unit area > 4-cm in DBH

 (pre-Hurricane Hugo) (1970?)
stems/ha Table 6, Weaver (1972) in Weaver & Murphy (1990)
density Number of trees per unit area > 10-cm in DBH, average from three dwarf forest plots (1981) stems/ha Table 1, Weaver et al. (1986)
trunks+branches Above-ground woody biomass estimate for the main stems and branches by allometric equation (average of range which varied from 4,760 g/m2 on the ridge to 10,960 g/m2 on the leeward side) g/m2 p. 81, Weaver et al. (1986)
leaves Leaf biomass g/m2 Table 2, Weaver et al. (1986)
Totlitter Total loose litter on the forest floor (mean of 10 collections; leaves and miscellaneous = 255 g/m2; wood = 178.7 g/m2) g/m2 Table 2, Weaver et al. (1986)
leaflittfall Annual leaf litterfall (based on daily average and mean for the three plots) g/m2/year Table 2, Figure 1, and p. 81; Weaver et al. (1986)
woodlitfall Annual wood litterfall (based on daily average and mean for the three plots) g/m2/year Table 2, Figure 1, and p. 81; Weaver et al. (1986)
otherlittfall Annual miscellaneous litterfall (based on daily average and mean for the three plots) g/m2/year Table 2, Figure 1, and p. 81; Weaver et al. (1986)
Totlitterfall Total annual litterfall (sum of above) g/m2/year Table 2, Figure 1, and p. 81; Weaver et al. (1986)
trunk_incr Mean biomass accumulations for main stem and branches determined for ridgetop plot (40 g/m2/year) and leeward plot (50 g/m2/year) g/m2/year p. 83; Weaver et al. (1986)
herbivory Herbivory estimate for ridgetop forest (estimated at 5.5 percent or 0.055 x 0.8 x 3.1 = 13 g/m2/year) g/m2/year p. 83; Benedict (1976) in Weaver et al. (1986)
ANPP Above-ground net productivity (sum of annual litterfall + above-ground biomass accumulation in stems and branches + herbivory estimate) g/m2/year by addition
BNPP Below-ground biomass accumulations (assumed to be 30 percent of ANPP) g/m2/year p. 83; Weaver et al. (1986)
LAI_total LAI by plumb bob technique (mean of 3.0-3.5) m2/m2 Table 6, Benedict (1976) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
LAI_total LAI by harvest method m2/m2 Table 2, Weaver et al. (1986)

Sample NPP Data Record <lql8_npp_r1.txt> (Dwarf)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ Comments

lql; Dwarf; 1951-83; -999.9; -999.9; height; 3-5; m; Weaver (1983) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Dwarf; 1970?; -999.9; -999.9; density; 21900; stems/ha; >/= 4 cm DBH

; Weaver (1972) in Weaver and Murphy (1990)
lql; Dwarf; 1977-78; -999.9; -999.9; density; 3671; stems/ha; >/= 10 cm DBH

 Weaver et al. (1986)
lql; Dwarf; 1977-78; -999.9; -999.9; trunks+branches; 8000; g/m2; Weaver et al. (1986)
lql; Dwarf; 1977-78; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 290; g/m2; Weaver et al. (1986)
lql; Dwarf; 1977-78; -999.9; -999.9; Totlitter; 434; g/m2; Weaver et al. (1986)
...

Climate Data. The climate data set is a text file (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semicolons. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values.

Sample Climate Data Record

Site;Temp;Parm; Jan; Feb; Mar; Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep; Oct; Nov; Dec; Year

bcn ;mean;prec; 104.4; 64.7; 70.1; 53.8; 51.3; 59.3; 54.3; 61.2; 68.2; 92.2; 98.8; 93.1; 858.5
bcn ;mean;tmax; 7.4; 7.4; 10.3; 12.7; 16.7; 19.3; 21.7; 21.5; 19 14.8; 10.7; 8.3; 22.2
bcn ;mean;tmin; 1.3; 1.1; 2.8; 3.5; 6.4; 9.1; 11.4; 10.9; 8.7; 6.4; 3.6; 2.4; -0.2
bcn ;numb;prec; 23; 24; 20; 21; 24; 22; 23; 23; 22; 22; 24; 22; 14
bcn ;numb;tmax; 24; 23; 24; 23; 23; 24; 24; 23; 23; 23; 22; 20; 18
bcn ;numb;tmin; 24; 24; 24; 23; 22; 24; 25; 24; 24; 24; 24; 23; 20
bcn ;stdv;prec; 52.9; 45.3; 36.9; 26.7; 32.1; 39.4; 28.7; 45.9; 50.6; 75.6; 60.4; 48.1; 105.2
bcn ;stdv;tmax; 1.9; 2.0; 1.5; 1.3; 1.8; 2.0; 1.8; 1.8; 1.2; 1.3; 1.1; 1.5; 1.7
bcn ;stdv;tmin; 1.9; 2.0; 2.5; 0.9; 0.8; 0.8; 1.1; 0.8; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5; 1.6; 1.7
bcn ;1969;prec; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 28.8; 36.6; 2.4; 140.3; 89.5; -999.9
bcn ;1969;tmax; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 23.3; 21.4; 20.0; 18.0; 10.6; 6.6; -999.9
bcn ;1969;tmin; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 11.6; 11.7; 9.2; 7.3; 2.1; 0.8; -999.9

Where,
Temp (temporal) - specific year or long-term statistic:
  mean = mean based on all years
  numb = number of years
  stdv = standard deviation based on all years
Parm (parameter):
  prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
  tmax = mean maximum temperature for month or year (C)
  tmin = mean minimum temperature for month or year (C)

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The accumulation of biomass, or NPP, is the net gain of carbon by photosynthesis that remains after plant respiration. While there are many fates for this carbon, NPP estimates in this data set are based mainly on the summation of litterfall accumulation, biomass increment, and herbivory rates. Below-ground NPP was measured at only one site (an old-field succession secondary Tabonuco rainforest) to give a total NPP estimate.

The main purpose of these studies was to determine species composition and standing biomass of the montane rainforests at different elevations in the LEF, and to estimate the rates of litterfall accumulation, diameter and biomass growth of arborescent species, and herbivory. These measurements were used to calculate minimum NPP estimates for the different forest types. Rates of nutrient return to the soil were also investigated.

The biomass dynamics data for the Luquillo Mountain sites are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.

 

4. Quality Assessment:

The data on forest structure and dynamics in these various studies are considered in the context of the Luquillo Mountain elevation gradient. Of the structural features studied over a 600-m elevational gradient in the Luquillo Mountains, the number of trees per hectare, basal area, and soil organic matter increased with elevation; whereas, the specific leaf area, canopy height, range of tree diameters, forest volume and biomass, leaf area index, and species richness declined. Of the dynamic features studied, ingrowth and mortality of trees, tree growth (diameter, volume, and biomass growth), litterfall, loose litter accumulation, standing herbivory and herbivory rates, litter turnover, above-ground woody NPP, and total NPP all declined with an increase in above-ground elevation. The structural and floristic impoverishment of forests and changes in forest dynamics with ascent in the Luquillo Mountains reflect cooler temperatures, fog, and heavier rainfalls that interact to produce saturated soils and retard the mineralization of organic matter.

The data from the Luquillo Mountain sites are also compared in the referenced literature to rainforests elsewhere in the world. A survey of the published data revealed that plant biomass, litterfall, and LAI figures for the primary and secondary lower montane rainforests (Tabonuco forests) and the montane rainforest (Colorado forest) are within the ranges for comparable mixed tropical rainforests elsewhere. In the Palm floodplain forest, some characteristics, such as LAI, are lower, but rates of leaf and total litterfall are more in agreement with the high values expected of lowland rainforests. Above-ground biomass in the Palm forest is similar to that of lower montane rainforests, whereas few similarities are seen in characteristics of soil organic matter, root biomass, or the rate of litter decomposition. Above-ground biomass in the Dwarf cloud forest were low in comparison to estimates in other tropical ecosystems, including evergreen lowland rainforests, montane rainforests, and deciduous forests, but are similar to those of savanna woodlands and northern taiga fir forests. Litterfall was low in the Dwarf cloud forest in comparison to rates in Amazon, African, and Asian rainforests.

Please see referenced literature for more detailed discussion of data quality and comparative data assessment for each study site.

Sources of Error

Information not available.

 

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site Information

The study sites are located in the Luquillo Mountains, an isolated range of Cretaceous basalt monadnocks resulting from uparching and faulting in northeastern Puerto Rico. The mountains rise to 1,075 m and supports a complex of tropical forest tracts and rivers which can be identified by system types roughly stratified by altitude. The study sites in this data set are located along this elevational gradient (Table 2). As elevation increases, the number of arborescent stems/ha increases, while average height of dominants, average DBH

, basal area/ha, and number of species per unit area decreases.

The total area of the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) researver is approximately 11,000 ha and elevations range from about 100 to 1,075 m above sea level over a distance of only 10 km. Mean annual rainfall increases with elevation from approximately 2,450 mm per year at lower elevations to over 4,000 mm per year at higher elevations, while mean annual temperature declines from 23 to 19.8 C along the same gradient. The upper ridges and summits are frequently enveloped in clouds, reducing solar insolation and increasing soil moisture. Evapotranspiration decreases along the elevational gradient, while relative humidity and wind velocity increase.

Within the Luquillo Mountain reserve, there are four distinct types of forest along the elevation gradient: (1) lower montane rainforest (locally known as Tabonuco forest) on better-drained ridges below 600 m; (2) montane rainforest (locally known as Colorado forest) between 600 and 900 m; (3) Palm floodplain forest scattered on steep slopes and drainages above 500 m; and (4) Dwarf (also called cloud, elfin, or mossy forest) on the exposed slopes or ridges above 900 m. Each forest type differs greatly from the other types in species composition, richness, structure, productivity, litterfall, and other environmental factors. The Tabonuco, Colorado, Palm, and Dwarf forests cover 70, 17, 11 and 2 percent, respectively, of the LEF.

Table 2. Location of the NPP study areas in the Luquillo Mountains

SITE ELEVATION MAP LATITUDE LONGITUDE FOREST SYSTEM TYPE
El Verde200-400 m3,574 mm 18.33 N65.82 W Mature lower montane "Tabonuco" rainforest (traditional rainforest with vast diversity of plants and insects, buttressed roots, broad thin leaves, bromeliads, lianas, trunk barks mottled with growth, and open ground story in deep shade)
El Verde2 200 m 3,810 mm18.33 N65.82 W Secondary lower montane "Tabonuco" rainforest (> 50 years old)
Bisley350 m3,500 mm18.32 N 65.75 W Mature, secondary "Tabonuco" rainforest
Guzman 200-230 m3,810 mm18.32 N 65.82 W Old-field succession secondary "Tabonuco" rainforest (3-8 years old)
Cubuy 500-600 m3,810 mm18.32 N 65.82 W Young secondary "Tabonuco" rainforest (15-30 years old)
Sabana 170 m2,330 mm18.32 N65.73 W Young secondary "Tabonuco" rainforest (15-30 years old)
Colorado 725 m3,725 mm18.29 N 65.78 W Mature montane Colorado rainforest (cooler, wetter forest above average position of the cloud condensation level where evaporation is inhibited by clouds)
Palm 750 m3,725 mm18.28 N65.77 W Virgin montane Palm floodplain forest (subsystem found in places of poor drainage and wetter soils; named after principal tree, the sierra palm)
Dwarf 1,000 m4,500 mm18.27 N 65.77 W Dwarf cloud forest (on crests of ridges, vegetation is short, gnarled, leathery-leaved, sculptured by winds, and covered with epiphytes; few tree species; commonly saturated with moisture and frequently enveloped in clouds)

Mature Tabonuco Forest of the El Verde Research Area (lql1_npp_r1.txt)

Wood Biomass and Nutrient Content

(Ovington and Olson, 1970, in Odum, 1970). Biomass of tree bark, branches, boles, and roots was estimated by destructive sampling of > 100 representative trees in November 1963 from a surrounding forest at about the same altitude as the El Verde Research Area. Stem length and diameter at 130 cm bh were measured, and leaf, stem and branch material was separated and weighed. Roots were collected by digging and winching. The oven-dried mass of tree parts was determined. Relations between mass and stem length or diameter, or some combination of the two, were expressed as regressions. Dry matter weight per unit area was calculated by summing individual tree weights obtained by regression equations (sample areas 314 and 628-m2). Representative samples of the weighed plant components were ground into a fine powder and analyzed for nutrient content using standard methods. See Chapter H-2 in Odum and Pigeon (1970) for details.

Leaves

Leaf biomass data are derived from several methods and investigators summarized in Table 3, p. H-59 and Table 7, p. I-204 (Odum and Pigeon, 1970). The higher value in this data file is the mean of the best methods. The lower value (Ovington and Olson, 1970), estimated by destructive sampling described for wood biomass above, may be an underestimate because heavier leaves in emergent trees were not included in the procedures used.

Leaf Area Index

LAI of the Tabonuco forest was calculated by several methods described in Chapters I-1 and I-9 in Odum and Pigeon (1970), Odum, Copeland, and Brown (1963), I-10, including plumb bob technique and correlation of spectral ratio to biomass. The data are the mean of the best methods. Additional LAI data in this data set are from the various sources listed in Table 8, I-204 (Odum and Pigeon, 1970). Those methods include ten prism method, giant cylinder, and plumb line procedures.

Litterfall

(Reagan et al., 1982). Litterfall was collected periodically for 2 years starting in January 1981. Twenty 0.25-m2 baskets, 20 cm deep were placed about 10 m apart within both permanent plots. Each basket was made of two mesh sizes: an inside mesh 1.25 x 1.25-cm and an outside mesh of 15 x 15-mm to provide drainage. During the first year, they were emptied twice each month and, during the second year, on a monthly basis. Litterfall was partitioned into leaves, wood, fruits and flowers, and miscellaneous categories, dried to a constant weight, and recorded.

Litterfall

(Zou et al., 1995). Twenty 1-m2 baskets with 1-mm mesh fiberglass screens were randomly placed in 1-ha plots 1 m above ground level. Litterfall was collected at two week intervals for 1 year between November 1980 and October 1981. All litter samples were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, wood, and miscellaneous materials (mostly bark), oven-dried at 70 degrees C for 72 h, and weighed.

Litter

(Odum and Pigeon, 1970). Mean annual standing crop of loose litter was estimated from 500-cm2 samples taken at leaf-fall stations. Two samples were taken at each station (Radiation Center and Control Center): one of these samples was taken in March (just before the seasonal leaf peak) and the other in June (just after leaf peak).The data are the average for the two stations.

Litter

(Zou et al., 1995). Ground litter was collected from 0.25-m2 subplots in both the dry season (March, 40 subplots) and the wet season (September, 20 subplots) randomly located in each of the 1-ha plots. Each sample was separated into wood and miscellaneous categories, oven-dried at 70 degrees C for 72 hours, and weighed.

Herbivory

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Methods are not provided but are assumed to be the same as for Colorado forest (see below).

Trunk Increase

(Crow, 1980). Variations in stand structure and species composition over a 33-year period was analyzed using data obtained from a 0.72-ha plot established in 1943 and remeasured ten times between 1943 and 1976. The measurements taken in 1946, 1951, and 1976 included ingrowth as well as measurements of the trees tagged in 1943. It is primarily these data that were used to quantify change in this stand. The sample population was obtained from a 60 x 120-m plot in which all trees greater than 4.0-cm DBH were tagged, diameters measured, and species identified.

Secondary Tabonuco Rainforests: El Verde 2 (lql2_npp_r1.txt), Guzman (lql3_npp_r1.txt), Cubuy (lql4_npp_r1.txt), and Sabana (lql5_npp_r1.txt)

Vegetation Structure

(Lugo, 1992). A 40 x 50-m (0.2-ha) plot divided into a grid of 10 x 10-m subplots was established in each of the eight stands. Depending upon tree density, 10-20 subplots were sampled in each stand; at least 200 trees were compared using the Jaccard community coefficient. Grass and forbs cover was estimated using three 1 x 1-m randomly distributed plots within the sampled subplots.

Above-ground Biomass

(Lugo, 1992). Above-ground tree biomass was estimated by harvest method and allometrically using tree inventory data and biomass-diameter relations in Ovington and Olson (1970) for dicotyledonous trees and in Frangi and Lugo (1985) for palms. Prior to weighing in the field, harvested tree parts were separated into leaves, branches, and boles. Samples of each tree compartment were taken to the laboratory for moisture determination and chemical analysis. Least squares regression analysis was used to develop biomass-diameter relations. Understory biomass was determined by harvesting all woody plants with stem diameter < 4-cm in the 10 x 10-m plot used to describe understory vegetation. Nonwoody plants were harvested from three 1 x 1-m plots. Plants were separated into leaves, stems, and branches, and their fresh mass determined in the field. The most common species were harvested individually; others were combined. Subsamples of understory vegetation were taken to the laboratory for moisture determination and chemical analysis.

Root Biomass

(Lugo, 1992). Fine root biomass was determined by digging 10 pits each 0.5-m x 0.5-m x 1-m deep randomly located in each stand. Roots (live plus dead) were separated from soil by washing in the field and were sorted in to diameter classes in the laboratory.

Litter

(Lugo, 1992). Each month between February 1981 and September 1983 all forest floor mass was collected in 10 plots randomly selected per stand. The plots were 0.5 x 0.5-m. Litter was sorted into leaves, wood, fruits, and miscellaneous categories. After March 1982, litter was sorted into wood and leaves only. Special care was taken to avoid soil contamination of litter. After sorting, the miscellaneous category was sieved through a 20-mesh sieve to separate soil from organic material.

Litterfall

(Lugo, 1992). Rates of litterfall were measured between February 1981 and September 1983 using randomly located 0.25-m2 wire baskets lined with 1.5-mm mesh hardware cloth. Ten baskets were emptied bi-weekly from each stand between February 1981 and May 1982. Because of time constraints, after May 1982, 20 baskets were collected monthly from each stand and litter was sorted into leaves (including miscellaneous) and wood. If fruit fall was large, fruits were separated from the leaf category.

Tree Growth and Productivity

(Lugo, 1992). Tree growth was estimated by remeasuring 100 to 200 trees (depending upon the site) ~ 2 yr after the initial inventory. Tree growth was expressed as the change in basal area per unit ground area, corrected for tree mortality. The basal area of those trees that died in the 1982-1984 interval was subtracted from the basal area of the stand in 1982. Diameter measurements were converted to biomass using allometric equations. Change in tree biomass, corrected for tree mortality and expressed on an area basis, was the biomass increment in trees. Trees that died during the 1982-1984 interval were not included in the calculation of biomass change because investigators could not separate out the fraction of their mass that was produced in the 1982-1984 interval.

Above-ground Net Primary Production

(ANPP) (Lugo, 1992). ANPP was calculated by summing tree biomass increment and litterfall accumulation during the period of measurement. The calculation does not include productivity of understory plants or losses due to herbivores or tree mortality.

Bioelement Concentrations

(Lugo, 1992). All vegetation samples used for dry mass determination or chemical analysis were dried to constant mass at 70 degrees C before weighing. Vegetation and litter samples were ground with a Wiley mill to pass through a 0.85-mm mesh stainless steel sieve and burned for four hours at 490 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Weighing samples before and after this procedure yielded ash-free mass. Root samples used for biomass determinations were washed again and separated into four diameter classes < 1-mm, 1-2-mm, > 2-5-mm, > 5-10-mm, and > 10-mm) before weighing. Root samples used for chemical analysis were collected and washed separately to avoid contamination due to excessive handling. Chemical analyses were performed using standard laboratory procedures described in Lugo (1992).

Additional Data from Guzman (lql3_npp_r1.txt)

Stand Structure and Above-ground Biomass

(Cuevas et al., 1991). The study site was 0.25-ha in area (50-m x 50-m), divided into four 20-m x 20-m plots with each plot surrounded by a buffer strip. The diameter, height, and identification to species of all trees > 4.0-cm DBH in each plot were recorded. These data served as the basis for calculations of species richness, stem density, basal area, and biomass estimates. The biomass of the hardwood trees was calculated from the regression equation for the wet forest life zone reported in Brown et al. (1989).

Wood Production

(Cuevas et al., 1991). Wood production was calculated as follows: total above-ground biomass was adjusted for leaves to obtain wood biomass (leaves=7% of total biomass for hardwood trees). Assuming that wood biomass accumulated at a linear rate since establishment (based on data presented in Brown and Lugo, 1990 and Lugo et al., 1988), standing biomass of wood was divided by the age of the stands.

Litterfall and Litter Standing Stock

(Cuevas et al., 1991). Twenty 0.25-m2 litter traps, five per plot, were placed in the study area in January 1987. Litterfall was collected every two weeks for a period of two years. The collected litter was separated into leaves, fine wood (<2-cm diameter), reproductive parts, and miscellaneous. Each component was dried at 65 degrees C to constant weight and weighed separately per basket per sampling date. Standing stock of fine litter was sampled every 6 months for a period 1.5 years. Litter was collected from twenty-four 0.25-m2 quadrats, six per plot randomly located. The samples were sorted into the same components and dried as for litterfall.

Fine Root Biomass

(Cuevas et al., 1991). Standing stock of fine roots (<2-mm diameter) was determined by randomly collecting 5 soil cores/plot to 30-cm depth, in 10-cm increments (20 samples). Samples were collected every 6 months, for 1.5 year (three sample dates), approximately at the end of the dry and wet seasons. The samples were washed to separate the roots from the soil. All roots were separated into live and dead (based on morphological characteristics such as elasticity, friability, and color) and sorted by diameter class (<2-mm , > 2-mm, 5-mm, > 5-mm), dried at 65 degrees C to constant weight, and their weight determined. In this data file, only the results for the fine roots (<2-mm diameter) are reported.

Fine Root Production

(Cuevas et al., 1991). In-growth cylinders made of polypropylene (10-cm tall, 7-cm diameter, 8-mm mesh) were used to measure fine root growth in the 0-10 cm layer. The cylinders were filled with dry-sieved, root-free soil from the same horizon, packed to approximate bulk density, and placed in holes of the same diameter and height. Five cylinders per plot were removed every 2 months during the first year, and every 6 months for the next 3 years. In this data file, only the results of the first year of study are provided. During collection, roots outside the cylinders were cut flush before removing the cylinder from the ground. The samples were treated and separated as for standing stock determination.

Mature Secondary Tabonuco Rainforest at Bisley (lql2_npp_r1.txt)

Above- and Below-ground Biomass (Harvest Method)

(Scatena et al., 1993). During June 22-29, 1989, two 32 x 32-m plots were clearcut and subsampled for biomass. Before the harvest, all stems greater than 2.5-cm in diameter at 1.3 m (DBH) were identified, tagged, and mapped. A subset of 14 large trees was sampled for detailed allometry. These trees were selected to expand the existing set of allometric data from the tabonuco forest of the LEF (Ovington and Olson, 1970) and obtain reliable biomass estimates for the two plots. The allometry of the selected trees was determined by measuring stem diameter and bark thickness at 1 m intervals on the bole and the diameter of every major branch. For large trees with branches that could not be completely weighed, several branches were removed and separated into leaf and wood compartments. Regression equations using branch diameter and length were then developed and used to estimate the total leaf and branch biomass of the tree. Complete slices from each meter of bole and random subsamples of branches and leaves were kept for chemical analysis. All samples were weighed in the field and in the lab after they were oven dried at 60 degrees C. To determine the biomass and chemistry of herbaceous and woody vegetation with a DBH less than 2.5-cm, all vegetation was removed from 4 x 4-m subplots and sorted into sapling, herb, and fern compartments. The basal diameters of all understory palms, or mature palms without sufficient height to measure a DBH at 1.3 m, were measured in the plots and used to calculate the biomass of that compartment. Below-ground biomass of fine roots (< 5-mm diameter) was estimated from samples of roots sorted from 4.1-cm diameter, 35-cm deep root cores. Coarse root biomass was estimated using the above- to below-ground biomass ratios measured by Ovington and Olson (1970).

Above-ground Biomass (Allometric Equations)

(Scatena et al., 1993). The allometry of the sampled vegetation at Bisley was combined with existing data from the El Verde tabonuco forest to develop general and species-specific biomass equations. When the data for the 14 trees sampled in 1989 were combined with existing data (Ovington and Olson, 1970), allometry for 101 stems from 37 species of tabonuco forests were available. Since a variety of stand level data exists for these forests, biomass equations were developed for stems greater than 2.5-cm using combinations of DBH, height, and specific gravity as independent variables.

Nutrient Analyses

(Scatena et al., 1993). Samples of bole wood with and without bark, branch wood with bark, leaves, and fruits of 18 species, plus composite samples of ferns, herbs, and seedlings, were analyzed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). All samples were sorted, oven-dried, and ground in a Wiley mill through a 0.85-mm (20-mesh) stainless steel sieve. Entire slices of tree trunks and leaves from several branches were ground to avoid bias due to variations in heartwood or leaf concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were determined using standard laboratory procedures. In this data file, only the results of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are provided.

Additional Vegetation Sampling

(Scatena et al., 1996). In 1988, vegetation was measured by destructive harvest in 83 permanent circular plots (5-m diameter) that were established at the nodes of a 40 x 40-m grid covering two watersheds at Bisley. The herbaceous biomass in each of these destructively sampled plots was sorted by species, dried, weighted, and analyzed for nutrient content.

Litterfall

(Scatena et al., 1996). Litterfall was collected every other week for a 1.5 year period prior to Hurricane Hugo (September 1989). The litter was collected in 60 baskets (0.25-m2) that were systematically located along an elevational and topographic transect that traversed the two watersheds. The litter was oven-dried at 65 degrees C to a constant weight and sorted into leaf, wood, fruits and flowers, and miscellaneous fractions.

Colorado Rainforest (lql6_npp_r1.txt)

Forest Structure

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). The two permanent 0.4-ha plots were established and measured in 1946 along with five other plots to determine the diameter increment of trees in the Colorado forest. One plot was located on slope topography and the other on mixed slope and valley topography. All trees >4.1-cm DBH (1.4 m above the ground) were measured to the nearest 0.25 cm. Height was estimated visually and checked occasionally by a level. Detailed tree measurements were made again in 1981; diameter was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and height was determined by an optical rangefinder to the nearest 0.1 m. Untagged trees were assessed by diameter and position as either old trees that had lost tags or ingrowth that had not yet been tagged. Missing trees were recorded as mortality.

Leaf Area Index

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). LAI measurements were made at the permanent plots during calm days in April and June. The LAI of the woody vegetation was of principal interest because previous measurements of tree DBH may have slightly disturbed the ground vegetation. A plumb bob technique was used. On each plot, 15 sampling stations were spaced 10 m apart. At each station, an extension pole was used to lower four plumb bob lines 90 degrees apart through the canopy to the ground. An adjacent area was also selected and the measurements were repeated at 10 stations. On the adjacent plots, the canopy vegetation was partitioned into trees and epiphytes, and the ground vegetation into herbs and grasses, and bryophytes.

Litterfall

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Litterfall was collected periodically for 2 years starting in January 1981. Twenty 0.25-m2 baskets 20-cm deep were placed about 10 m apart within both permanent plots. Each basket was made of two mesh sizes: an inside mesh 1.25 x 1.25-cm and an outside mesh of 15 x 15-mm to provide drainage. Litter baskets were emptied twice each month during the first year and monthly during the second year. Litterfall was partitioned into leaves, wood, fruits and flowers, and miscellaneous categories, dried to a constant weight, and recorded.

Loose Litter

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Loose litter, or unincorporated detritus composed of leaves, other plant materials, and woody fragments, was collected monthly for one year starting in January 1982. Twenty 0.25-m2 collection plots were sampled from undisturbed areas adjacent to both permanent plots each month. All samples were partitioned into woody and miscellaneous categories, dried to a constant weight, and recorded.

Herbivory

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Herbivory was determined using the following equation: Standing leaf biomass in 1981 x herbivory rate = 535 g/m2 x 4 percent = 21 g/m2/year. Herbivory rate, or the amount of herbivory during a given period, was determined by sampling 418 leaves on 111 branches of 41 trees representing 9 common species. For herbivory rate, fully developed young leaves without evidence of herbivory, were selected. Each was numbered and tagged with plastic tape that was stapled across the midrib on the underside of the leaf. After 90 days, the leaves were removed from the trees and the amount of herbivory determined.

Biomass Increment

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Seventeen dicotyledonous trees ranging in size from 6.5 to 36.7-cm in diameter and representing seven common species were selected for biomass determinations. For sampling purposes, biomass was partitioned into four categories: trunks, branches > 2.5-cm in diameter, branches < 2.5-cm in diameter, and leaves. Wet weights were determined in the field. The following samples were taken from each tree: four disks of the trunk taken at different heights, six disks of branches > 2.5-cm, and four samples of branches < 2.5-cm. Complete samples of leaves were oven dried for 3 days, and the remaining materials for 6 weeks, all at 70 deegrees C, at which time no decrease in dry weight was observed. Sample dry/wet weight proportions were then used to determine the dry weight of all woody materials. Regressions in which dry weight was expressed as an allometric function of tree diameter squared times tree height were developed for leaves, aboveground woody material, and total aboveground biomass (leaves and woody fractions combined). Net biomass increment of leaf and aboveground woody compartments was determined as the difference between the standing biomass of 1981 and that of 1946 divided by 35 years.

NPP

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). NPP was estimated as the sum of litterfall accumulation, biomass increment, and herbivory (Medina & Klinge, 1983, Weaver et al., 1986).

Palm Floodplain Forest (lql7_npp_r1.txt)

Forest Structure

(Frangi and Lugo 1985; 1991). The Palm floodplain forest is a virgin forest and protected from human disturbance within a 63.28 ha watershed. The study site covered 2,525-m2 (including 436-m2 of stream) within the watershed and was divided into a grid of 5 x 5-m sections. A topographic map, with 50-cm contours, was prepared with measurements taken every 2.5 m in the grid. All trees > 1-cm DBH were identified by species, mapped, and measured for DBH and height. A telescopic pole and a range finder were used for height measurements. Palms with diameters > 1-cm but heights < 1.3-m were also included. Basal area, tree density, frequency, importance value, and complexity index were calculated. Palm seedlings, palm fruits, and cryptogams were counted in 100 0.25-m2 subplots. These sampling areas were adequate in terms of number of species, tree density, and biomass according to the area-curve method. The abundance of all epiphytes growing on 14 palms in a 100-m2 plot was evaluated on a scale of 0-5 (from absent to very abundant). All individuals of the dominant epiphyte Guzmania berteriana (Bromeliaceae) in the study area were counted.

Leaf Area Index

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). LAI was measured during the summer of 1980 by suspending a plumb bob from the forest canopy and counting the number of leaf surfaces intercepted by the line. A total of 30 randomly selected points was used.

Above-ground Biomass

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Above-ground tree biomass (except for palms) was estimated with the regressions of Ovington and Olson (1970). For palms, 25 individuals were harvested (and roots of 10 palms were excavated) and least-squares regressions between height and the dry mass of various components were developed. All biomass samples were dried to constant mass at 70 degrees C before weighing. The diameter or height of each tree in the study area, including 444 palms, was entered into the regressions to obtain leaf, branch, stem, and total above-ground biomass. Thirty-four palm seedlings were collected, their length was measured, and their mass by plant part was determined and used to estimate standing crop from seedling density information. Biomass of epiphytes, a conspicuous component of the forest, was obtained by harvesting known surface areas from 10 randomly selected palm trees (a total of 6-m2). On each palm, all epiphytic growth was stripped from the stem from 30-cm wide bands located at 10 m intervals from the base to a height of 4.5 m. The sample was sorted into leaves, roots, bryophytes, and humus. In addition, biomass was determined for 20 mature bromeliads and all other plants and humus associated with them from > 5-m height in randomly selected palms.

Below-ground Biomass

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Root samples were obtained from 32 soil cores of 1-m depth. Root biomass was determined after samples were washed free of soil and roots were separated into three diameter classes: < 1-mm, 1-10-mm, and > 10-mm). Palm root biomass was estimated using least-squares regressions as described above. However, this may underestimate palm root biomass due to the difficulty in the excavation of all palm roots.

Surface Litter

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Twenty random samples of standing loose litter on the soil surface were collected monthly for 11 months starting in March 1980 from 1-m2 plots. Litter biomass was determined after sorting into dicotyledonous leaves, palm leaves, fruits and flowers, wood, and miscellaneous material.

Litterfall

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Leaf and miscellaneous litterfall was collected at two-week intervals between March 1980 and June 1981 in 20 1-m2 baskets located randomly in the study area. Wood and palm leaf fall was collected monthly from 10 randomly located 25-m2 plots. Before weighing, all samples were sorted into wood, fruits, leaves, and miscellaneous components.

Decomposition Rates

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Decomposition rates were measured by placing a known mass of freshly fallen dicotyledonous and palm leaves in each of 90 l-mm mesh 20 x 20-cm polyethylene bags placed at random points in the forest. Five-bag samples were collected after approximately 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 days. The decomposition of palm leaves in the canopy was studied by detaching the oldest palm leaf from each of 10 trees, enclosing it in a large l-mm mesh polyethylene bag, and suspending the ten bags from the palm canopy. Periodic weighing of the suspended leaves and of fallen materials allowed estimates of decomposition of palm leaves in the canopy and on the forest floor. Seven large sections of palm trunks lying on the ground were tagged and weighed periodically in the field over a 3-yr period to estimate their rate of decomposition. Subsamples from adjacent trunks were taken to the laboratory to obtain wet-to-dry-mass conversion factors. Annual decay coefficients were obtained from decomposition experiments (Olson, 1963) and applied to leaf litterfall to calculate annual decomposition rates. The decay coefficient divided into 0.693 gave the half-life of decomposing material (Olson, 1963). Litter turnover rate was calculated by dividing annual litterfall by the mean standing crop of litter. Palm leaf decomposition before abscission was estimated by entering the fraction of time spent by a leaf on the outside whorl (130 days) into the decomposition regression obtained for these leaves. The resulting rate of decomposition (40%/yr) was multiplied by the biomass of palm leaves.

ANPP

(Frangi and Lugo, 1985). Net above-ground primary production was estimated as litterfall (excluding wood fall) plus the change in tree biomass. Change in tree biomass was determined by remeasuring > 200 trees in a 750-m2 area 1,215 days after the initial survey, and calculating the increase in biomass per unit area using the least-square regressions as described above. Tree mortality and herbivory were negligible and not used in the calculation. The rate of palm leaf fall was adjusted by adding the amount of leaf decomposition that occurred prior to fall.

Bioelement Concentrations

The methodology for the handling and preparation of samples and for measuring P concentrations are given in Frangi and Lugo (1985). The methodology for chemical analyses of N, K, Ca, and Mg is described in Lugo et al, (1990). The appropriate biomass estimates for leaf, branch, and bole compartments of individual trees were multiplied by the corresponding nutrient concentration in the compartment to estimate its nutrient content in 1989 and 1990.

Dwarf Cloud Forest (lql8_npp_r1.txt)

Forest Structure

(Weaver and Murphy, 1990). Species composition, stem density, and basal area were determined from unpublished U.S. Forest Service data for all stems of at least 10-cm DBH on three Dwarf cloud forest plots of 0.14-ha (280-m x 5-m; 930 m in elevation), 0.06-ha (120-m x 5-m; 950 m in elevation), and 0.02-ha (40-m x 5-m; 1,010 m in elevation). In addition, height and diameter of all trees of at least 2.5-cm DBH were measured on two additional plots of 36-m2 each.

Above-ground Biomass

(Weaver et al., 1986). Allometric equations for the subtropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains were used to determine total above-ground woody biomass on the smaller plots. These were compared with unpublished estimates of trunk biomass for all trees of at least 2.5-cm DBH on an 80-m2 plot, derived by calculating the volume for a parabolic cone and multiplying by the specific gravities of the respective species.

Leaf Area Index

(Weaver et al., 1986; Benedict, 1976). LAI and leaf mass were determined by removing all leaves in three randomly selected 1-m2 areas extending from ground level to the top of the canopy. Leaf areas were measured using a leaf area meter. Leaf weights were determined after oven-drying for three days at 65 degrees C. Weight was expressed both as biomass of leaves per unit area of ground (g/m2) and specific weight of leaves per unit area of leaf (mg/cm2). Benedict (1976) measured LAI by plumb bob te4chnique in the 1970s.

Litterfall

(Weaver et al., 1986). Litterfall was collected over a two-year period on the average of twice monthly. Twenty baskets 0.25-m2 in size were suspended 30 cm above the ground and spaced 2 m apart on the ridge plot. All collected samples were oven-dried at 65 degrees C for three days, separated into leaves, woody parts, and miscellaneous fractions, and then weighed.

Litter on Forest Floor

(Weaver et al., 1986). Loose litter was collected from ten randomly selected plots, ten times over two years using a 0.25-m2 frame. All materials recognizable as leaf or stem were separated and dried as specified above. Litter samples collected during October of 1977 and 1978 were also analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in order to determine the mineral return to the soil through litterfall.

Biomass Increment

(Weaver et al., 1986). In late December 1976, a total of 62 trees of at least 2.5-cm DBH were measured and permanently tagged at 15 cm below breast height on two plots of 36-m2 each. (Tagging below the point of measurement averts future errors due to occasional swelling around the nail.) One plot was on a ridge, and the second on a slope about 100- to the leeward. In June 1978, the DBH of all stems was measured a second time. Net growth was divided by 1.5 years to derive an annual DBH increment , and biomass was determined a second time by allometric equation to provide an estimate of biomass accumulation. Tree height was assumed to be unchanged at the second measurement because a sample of ten stems yielded no detectable differences.

Herbivory

(Benedict, 1976, in Weaver et al., 1986). Herbivory on the ridge forest has been estimated at 5.5 percent (Benedict, 1976), or 0.055 x 0.8 x 3.1 = 0.13 g/m2/year.

ANPP

(Weaver et al., 1986). Above-ground net primary production was calculated by summing biomass increase, total litter production, and herbivory estimates.

Climate data

Climate data are available from a weather station at the El Verde forest study site. Measurements] included precipitation, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature. Monthly and annual means are reported from 1975 through 1992. Additional climate data sets from several stations are available from the Luquillo LTER Web site.

 

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

 

7. References:

Benedict, F.F. 1976. Herbivory rates and leaf properties in four forests in Puerto Rico and Florida. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 78 pp.

Brown, S., and A.E. Lugo. 1990. Tropical secondary forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 5: 1-32.

Brown, S., A.J.R. Gillespie, and A.E. Lugo. 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with applications to forest inventory data. For. Sci. 35: 881-902.

Crow, T. R. 1980. A rain forest chronicle: a 30-year record of change in structure and composition at EI Verde, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 12(1): 42-55.

Cuevas, E., S. Brown, and A.E. Lugo. 1991. Above and below-ground organic matter storage and production in a tropical pine plantation and a paired broadleaf secondary forest. Plant and Soil 135: 257-268.

Frangi, J. L, and A. E. Lugo. 1985. Ecosystem dynamics of a subtropical floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs 55: 351-369.

Frangi, J. L., and A. E. Lugo. 1990. Hurricane damage to a flood plain forest in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23: 324-335.

Jordan, C. F. 1968. Optical measure of leaf area index, pp. 26-27. In J.R. Kline, C. F. Jordan, and G. E. Drewry (eds.). The Rain Forest Project, Annual Report, USAEC Report PRNC-119, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center.

Jordan, C. F. 1969. Derivation of Leaf-Area Index from Quality of Light on the Forest Floor. Ecology 50,(4): 663-666.

Jordan, C. F. 1971. Productivity of a tropical forest and its relation to a world pattern of energy storage. Journal of Ecology 59: 127-142.

Lugo, A.E. 1992. Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological Monographs 62: 1-41.

Lugo, A.E., S. Brown, and J. Chapman. 1988. An analytical review of production rates and stemwood biomass of tropical forest plantations. For. Ecol. Manage. 23: 179-200.

Odum, H.T. 1962. Man in the Ecosystem. Proceedings of Lockwood Conference on the Suburban Forest and Ecology, Bull. Conn. Agr. Expt. Stat. 652: 57.

Odum, H.T. 1970. Summary: An Emerging View of the Ecological system at El Verde, Chapter 10, pp I-191 - I-289. IN: Odum, H.T., and R.F. Pigeon (eds.). 1970. A Tropical Rain Forest. USAEC, TID-24270.

Odum, H.T., and R.F. Pigeon (eds.). 1970. A Tropical Rain Forest. USAEC, TID-24270.

Odum, H.T., W. Abbott, R.K. Selander, F.B. Golley, and R.F. Wilson. 1970. Estimates of Chlorophyll and Biomass of the Tabonuco Forest of Puerto Rico. In Odum, H. T., and R. F. Pigeon (eds.). A Tropical Rain Forest, pp. I 3-19. USAEC, TID-24270.

Odum, H.T., B.J. Copeland, and R.Z. Brown. 1963. Direct and Optical Assay of the Leaf Mass of the Lower Montane Rain forest of Puerto Rico. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S., 49(4): 429-434.

Olson, J. S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44: 322-331.

Olson, R.J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Ovington, J. D., and J. S. Olson. 1970. Biomass and chemical content of El Verde lower montane rain forest plants. In Odum, H. T., and R. F. Pigeon (eds.). A Tropical Rain Forest, pp. H 53-77. USAEC, TID-24270.

Reagan, D. P., R. W. Garrison, J. E. Martinez, R. B. Waide, and C. P. Zucca. 1982. Tropical rain forest cycling and transport program: Phase 1 report. Center for Energy and Environment Research and the University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 183 pp.

Scatena, F.N., W. Silver, T. Siccama, A. Johnson, and M.J. Sanchez. 1993. Biomass and nutrient content of the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, before and after Hurricane Hugo, 1989. Biotropica 25: 15-27.

Scatena, F.N., S. Moya, C. Estrada, and J.D. Chinea. 1996. The First Five Years in the Reorganization of Aboveground Biomass and Nutrient Use Following Hurricane Hugo in the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28(4A). Special Issue: Long Term Responses of Caribbean Ecosystems to Disturbances, 424-440.

Weaver, P. L. 1972. Cloud moisture interception in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Caribb. J. Sci; 12: 129-144.

Weaver, P. L. 1983. Tree growth and stand changes in the subtropical life zones of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. SO-190. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., 24 pp.

Weaver, P. L., E. Medina, D. Pool, K. Dugger, J. Gonzales-Liboy, and E. Cuevas. 1986. Ecological observations in the dwarf cloud forest of the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 18: 79-85.

Weaver, P. L. and P. G. Murphy. 1990. Forest structure and productivity in Puerto Rico's Luquillo mountains. Biotropica 22: 69-82.

Wiegert, R.G. 1970. Effects of ionizing radiation on leaf fall, decomposition, and the litter micro-arthropods of a montane rain forest. In Odum, H. T., and R. F. Pigeon (eds.). A Tropical Rain Forest, pp. H 89-100. USAEC, TID-24270.

Zou, X., C. P. Zucca, R. B. Waide, and W. H. McDowell. 1995. Long-term influence of deforestation on tree species composition and litter dynamics of a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 78(1-3): 147-157.

Additional Sources of Information:

Clark, D. A., S. Brown, D. W. Kicklighter, J. Q. Chambers, J. R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E. A. Holland. 2001a. Net primary production in tropical forests: an evaluation and synthesis of existing field data. Ecological Applications, 11(2): 371-384.

Clark, D.A., S. Brown, D.W. Kicklighter, J.Q. Chambers, J.R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E.A. Holland. 2013. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/616

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615

Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, B.J. Peterson, A.L. Grace, B. Moore III, and C.J. Vörösmarty. 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model. Ecological Applications 1:399-429.

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R J. Olson. 2002. Terrestrial net primary productivity - A brief history and a new worldwide database. Environ. Rev. 10(2): 91-109. doi:10.1139/a02-002

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2013. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653

Walker, L. R., J. K. Zimmerman, D. Jean Lodge, and S. Guzman-Grajales. 1996. An altitudinal comparison of growth and species composition in hurricane-damaged forests in Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 84: 877-889.

Weaver, P. L. 1983. Tree growth and stand changes in the subtropical life zones of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. USDA For. Servo Res. Pap. SO-190. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., 24 pp.

8. Data Set Revisions

Revision Summary:

The temporal coverage for some data collection dates has been corrected in some of the npp data files. Additional data have been added where available.See tables below.

All other NPP labels and data values in the data file are not affected.

Data File Changes:

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Elverde forest, lql1_npp.txt, has been corrected. Additional data were added (i.e., LAI from Odum, 1970 and litter on the forest floor in dry and wet seasons from Zou et al., 1995). Additional references have been added. Temporal coverage, data values, and references in lql1_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter in Data Set * Uncorrected in lql1_npp.txt Corrected in lql1_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set1981-1983 1946-1983
Temporal coverage (branch, trunk, trunk+branch, large root, and fine root biomass), year of data collection 19691963
Temporal coverage (branch, trunk, trunk+branch, large root, and fine root biomass), month of data collection -999.911
Temporal coverage of trunk increment measurements1946-81 1946-76
Temporal coverage of LAI measurements 1981196?
LAI_total (ten prism method, m2/m2) **6.40
LAI_total (giant cylinder, plumb line, m2/m2) **5.24
LAI_total (plumb line, m2/m2) **5.60
LAI_total (three transects, correlation of spectral ratio to biomass, m2/m2) **6.60
Litter on forest floor (dry season, g/m2) **444.2
litter on forest floor (wet season, g/m2) **437.5


Notes:
* = See data set Guide document for parameter definitions and data references.
** = not reported.

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Elverde 2 forest, lql1a_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Lugo (1992). Temporal coverage in lql1a_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql1a_npp.txt Corrected in lql1a_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set 1981-19831980-1983

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Bisley forest, lql2_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Scatena et al. (1993; 1996). Wood growth (1988), root growth (1989-94), and ANPP and TNPP estimates (1989-94) have been corrected. The data in lql2_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql2_npp.txtCorrected in lql2_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set19881988-1994
woodgrowth (1988) (g/m2/yr) 280250
ANPP(1988) (g/m2/yr) **1,119
rootgrowth (1989-94) (g/m2/yr) 845530
ANPP(1989-94) (g/m2/yr)2,1601,630
ANPP (1989-94 )(g/m2/yr) **2,160

Notes:
* = See data set Guide document for parameter definitions and data references.
** = not reported.

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Guzman forest, lql3_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Lugo (1992). Temporal coverage in lql3_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql3_npp.txtCorrected in lql3_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set 1987-19891980-1989

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Cubuy forest, lql4_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Lugo (1992). Temporal coverage in lql4_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql4_npp.txtCorrected in lql4_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set 1981-19831980-1983

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Sabana forest, lql5_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Lugo (1992). Temporal coverage in lql5_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql5_npp.txtCorrected in lql5_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set 1981-19831980-1983

The temporal coverage for collection of litter on the forest floor in the data file for the Colorado forest, lql6_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Weaver and Murphy (1990). Temporal coverage in lql6_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql6_npp.txtCorrected in lql6_npp_r1.txt
Totlitter (year) 1981-82 1982

The temporal coverage for LAI measurements in the data file for the Palm forest, lql7_npp.txt, has been corrected to agree with Frangi and Lugo (1985). Temporal coverage in lql7_npp_r1.txt is now correct.

Parameter Uncorrected in lql6_npp.txt Corrected in lql6_npp_r1.txt
LAI_total (year) 1980-81 1980

The temporal coverage in the data file for the Dwarf cloud forest, lql8_npp.txt, has been corrected. Data collection dates (year) for above-ground biomass, litterfall, biomas inrement, herbivory, ANPP calculations, and LAI have been corrected. Additional data have been added (i.e., density of trees > 10 cm DBH, LAI, and BNPP) to agree with Weaver et al. (1986) and Weaver and Murphy (1990). Temporal coverage and data values in lql8_npp_r1.txt are now correct.

Parameter in Data Set * Uncorrected in lql8_npp.txt Corrected in lql8_npp_r1.txt
Temporal coverage for data set 1970-1982 1951-1983
Density (>10 cm DBH; stems/ha) **3,671
Biomass data collection (trunks+branches, leaves) (year) 19811977-78
Biomass data collection (leaves) (year) 19??1977-78
Biomass data collection (total litter) (year) 1981-821977-78
Litterfall data collection (leaf, wood, other, and total) (year) 1981-821977-78
Trunk increment data collection (year) 1946-811976-78
Herbivory data collection (year) 1946-82197?
ANPP calculation dates (year)1946-82 1976-82
BNPP (g/m2/year) **13
TNPP (g/m2/year)** 383
LAI measurement (year)1981 197?
LAI (m2/m2)** 1.99

Notes:
* = See data set Guide document for parameter definitions and data references.
** = not reported.

 

Cited References:

Frangi, J. L, and A. E. Lugo. 1985. Ecosystem dynamics of a subtropical floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs 55: 351-369.

Lugo, A.E. 1992. Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological Monographs 62: 1-41.

Odum, H.T. 1970. Summary: An Emerging View of the Ecological system at El Verde, Chapter 10, pp I-191 - I-289. IN: Odum, H.T., and R.F. Pigeon (eds.). 1970. A Tropical Rain Forest. USAEC, TID-24270.

Scatena, F.N., W. Silver, T. Siccama, A. Johnson, and M.J. Sanchez. 1993. Biomass and nutrient content of the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, before and after Hurricane Hugo, 1989. Biotropica 25: 15-27.

Scatena, F.N., S. Moya, C. Estrada, and J.D. Chinea. 1996. The First Five Years in the Reorganization of Aboveground Biomass and Nutrient Use Following Hurricane Hugo in the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28(4A). Special Issue: Long Term Responses of Caribbean Ecosystems to Disturbances, 424-440.

Weaver, P. L., E. Medina, D. Pool, K. Dugger, J. Gonzales-Liboy, and E. Cuevas. 1986. Ecological observations in the dwarf cloud forest of the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 18: 79-85.

Weaver, P. L. and P. G. Murphy. 1990. Forest structure and productivity in Puerto Rico's Luquillo mountains. Biotropica 22: 69-82.

Zou, X., C. P. Zucca, R. B. Waide, and W. H. McDowell. 1995. Long-term influence of deforestation on tree species composition and litter dynamics of a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 78(1-3): 147-157.

 

Data User Action: If you downloaded this data set from the ORNL DAAC on-line archive before October 15, 2013, you should download it again.