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NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

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Revision Date: September 27, 2013

Summary:

This data set contains the originally-submitted observation measurement data, terrestrial biosphere model output data, and inverse model simulations that various investigator teams contributed to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Synthesis activities.

The data set provides nine (9) data packages of remote sensing and ground observation measurements (OM) (MODIS gross primary productivity (GPP), MODIS net primary production (NPP), MODIS fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPar), MODIS leaf area index (LAI), MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), MODIS normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI), Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forest biomass, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop NPP, and Flux Anomaly). The data set also provides data packages of simulation results from 19 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) and eight (8) inverse models (IM). The data packages are respectively OM, TBM, and IM data files listed in Tables 4-6.

Each OM, TBM, and IM data package contains all of the original data (and documentation, if any) that the NACP Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) acquired or received. These originally-submitted data were processed by the MAST-DC to produce the three standardized gridded data sets of carbon flux for inter-comparison purposes (see Related Data Products below). These original data and documentation are provided to allow users of the standardized gridded data products to be able to trace back to the data origins when needed.

The Data Center (ORNL DAAC) transformed some of the originally-submitted data files to file formats that are more suitable for long-term archiving. For example, *.xlsx files were saved as *.csv, ERDAS Imagine files were converted to GeoTIFFs, and MATLAB files were converted to GeoTIFF and NetCDF formats as appropriate. Files received in NetCDF, GeoTIFF, and HDF formats were not transformed.

Detailed descriptions of observation measurement data and terrestrial biosphere and inverse models used in this study can be found in a separate companion document: NACP Regional Synthesis - Description of Observations and Models.

MAST-DC was a component of the NACP (www.nacarbon.org) designed to support NACP by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC was to provide data management support to NACP investigators and agencies performing modeling and synthesis activities.

Data and Documentation Access:

Get Data: http:daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1193

Related Data Products:

NACP Regional: Gridded 1-deg Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs [http:dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1157]
NACP Regional: Supplemental Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs [http:dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1158 ]
NACP Regional: National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Aggregated Gridded Model Data [http:dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1179]

 

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Cook, R.B., W.M. Post, P.E. Thornton, A.R. Jacobson, D.N. Huntzinger, Y. Wei, I. Baker, J. Chen, F. Chevallier, F.M. Hoffman, A. Jain, S. Liu, R. Lokupitiya, D.A. McGuire, A. Michalak, G.G. Moisen, R.P. Neilson, P. Peylin, C. Potter, B. Poulter, D. Price, J. Randerson, C. Rödenbeck, A.E. Schuh, C.R. Schwalm, H. Tian, E. Tomelleri, D.P. Turner, G. van der Werf, N. Viovy, T.O. West, J. Xiao, N. Zeng, and M. Zhao. 2013. NACP Regional: Original Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1193

 

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: North American Carbon Program (NACP)

The NACP (Denning et al., 2005; Wofsy and Harriss, 2002) is a multidisciplinary research program to obtain scientific understanding of North America's carbon sources and sinks and of changes in carbon stocks needed to meet societal concerns and to provide tools for decision makers. Successful execution of the NACP has required an unprecedented level of coordination among observational, experimental, and modeling efforts regarding terrestrial, oceanic, atmospheric, and human components. The program has relied upon a rich and diverse array of existing observational networks, monitoring sites, and experimental field studies in North America and its adjacent oceans. It is supported by a number of different federal agencies through a variety of intramural and extramural funding mechanisms and award instruments.

MAST-DC organized several synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare biosphere model outputs and observation data at local to continental scales for the time period of 2000 through 2005. The synthesis activities have included three component studies, each conducted on different spatial scales and producing numerous data products: (1) site-level analyses that examined process-based model estimates and observations at over 30 AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada tower sites across North America; (2) a regional, mid-continent intensive study centered in the agricultural regions of the United States and focused on comparing inventory-based estimates of net carbon exchange with those from atmospheric inversions; and (3) a regional and continental synthesis evaluating model estimates against each other and available inventory-based estimates across North America. A number of other NACP syntheses are underway, including ones focusing on non-CO2 greenhouse gases, the impact of disturbance on carbon exchange, and coastal carbon dynamics. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is the archive for the NACP synthesis data products.

This data set contains part of the third NACP synthesis product described above: regional analyses. It provides the original regional observation measurements and terrestrial biosphere and inverse model outputs retrieved by MAST-DC from various sources and modeling teams contributing to NACP. The originally-submitted data were processed by MAST-DC to produce three "analyzed" regional data sets: (1) NACP Regional: Gridded 1-deg Observation Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs (2) NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs; and (3) NACP Regional: National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Aggregated Gridded Model Data (see Related Data Products above).

This data set provides three categories of original data: (1) remote sensing and ground observation measurements (OM) data; (2) output data from 19 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM); and (3) output data from eight inverse models (IM) (Table 2). Data format, spatial and temporal resolution, and spatial and temporal extents varied among the original data files. These data (and documentation where available) are provided to allow users of the standardized data sets to be able to trace back to the data origins when needed. Detailed descriptions of observation data, TBM, and inverse models can be found in a separate document: NACP Regional Synthesis - Description of Observations and Models.


Table 1. Contributors

Last Name First Name Organization Email Role
Cook Robert B. ORNL cookrb@ornl.gov MAST-DC
Post Wilfred M. University of Tennessee wmp@ornl.gov MAST-DC
Thornton Peter E. ORNL thorntonpe@ornl.gov MAST-DC, CLM-CN
Jacobson Andy NOAA andy.jacobson@noaa.gov Synthesis Lead, CarbonTracker
Huntzinger Deborah N. Northern Arizona University deborah.huntzinger@nau.edu Synthesis Lead
Wei Yaxing ORNL weiy@ornl.gov MAST-DC
Baker Ian Colorado State University baker@atmos.colostate.edu SIB3.1
Chen Jing University of Toronto chenj@geog.utoronto.ca BEPS
Chevallier Frederic LSCE Frederic.Chevallier@lsce.ipsl.fr LSCE no.2
Hoffman Forrest ORNL forrest@climatemodeling.org CLM-CASA
Jain Atul University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign jain@atmos.uiuc.edu ISAM
Liu Shuguang USGS sliu@usgs.gov EC-LUE
Lokupitiya Ravi Colorado State University ravi@atmos.colostate.edu CSU no.1
McGuire David A. University of Alaska Fairbanks ffadm@uaf.edu TEM6
Michalak Anna Stanford University michalak@stanford.edu Michigan Geostatistical
Moisen Gretchen G. USDA Forest Service gmoisen@fs.fed.us U.S. Forest Biomass
Neilson Ronald P. USDA Forest Service rneilson@fs.fed.us MC1
Peylin Philippe LSCE Philippe.Peylin@lsce.ipsl.fr
LSCE no.1
Potter Chris NASA Ames Research Center chris.potter@nasa.gov NASA-CASA
Poulter Ben Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research ben.poulter@pik-potsdam.de LPJmL
Price David Canadian Forest Service dprice@nrcan.gc.ca
Can-IBIS
Randerson Jim University of California Irvine jranders@uci.edu CASA-Transcom
Riley William J. LBNL wjriley@lbl.gov ISOLSM
Rödenbeck Christian Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry christian.roedenbeck@bgc-jena.mpg.de Jena
Schuh Andrew Colorado State University aschuh@atmos.colostate.edu CSU no.2
Schwalm Christopher Northern Arizona University Christopher.Schwalm@nau.edu Flux Anomaly
Tian Hanqin Auburn University tianhan@auburn.edu DLEM
Tomelleri Enrico Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry etomell@bgc-jena.mpg.de
MOD17-plus
Turner David University of California Irvine david.turner@oregonstate.edu Biome-BGC
van der Werf Guido University Amsterdam guido.van.der.werf@falw.vu.nl CASA-GFEDv2
Viovy Nicolas LSCE viovy@lsce.ipsl.fr
ORCHIDEE
West Tristram O. PNNL tristram.west@pnnl.gov
Crop NPP
Xiao Jingfeng University of New Hampshire j.xiao@unh.edu EC-MOD
Zeng Ning University of Maryland at College Park zeng@atmos.umd.edu VEGAS
Zhao Maosheng University of Montana zhao@ntsg.umt.edu MODIS GPP/NPP



Table 2. List of Observation Measurements and Models

OBSERVATION MEASUREMENTS
Observation Data Short Name
MODIS MOD17A2 Gross Primary Production (GPP) MODIS GPP
MODIS MOD17A3 Net Primary Production (NPP) MODIS NPP
Conterminous U.S. Forest Biomass FIA Forest Biomass
Conterminous U.S. Crop Net Primary Production (NPP) NASS Crop NPP
MODIS MOD15A2GFS Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) MODIS fPAR
MODIS MOD15A2GFS Leaf Area Index (LAI) MODIS LAI
MODIS MOD09A1G_EVI Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) MODIS EVI
MODIS MOD09A1G_NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) MODIS NDVI
Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity and Respiration Anomalies Flux Anomaly
TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE MODELS
Prognostic Models Short Name
Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) Biome-BGC
Canadian Integrated BIosphere Simulator Can-IBIS
Community Land Model with CASA CLM-CASA
Community Land Model with Carbon&Nitrogen CLM-CN
Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model DLEM
Integrated Science Assessment Model ISAM
Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land model LPJmL
MC1 Dynamic Vegetation Model MC1
Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems model ORCHIDEE
Simple Biosphere model version 3.1 SiB3.1
Terrestrial Ecosystem Model version 6 TEM6
Vegetation Global Atmosphere and Soil model VEGAS
Diagnostic Models Short Name
Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator BEPS
Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model (Transcom version) CASA-Transcom
Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model (Global Fire Emissions Database v 2 version) CASA-GFEDv2
NASA-Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model NASA-CASA
Eddy-Covariance Light Use Efficiency model EC-LUE
Eddy-Covariance model with MODIS EC-MOD
MOD17-plus MOD17+
INVERSE MODELS
Inversion Models Short Name
CarbonTracker CarbonTracker
University of Toronto Nested Global model UToronto
Michigan Geostatistical model Michigan Geostatistical
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) no.1 (Peylin-LSCE) model LSCE-no1 (Peylin)
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) no.2 (Chevallier-LSCE) model LSCE-no2 (Chevalier)
JENA CO2 Inverse model Jena (Rodenbeck)
CSU no. 1 (MLEF-PCTM) model CSU-no1 (MLEF-PCTM)
CSU no. 2 CSU no. 2


Table 3. Data Package Summary

Data Set Sub Category
Original Observation Measurements Data and Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs Observation Measurements (OM)
Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) Outputs
Inverse Model (IM) Outputs


2. Data Description:

This data set contains OM data, TBM output data, and IM output data. The data format, spatial and temporal resolution, and spatial and temporal extents varied among the original data that MAST-DC acquired. The Data Center performed some file format transformations. Archived data file formats include .tif, .hdf, .csv, and .nc. Spatial and temporal resolutions and extents are unchanged.

2.1. Spatial Coverage

Site: North America

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
North America -170 -50 84 10

2.2. Spatial Resolution

Varies. See Tables 4-6.

2.3. Temporal Coverage

Varies (Range: 1990-2008). See Tables 4-6.

2.4. Temporal Resolution

One time, 8-day, monthly, or annual. See Tables 4-6.

2.5. Data File Information

Table 4. Observation Measurements (OM) Data Files

COMPRESSED FILE NAME DESCRIPTIONS
OM_FIA_Biomass_Original.zip Forest biomass data (short Tons C/acre) at 250 m resolution for the conterminous United States, 2000, in .tif format
OM_Flux-Anomaly_Original.zip Global monthly flux anomalies (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution, 1990-2008, in .tif format. Data were calculated using upscaled water deficit ~ carbon balance relationships and represent net ecosystem productivity, gross ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem respiration.
OM_MODIS_EVI_Original.zip MODIS MOD09A1 8-day 500 m surface reflectance EVI product, gap-filled and smoothed to derive MOD09A1G_EVI for North America, 2000-2005, in HDF format
OM_MODIS_FPAR_Original.zip MODIS MOD15A2 8-day 1 km (926 m) fPAR product (dimensionless ratio m^2/m^2), gap-filled and smoothed to derive MOD15A2GFS for North America, 2000-2005, in HDF format
OM_MODIS_GPP_Original.zip MODIS MOD17A2 Collection 5.1, 8-day 1 km GPP (kg C/m^2/mo) for North America, 2000-2006, in HDF format
OM_MODIS_LAI_Original.zip MODIS MOD15A2 8-day 1 km (926 m) LAI product (dimensionless ratio m^2/m^2), gap-filled and smoothed to derive MOD15A2GFS for North America, 2000-2005, in HDF format
OM_MODIS_NDVI_Original.zip MODIS MOD09A1 8-day 500 m surface reflectance NDVI product, gap-filled and smoothed to derive MOD09A1G_NDVI for North America, 2000-2005, in HDF format
OM_MODIS_NPP_Original.zip MODIS MOD17A3 Collection 5.1, annual NPP (kg C/m^2/yr) at 0.05 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2006, in HDF format
OM_NASS_CropNPP_Original.zip Annual crop net primary production by county FIPS code (Mg C/county/year) at 1 km resolution for the conterminous United States, 1996-2008, in comma-separated (.csv) format

Table 5. Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) Output Data Files

FILE NAME DESCRIPTION
TBM_BEPS_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NPP, and NEP (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2004, in .tif format from the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model
TBM_Biome-BGC_Original.zip Daily GPP, NPP, NEP, auto_resp, and hetero_resp (kg/m^2/yr) and wmas (kg/m^2) at 1 km resolution for Oregon, 2000-2002, in netCDF data from the Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) model
TBM_CASA-GFEDv2_Original.zip Monthly NEE, GPP, and R (Ra+Rh) (g C/m^2/mo) and NEEF (kg C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2005, in netCDF format from the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) model (Global Fire Emissions Database v 2 version)
TBM_CASA-Transcom_Original.zip Monthly NEE data (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2002-2003, in .tif format from the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) (TransCom version). There is also 1 netCDF file
TBM_CLM-CASA_Original
files not zipped due to file size.
There are 8 TBM_CLM-CASA_Original_***.nc files.
i01.54 Global monthly GPP, NPP, NEE, NEP, and HR (g C/m^2/s), TLAI and landfrac (N/A), LEAFC, LITTERC, SOILC, WOODC, CWDC, and FROOTC (g C/m^2), and VegC (g C/m^2 derived from LEAFC+WOODC+FROOTC) at 2.5x1.89474 degree resolution, 1990-2004, in netCDF format from the Community Land Model with CASA
i01.54_q15
i01.55
i01.55_q15
TBM_CLM-CN_Original
files not zipped due to file size.
There are 4 TBM_CLM-CN_Original_***.nc files.
i01.56 Global monthly GPP, NPP, NEE, NEP, and HR (g C/m^2/s), TLAI and landfrac (N/A), TOTVEGC, LEAFC, LITTERC, SOILC, WOODC, CWDC, and FROOTC (g C/m^2) at 2.5x1.89474 degree resolution, 1990-2004, in netCDF format from the Community Land Model with Carbon&Nitrogen
i01.57_q15
TBM_Can-IBIS_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NPP, NEP, Ra, and Rh (kgC/m^2/mo) and annual CBiomass, CSoil (g C/m^2/yr) at 0.5 degree resolution for United States and Canada, 2000-2005, in netCDF format from the Canadian Integrated BIosphere Simulator model
TBM_DLEM_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NEE, NPP, Ra, and Rh (g C/m^2/mo) and TotLivBiom, TotSoilCarb (g C/m^2) at 32 km resolution for North America, 2000-2005, in netCDF format from the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM)
TBM_EC-LUE_Original.zip Monthly GPP (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2004-2005, in netCDF format from the Eddy-Covariance Light Use Efficiency (EC-LUE) model
TBM_EC-MOD_Original.zip Monthly GPP (GPPn+GPPc) and NEE (NEEn+NEEc) (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2001-2006, in netCDF format from the Eddy-Covariance model with MODIS (EC-MOD v2.0)
TBM_ISAM_Original.zip Monthly NEE, NPP, and Rh (kg C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2007, in netCDF format from the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM)
TBM_LPJmL_Original.zip Monthly NEE, GPP, NPP, RH, and RA (kg C/m^2/mo), annual FIRE (kg C/m^2/yr), and annual VEGC, SOILC, LITC (kg C/m^2) at 0.5 degree resolution for North America, 1990-2006, in netCDF format from the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) model
TBM_MC1_Original.zip Monthly NPP, NEE, NBP, and RespH (kg C/m^2/mo), TotLivBiom and TSLC (kg C/m^2), and BioCons (kg C/m^2/mo)at 0.5 degree resolution for the conterminous United States, 2000-2007, in netCDF format from the MC1 Dynamic Vegetation Model
TBM_MOD17-plus_Original.zip Monthly GPP and Reco (R=Ra+Rh) (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2005, in netCDF format from the MOD17-plus model
TBM_NASA-CASA_Original.zip Monthly NPP and NEP (g C/m^2/mo) at 8 km resolution for the conterminous United States, 2001-2004, in .tif format from the NASA-Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (NASA-CASA) model
TBM_ORCHIDEE_Original.zip v1.0 Monthly GPP, NPP, and CO2FLUX (NEE) (g C/m^2/da), LAI (N/A), and GROWTH_RESP, HET_RESP (g C/m^2/da) at 0.3512 degree (T511) resolution for North America, 2001-2007, in netCDF format from the ORCHIDEE mode, version 1.0
v2.1 Monthly GPP, NPP, and CO2FLUX (NEE) (g C/m^2/da), LAI (N/A), HET_RESP (g C/m^2/da), and TOTAL_M, TOTAL_SOIL_CARB (g C/m^2) at 0.5 degree resolution for North America, 1991-2008, in netCDF format from the ORCHIDEE mode, version 2.0
TBM_SiB3_Original.zip Monthly NEE (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2005, in netCDF format from the Simple Biosphere model (SiB) version 3.1, 2 fortran model codes (*.f90), and one .pdf
TBM_TEM6_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NCE, NECB, NPP, and RH (kg C/m^2/mo) and SOILC, VEGC (kg C/m^2) at 0.5 degree resolution for North America (>45oN), 2000-2006, in netCDF format from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) version 6
TBM_VEGAS_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NEE (fire emissions included), NPP, Ra, Rh, NEP (derived from NPP-Rh), and cfire (kg/m^2/yr), cleaf, csoil, cb, and cvege (kg/m^2), evap (W/m^2), and LAI (N/A) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2000-2007, in netCDF format from the Vegetation Global Atmosphere and Soil (VEGAS)

Table 6. Inverse Model (IM) Output Data Files

FILE NAME DESCRIPTION
IM_CSU-no1_Original.zip Global monthly NEE and FF (moles/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 2003-2004, in netCDF format from the CSU no. 1 (MLEF-PCTM) model
IM_CSU-no2_Original.zip Monthly GPP, NEE and RESP (kg C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution for North America, 2004, in netCDF format from the CSU no. 2 model
IM_CarbonTracker_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (micromol/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 2000-2007, in netCDF format from CarbonTracker
IM_JENA_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (micromol/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 2001-2007, in netCDF format from the JENA CO2 Inverse model
IM_LCSE-no1_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (micromol/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 2000-2004, in netCDF format from the LSCE No.1 (Peylin-LSCE) model
IM_LCSE-no2_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (micromol/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 2000-2006, in netCDF format from the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) no.2 (Chevallier-LSCE) model
IM_Michigan-Geostatisical_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (mol/m^2/sec) at 1 degree resolution, 1997-2001, in (.txt) format from the Michigan Geostatistical model
IM_UToronto_Original.zip Global monthly NEE (g C/m^2/mo) at 1 degree resolution, 2000-2003, in netCDF format from the University of Toronto Nested Global model

2.6. Observation Data and Model Output Variables

Table 7. Observation and Model Output Variables --general measurement types and variable short names


Short Name Units Long Name Temporal Resolution OM and Model Short Names
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
GPP vary gross primary production vary MODIS GPP, BEPS, Can-IBIS, CASA-GFEDv2, CLM-CASA,
CLM-CN, DLEM, EC-LUE, EC-MOD, LPJmL, MOD17-plus, ORCHIDEE (v1.0), TEM6, VEGAS, OSU-BGC
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)  
NPP vary net primary production vary MODIS NPP, BEPS, Can-IBIS, ISAM, LPJmL, MC1, NASA-CASA, ORCHIDEE (v1.0), TEM6, VEGAS, DLEM, OSU-BGC
FNPP g/m2/s net primary production monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
NPPCrop kg C m-2 month-1 net primary production crop monthly ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
CropNPP MgC y-1 crop NPP annual NASS CropNPP
Net Ecosystem Exchange  (NEE)
NEE vary net ecosystem exchange vary BEPS, Can-IBIS, CASA-GFEDv2, CLM-CASA, CLM-CN, EC-MOD, ISAM, LPJmL, MC1, MOD17-plus, NASA-CASA, SiB3, TEM6, VEGAS, CASA-Transcom, DLEM, CarbonTracker, UToronto, LSCE-no1, LSCE-no2, JENA, CSU-no1, CSU-no2, Michigan-Geostatistical
CO2FLUX kg C m-2 month-1 co2 flux monthly ORCHIDEE (v1.0)
ANEE kg C m-2 year-1 annual net ecosystem exchange yearly LPJmL
NEEF vary net ecosystem exchange with
fire emissions
vary MC1, CASA-GFEDv2
ANEEF kg C m-2 year-1 annual net ecosystem exchange with fire emissions yearly LPJmL
Net Ecosystem Production
NEP vary net ecosystem production vary BEPS, Can-IBIS, CLM-CASA, CLM-CM,
NASA-CASA, VEGAS, OSU-BGC
Total Respiration  
R kg C m-2 month-1 respiration monthly CASA-GFEDv2
Reco kg C m-2 month-1 ecosystem respiration monthly MOD17-plus
Autotrophic Respiration 
Ra vary autotrophic respiration vary Can-IBIS, VEGAS, DLEM
RA kg C m-2 month-1 autotrophic respiration monthly LPJmL
auto_resp   autotrophic respiration   OSU-BGC
Heterotrophic Respiration
Rh vary heterotrophic respiration vary BEPS, Can-IBIS, ISAM, NASA-CASA,
VEGAS, DLEM
HR kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RH kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly LPJmL, TEM6
RespH kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly MC1
HetResp kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly ORCHIDEE (v1.0)
hetero_resp   heterotrophic respiration   OSU-BGC
Fire Emissions
Cfire kg C m-2 month-1 fire emissions monthly CASA-GFEDv2
cfire kg C m-2 month-1 fire emissions monthly VEGAS
FIRE kg C m-2 year-1 fire emissions yearly LPJmL
BioCons kg C m-2 month-1 biomass consumed monthly MC1
FireEmissions kg C m-2 month-1 fire emissions monthly TEM6
Total Living Biomass
TotLivBiom kg C m-2 monthly mean total carbon content
of the living biomass including heartwood
monthly DLEM
TotLivBiom kg C m-2 total living biomass monthly MC1
CBiomass kg C m-2 biomass yearly Can-IBIS
cb kg C m-2 total biomass carbon monthly VEGAS
Biomass kg C m-2 forest biomass one time FIA Forest Biomass
Total Soil Carbon: Total soil and litter carbon content vertically integrated over the entire soil column
TotSoilCarb kg C m-2 monthly mean total soil carbon density monthly DLEM
CSoil kg C m-2 soil carbon yearly Can-IBIS
SOILC kg C m-2 total soil organic matter C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
SOILC kg C m-2 total soil carbon monthly TEM6
SOILC kg C m-2 soil carbon yearly LPJmL
TSLC kg C m-2 total soil carbon monthly MC1
csoil kg C m-2 soil carbon monthly VEGAS
Leaf Area Index
LAI (-) leaf area index monthly ORCHIDEE (v1.0), VEGAS
TLAI (-) total projected leaf area index monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Evapotranspiration (ET)
evap W m-2 evapotranspiration   VEGAS
Coarse Woody Debris Carbon
CWDC kg C m-2 coarse woody debris C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Wood Carbon
WOODC kg C m-2 wood C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
wmas kg m-2 wood mass annual OSU-BGC
Fine Root Carbon
FROOTC kg C m-2 fine root C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Land Fraction
landfrac (-) land fraction monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf Carbon
LEAFC kg C m-2 leaf C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
cleaf kg C m-2 leaf carbon monthly VEGAS
Litter Carbon
LITTERC kg C m-2 litter C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
LITC kg C m-2 litter carbon yearly LPJmL
Vegetation Carbon
VegC kg C m-2 vegetation C monthly CLM-CASA
cvege kg C m-2 total vegetation carbon monthly VEGAS
VEGC kg C m-2 live vegetation carbon yearly LPJmL
VEGC kg C m-2 total vegetation above and below ground monthly TEM6
TOTVEGC kg C m-2 total vegetation carbon monthly CLM-CN
Net Biome Production
NBP kg C m-2 month-1 net biome production monthly MC1
Growth Respiration
GROWTH_RESP kg C m-2 month-1 growth respiration monthly ORCHIDEE (v1.0)
Net Carbon Exchange
NCE kg C m-2 month-1 net exchange of C from the land to
the atmosphere
monthly TEM6
Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance
NECB kg C m-2 month-1 net ecosystem C balance from the land to the atmosphere monthly TEM6
Soil Depth
ZSOI m soil depth static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Thickness
DZSOI m soil thickness static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Saturated Soil Water Content (porosity)
WATSAT mm3/mm3 saturated soil water content (porosity) static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Saturated Soil Matric Potential
SUCSAT mm saturated soil matric potential static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Slope of Soil Water Retention Curve
BSW unitless slope of soil water retention curve static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity
HKSAT unitless saturated hydraulic conductivity static CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Above-ground Net Primary Production
AGNPP gC/m2/s above-ground net primary production   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Moisture Dependence
BGMOIST unitless moisture dependence   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Below-ground Net Primary Production
BGNPP gC/m2/s below-ground net primary production   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Temperature Dependence
BGTEMP unitless temperature dependence   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Biogenic CO Flux
BIOGENCO uG/M2/H biogenic CO flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Transpiration Beta Factor
BTRAN unitless transpiration beta factor   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Amt. of Carbon Lost by Pool
CLOSS g/m2/s Amt. of Carbon lost by pool   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Carbon Flux
CFLUX g/m2/s total Carbon flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Amt. of Carbon Transferred Out of Pool Types
CTRANS g/m2/s Amt. of Carbon transferred out of pool types   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Coarse Woody Debris Heterotrophic Respiration
CWDC_HR gC/m2/s coarse woody debris heterotrophic respiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Coarse Woody Debris C Loss
CWDC_LOSS gC/m2/s coarse woody debris C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Accumulated Degree Days
DEGDAY deg C Accumulated degree days   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Derivative of Hydraulic Conductivity
DHKDW mm/s derivative of hydraulic conductivity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Turbulent Deposition Velocity 1
DPVLTRB1 m/s turbulent deposition velocity 1 monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Turbulent Deposition Velocity 2
DPVLTRB2 m/s turbulent deposition velocity 2 monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Turbulent Deposition Velocity3
DPVLTRB3 m/s turbulent deposition velocity 3 monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Turbulent Deposition Velocity4
DPVLTRB4 m/s turbulent deposition velocity 4 monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Derivative of Soil Matric Potential
DSMPDW mm derivative of soil matric potential   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Surface Dust Emission
DSTFLXT kg/m2/s total surface dust emission   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM Land Change in Storage: LIQ
DVOLRDT_LND mm/s RTM land change in storage: LIQ   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM Land Change in Storage: ICE
DVOLRDT_LND_ICE mm/s RTM land change in storage: ICE   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM Ocean Change in Storage: LIQ
DVOLRDT_OCN mm/s RTM ocean change in storage: LIQ   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM Ocean Change in Storage: ICE
DVOLRDT_OCN_ICE mm/s RTM ocean change in storage: ICE   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Change in Soil Water Content
DWAT mm3/mm3 change in soil water content   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Exposed One-sided Leaf Area Index
ELAI m^2/m^2 exposed one-sided leaf area index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Water Conservation Error
ERRH2O mm total water conservation error   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Surface Energy Conservation Error
ERRSEB watt/m^2 surface energy conservation error   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil /lake Energy Conservation Error
ERRSOI watt/m^2 soil/lake energy conservation error   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Solar Radiation Conservation Error**********
  watt/m^2 solar radiation conservation error   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Exposed One-sided Stem Area Index
ESAI m^2/m^2 exposed one-sided stem area index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Excess Carbon
EXCESSC g/m2/timestep excess carbon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Canopy Evaporation
FCEV watt/m^2 canopy evaporation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fractional Area with With Water Table at Surface
FCOV unitless fractional area with water table at surface   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Canopy Transpiration
FCTR watt/m^2 canopy transpiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Ground Evaporation
FGEV watt/m^2 ground evaporation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Heat Flux into Soil
FGR watt/m^2 heat flux into soil   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Heat Flux between Soil Layers 1 and 2
FGR12 watt/m^2 heat flux between soil layers 1 and 2   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Net Infrared (Longwave) Radiation
FIRA watt/m^2 net infrared (longwave) radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Emitted Infrared (Longwave) Radiation
FIRE watt/m^2 emitted infrared (longwave) radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Longwave Radiation
FLDS watt/m^2 atmospheric longwave radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Heat Flux for Rain to Snow Conversion
FLUXFM2A W/m2 heat flux for rain to snow conversion   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Heat Flux From Rain to Snow Conversion
FLUXFMLND W/m2 heat flux from rain to snow conversion   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Photosynthesis
FPSN umol/m2s photosynthesis   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root C
FROOTC gC/m2 fine root C   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root C Allocation
FROOTC_ALLOC gC/m2/s fine root C allocation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root C Loss
FROOTC_LOSS gC/m2/s fine root C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root Litter C
FROOT_LITTERC gC/m2 fine root litter C   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root Litter Heterotrophic Respiration
FROOT_LITTERC_HR gC/m2/s fine root litter heterotrophic respiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root Litter C Loss
FROOT_LITTERC_LOSS gC/m2/s fine root litter C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Absorbed Solar Radiation
FSA watt/m^2 absorbed solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Incident Solar Radiation
FSDS watt/m^2 atmospheric incident solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Nir Incident Solar Radiation
FSDSND watt/m^2 direct nir incident solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Nir Incident Solar Radiation at Local Noon
FSDSNDLN watt/m^2 direct nir incident solar radiation at local noon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffuse Nir Incident Solar Radiation
FSDSNI watt/m^2 diffuse nir incident solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Vis Incident Solar Radiation
FSDSVD watt/m^2 direct vis incident solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Vis Incident Solar Radiation at Local Noon
FSDSVDLN watt/m^2 direct vis incident solar radiation at local noon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffuse Vis Incident Solar Radiation
FSDSVI watt/m^2 diffuse vis incident solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sensible Heat
FSH watt/m^2 sensible heat   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sensible Heat from Ground
FSH_G watt/m^2 sensible heat from ground   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sensible Heat from Veg
FSH_V watt/m^2 sensible heat from veg   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Melt Heat Flux
FSM watt/m^2 snow melt heat flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fraction of Ground Govered by Snow
FSNO unitless fraction of ground covered by snow   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Reflected Solar Radiation
FSR watt/m^2 reflected solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Nir Reflected Solar Radiation
FSRND watt/m^2 direct nir reflected solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Nir Reflected Solar Radiation at Local Noon
FSRNDLN watt/m^2 direct nir reflected solar radiation at local noon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffuse Nir Reflected Solar Radiation
FSRNI watt/m^2 diffuse nir reflected solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Vis  Reflected Solar Radiation
FSRVD watt/m^2 direct vis reflected solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Direct Vis Reflected Solar Radiationat Local Noon
FSRVDLN watt/m^2 direct vis reflected solar radiation at local noon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffuse Vis Reflected Solar Radiation
FSRVI watt/m^2 diffuse vis reflected solar radiation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Intercepted Water
H2OCAN mm intercepted water   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Depth (Liquid Water)
H2OSNO mm snow depth (liquid water)   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Volumetric Soil Water
H2OSOI mm3/mm3 volumetric soil water   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Heat Content
HCSOI MJ soil heat content   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Plus Snow Heat Content
HCSOISNO MJ soil plus snow heat content CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Hydraulic Conductivity
HK mm/s hydraulic conductivity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban Canyon Height to Width Ratio
HWR none urban canyon height to width ratio   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Index for Start of Growing Season
ISEABEG unitless index for start of growing season   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Isoprene Flux
ISOPRENE uG/M2/H isoprene flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Shaded Projected Leaf Area Index
LAISHA none shaded projected leaf area index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sunlit Projected Leaf Area Index
LAISUN none sunlit projected leaf area index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf C Allocation
LEAFC_ALLOC gC/m2/s leaf C allocation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf C Loss
LEAFC_LOSS gC/m2/s leaf C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf Litter C
LEAF_LITTERC gC/m2 leaf litter C   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf Litter Heterotrophic Respiration
LEAF_LITTERC_HR gC/m2/s leaf litter heterotrophic respiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf Litter C Loss
LEAF_LITTERC_LOSS gC/m2/s leaf litter C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Growing Season Index
LGROW none growing season index (0 or 1)   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Litter Heterotrophic Respiration
LITTERC_HR gC/m2/s litter heterotrophic respiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Litter C Loss
LITTERC_LOSS gC/m2/s litter C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Live Fraction for Leaf, Wood, Froot
LIVEFR g/m2 live fraction for leaf, wood, froot   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Monoterpene Flux
MONOTERP uG/M2/H monoterpene flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Nstep at Start of Growing Season
NSTEPBEG none nstep at start of growing season   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Other Reactive VOC Flux
ORVOC uG/M2/H other reactive VOC flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Other VOC Flux
OVOC uG/M2/H other VOC flux   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Pressure
PBOT Pa atmospheric pressure   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Partial Pressure of CO2
PCO2 Pa atmospheric partial pressure of CO2   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Potential Evapotranspiration
PET mm h2o/s Potential Evapotranspiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Prognostic Leaf Area Index
PLAI m2/m2 Prognostic Leaf Area Index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
2-m Specific Humidity
Q2M kg/kg 2-m specific humidity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Rural 2-m Specific Humidity
Q2M_R kg/kg Rural 2-m specific humidity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban 2-m Specific Humidity
Q2M_U kg/kg Urban 2-m specific humidity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Specific Humidity
QBOT kg/kg atmospheric specific humidity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM River Flow: LIQ
QCHANR m3/s RTM river flow: LIQ   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM River Flow: ICE
QCHANR_ICE m3/s RTM river flow: ICE   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Aquifer Recharge Rate
QCHARGE mm/s aquifer recharge rate   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM River Discharge Into Ocean: LIQ
QCHOCNR m3/s RTM river discharge into ocean: LIQ   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
RTM River Discharge Into Ocean: ICE
QCHOCNR_ICE m3/s RTM river discharge into ocean: ICE   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sub-surface Drainage
QDRAI mm/s sub-surface drainage   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Throughfall
QDRIP mm/s throughfall   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffusion Flux into Soil Layer
QFLX_IN_SOIL mm/s diffusion flux into soil layer   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Diffusion Flux out of  Soil Layer
QFLX_OUT_SOIL mm/s diffusion flux out of soil layer   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Saturation Excess
QFLX_RSUB_SAT mm/s soil saturation excess   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Transpiration Flux out of  Soil Layer
QFLX_TRAN_SOIL mm/s transpiration flux out of soil layer   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Infiltration
QINFL mm/s infiltration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Interception
QINTR mm/s interception   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Melt
QMELT mm/s snow melt   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Surface Runoff
QOVER mm/s surface runoff   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Surface Runoff at Glaciers, Wetlands, Lakes
QRGWL mm/s surface runoff at glaciers, wetlands, lakes   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Runoff
QRUNOFF mm/s total runoff   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Rural Total Runoff
QRUNOFF_R mm/s Rural total runoff   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
UrbanTotal Runoff
QRUNOFF_U mm/s Urban total runoff   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Excess Snowfall Due to Snow Capping
QSNWCPICE mm H2O/s excess snowfall due to snow capping   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Ground Evaporation
QSOIL mm/s ground evaporation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Canopy Evaporation
QVEGE mm/s canopy evaporation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Canopy Transpiration
QVEGT mm/s canopy transpiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Rain
RAIN mm/s atmospheric rain   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Rain Forcing
RAINATM mm/s atmospheric rain forcing   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Land Rain on ATM Grid
RAINFM2A mm/s land rain on atm grid   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Amt. of Carbon Lost to ATM by Pool
RESP_C g/m2/s Amt. of Carbon lost to atm by pool   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
2-m Relative Humidity
RH2M % 2-m relative humidity   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Shaded Leaf Stomatal Resistance
RSSHA s/m shaded leaf stomatal resistance   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Sunlit Leaf Stomatal Resistance
RSSUN s/m sunlit leaf stomatal resistance   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Solar Rad Absorbed by Ground
SABG watt/m^2 solar rad absorbed by ground   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Solar Rad Absorbed by Veg
SABV watt/m^2 solar rad absorbed by veg   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Moisture for Top 30 cm
SMOIST mm3/mm3 Soil moisture for top 30 cm   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Matric Potential
SMP mm soil matric potential   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Snow
SNOW mm/s atmospheric snow   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Age
SNOWAGE unitless snow age   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Snow Forcing
SNOWATM mm/s atmospheric snow forcing   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Height
SNOWDP m snow height   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Land Snow on ATM Ggrid
SNOWFM2A mm/s land snow on atm grid   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Ice
SNOWICE kg/m2 snow ice   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Liquid Wter
SNOWLIQ kg/m2 snow liquid water   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Heterotrophic Respiration
SOILC_HR gC/m2/s soil heterotrophic respiration   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil C Loss
SOILC_LOSS gC/m2/s soil C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Ice
SOILICE kg/m2 soil ice   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Liquid Water
SOILLIQ kg/m2 soil liquid water   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Water Potential in each Soil Layer
SOILPSI MPa soil water potential in each soil layer   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Temperature For Top 30 cm
SOILT deg C Soil temperature for top 30 cm   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Cold + Drought Stress Function for Leaf Loss
STRESSCD   cold + drought stress function for leaf loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Temperature Stress Function for Leaf Loss
STRESST   temperature stress function for leaf loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Water Stress Function for Leaf Loss
STRESSW   water stress function for leaf loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Factor Limiting Ground Evap
SoilAlpha unitless factor limiting ground evap   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban Factor limiting Ground Evap
SoilAlpha_U unitless urban factor limiting ground evap   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Zonal Surface Stress
TAUX kg/m/s^2 zonal surface stress   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Meridional Surface Stress
TAUY kg/m/s^2 meridional surface stress   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Air Temperature
TBOT K atmospheric air temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Daily Averaged Temperature
TDAYAVG deg C Daily Averaged Temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Ground Temperature
TG K ground temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Rural Ground Temperature
TG_R K Rural ground temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban Ground Temperature
TG_U K Urban ground temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Air Potential Temperature
THBOT K atmospheric air potential temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Lake Temperature
TLAKE K lake temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Carbon for Pool
TPOOL_C g/m2 Total Carbon for pool   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Daily Minimum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMNAV K daily minimum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Rural Daily Minimum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMNAV_R K Rural daily minimum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban Daily Minimum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMNAV_U K Urban daily minimum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Daily Maximum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMXAV K daily maximum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Rural Daily Maximum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMXAV_R K Rural daily maximum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban Daily Maximum of Average 2-m Temperature
TREFMXAV_U K Urban daily maximum of average 2-m temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
2-m Air Temperature
TSA K 2-m air temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Projected Stem Area Index
TSAI none total projected stem area index   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Urban 2-m Air Temperature
TSA_U K Urban 2-m air temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Snow Temperature
TSNOW K snow temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Soil Temperature
TSOI K soil temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Vegetation Temperature
TV K vegetation temperature   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total VOC Flux Into Atmosphere
VOCFLXT uG/M2/H total VOC flux into atmosphere   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Water in the Unconfined Aquifer
WA mm water in the unconfined aquifer   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Watdry for Entire Column
WATDRY mm3/mm3 watdry for entire column   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Watopt for Entire Column
WATOPT mm3/mm3 watopt for entire column   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Wind Velocity Magnitude
WIND m/s atmospheric wind velocity magnitude   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Water Lmitation Used in BGMoist (atmp factor)
WLIM none Water limitation used in bgmoist (atmp factor)   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Wood C Allocation
WOODC_ALLOC gC/m2/s wood C allocation   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Wood C Loss
WOODC_LOSS gC/m2/s wood C loss   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Water Storage
WT mm total water storage (unsaturated soil water + groundwater)   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Excess Carbon
XSCPOOL g/m2 total excess Carbon   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Atmospheric Reference Height
ZBOT m atmospheric reference height   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Reference Height Forc_hgt+z0+d for each PFT
ZBOT_PFT m reference height forc_hgt+z0+d for each pft   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Water Table Depth
ZWT m water table depth   CLM-CASA, CLM-CN

 

2.7. Companion Files

Table 8. Companion Files

FILE NAME DESCRIPTION
Regional-Description_of_Observations_and_Models.pdf Overview of observation measurement data and terrestrial biosphere and inverse models, including descriptions, sources, contacts, and a comprehensive reference list
NACP_Model_Characteristics.pdf Overview of process descriptions in participating TBMs and boundary conditions and driver data used in participating TBMs with a comprehensive reference list
NACP_Model_Metadata_Survey_Results.pdf Metadata for TBMs Intercomparison: Site Model Data Comparison and Regional Model Data Comparison: Survey Results
OM_FIA_Biomass_Original_blackard_etal_2008RSE.pdf  
OM_FIA_Biomass_Original_conus_forest_biomass_Metadata.htm  
OM_Flux-Anoma-ly_Original_Schwalm.Anomaly.Metadata.doc  
TBM_BEPS_Original_readme.doc  
TBM_CASA-Transcom_Original_read_me.txt  
TBM_Can-IBIS_Original_README.txt  
TBM_DLEM_Original_OVERVIEW.doc  
TBM_EC-LUE_Original.doc  
TBM_NASA-CASA_Original_readme.txt  
TBM_NASA-CASA_Original_readme_nasacasa_updated.txt  
TBM_NASA-CASA_Original_usmask3.readme.txt  
TBM_TEM6_Original_TEM_NACP_Documentation.doc  

 

3. Data Application and Derivation:

This data product contributes to a multidisciplinary research program to obtain scientific understanding of North America's carbon sources and sinks and of changes in carbon stocks needed to meet societal concerns and to provide tools for decision makers. It is part of a NACP regional and continental synthesis to evaluate and inter-compare models and observation measurements across North America. This work provides a valuable assessment of the current status of terrestrial carbon modeling in North America by bringing together model estimates that incorporate a wide range of modeling choices and input data. This work also serves as a starting point for analyses that compare these model results to different observational data products.

4. Quality Assessment:

This data set provides the original observation measurements and model simulation output results that MAST-DC acquired or received from contributing investigators. No further data processing was done by MAST-DC to values in this data set. The data represent “off-the-shelf” observations and model simulations (i.e., existing data and model results currently available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies).

The range in estimates of regional land-atmosphere carbon fluxes from the participating models appears to be driven by a combination of factors. The models differ from each other because they are based on different simplifying assumptions and use different approaches (forward vs. inverse) and modeling strategies (detailed process, statistical, or observation based). They also differ structurally in how they represent the processes controlling carbon exchange between the land and atmosphere (e.g., representation of photosynthesis), in their input or environmental driver data (e.g., land cover, climate variables) and the temporal variability of those data, in their initial conditions, and in the parameter values used within their varying process descriptions. The gridded observation data also differ with regards to biome type, acquisition methods, spatial coverage and resolution, and temporal coverage and resolution. These varying approaches result in a large degree of variability in estimates of regional land-atmosphere carbon fluxes.

The variability in carbon flux estimates highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates. A more formal model-data comparison is required to more definitively quantify the impact of model formulation and supporting and driver data on the accuracy of the simulation model outputs. Such efforts are underway by NACP, requiring substantial technical support for model participation, development of consistent and optimal environmental driver data sets, a unified intercomparison protocol, as well as coordination of the intercomparison effort across research groups. These NACP projects include (1) working to understand how model formulation and model choices impact overall model performance through the use of detailed simulation protocol and controlled input environmental driver data (e.g., Schwalm et al., 2010) and (2) the Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), which directly builds on the NACP regional synthesis products presented here.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Several types of observation measurements were assembled to be compared against simulation model output. These include MODIS-GPP/NPP, MODIS-fPAR/LAI, MODIS-EVI/NDVI, crop carbon yield, forest biomass, and carbon flux anomalies at AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada locations. The methods for acquiring these measurements are summarized in a separate document: NACP Regional Synthesis - Description of Observations and Models and relevant references therein.

Twenty-eight simulation models participated in the regional synthesis. These models included ecosystem (bottom-up) models for forward analyses, and similar models used for inversion analyses. These are complementary approaches to analyzing the synthesis questions. The forward or bottom-up models provided analysis results at the temporal and spatial resolution of simulation runs more-or-less "in hand." These ranged from hourly to annual time steps, summarized to a monthly scale, and 1-km to county to 1-degree spatial resolution. The inverse analysis models provided model results at the spatial resolution of the North America TRANSCOM region (1 degree resolution), and monthly temporal resolution. The participating models are described in a separate document: NACP Regional Synthesis - Description of Observations and Models and relevant references therein.

Data Center Processing

The Data Center (ORNL DAAC) transformed some of the originally-submitted data files to file formats that are more suitable for long-term archiving. For example, *.xlsx files were saved as *.csv, ERDAS Imagine files were converted to GeoTIFFs, and MATLAB files were converted to GeoTIFF and NetCDF formats as appropriate. Files received in NetCDF, GeoTIFF, and HDF formats were not transformed.

The OM, TBM, and IM original data that MAST-DC acquired also vary in spatial and temporal resolution, and spatial and temporal extent. The Data Center performed some file format transformations but the spatial and temporal resolutions and extents are unchanged.

6. Data Access:

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

 

7. References:

Denning, A.S., et al. 2005. Science implementation strategy for the North American Carbon Program: A Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, Washington, DC. 68 pp.

Huntzinger, D.N., W.M. Post, Y. Wei, A.M. Michalak, T.O. West, A.R. Jacobson, I.T. Baker, J.M. Chen, K.J. Davis, D.J. Hayes, F.M. Hoffman, A.K. Jain, S. Liu, A.D. McGuire, R.P. Neilson, C. Potter, B. Poulter, D. Price, B.M. Raczka, H.Q. Tian, P. Thornton, E. Tomelleri, N. Viovy, J. Xiao, W. Yuan, N. Zeng, M. Zhao, and R. Cook. 2012. North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis: Terrestrial biospheric model intercomparison. Ecological Modelling 232(10): 144-157. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.02.004

Schwalm, C. R., et al. 2010. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis. J. Geophys. Res. 115: G00H05. doi:10.1029/2009JG001229

Wofsy, S.C., and R.C. Harriss. 2002. The North American Carbon Program (NACP). Report of the NACP Committee of the U.S. Interagency Carbon Cycle Science Program. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC. 56 pp.

Additional Sources of Information:

Please see the Reference section in the NACP Regional Synthesis - Description of Observations and Models document for publications related to the observation measurements, TBMs, and IMs used in this study.