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Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data
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Summary

The Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) data contain micrometeorological data (climate, interception of precipitation, mircometeorology and soil moisture) on the elements of the energy balance and evapotranspiration for the Amazonian forest. ASCII text data files for each of the four data types have been zipped toghether. One of the many scientific findings of this experiment was that tropical forest does not experience water stress due to the lack of precipitation, during periods when evapotranspiration is at the potential rate (Shuttleworth, 1988).

ARME data types include climate (meteorological), interception of precipitation, micrometeorology, and soil moisture. These data are described in the Data Description section below.

Pre-LBA Data Set Collection Initiative

The Pre-LBA data set collection was dedicated to providing information to the LBA research community about existing data that have been collected in Amazonia during the 20 years prior to 1998. The main goal of this activity was to compile and document existing data sets in a consistent manner and make them available prior to the beginning of the LBA experiment.

The data sets compiled included satellite imagery, micrometeorological observations, near surface and upper-air atmospheric conditions, surface biophysical and hydrological measurements obtained from the 1970s to the 1990s in a number of field experiments.  Data were collected for several intensive field campaigns, during the rainy and dry seasons, and other periods that vary from short intensive field campaigns to several years worth of observations, measured sometimes with a time resolution of 5 minutes and 1 hour.

Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Fisch, G., J.H.C. Gash, C.A. Nobre, W.J. Shuttleworth, and ARME Team Members. 2008. Pre-LBA Amazonian Region Micrometeorological Experiment (ARME) Data. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/898.

The original CD-ROM citation is as follows:

Marengo, J. A., and R. L. Victoria. 1998. Pre-LBA Data Sets Initiative, 3 vols. [Pre-Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Data Sets Initiative, 3 vols.]. CD-ROM. Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudios Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (CPTEC/INPE) [Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Study, National Institute for Space Research], Sao Paulo, Brazil.

 

Pre-LBA Data Set Collection Metadata

Campaign: ARME > Amazon Region Micrometeorological Experiment


Keywords

TURBULENCE

HUMIDITY

PRECEPITATION

SOLAR RADIATION

LATENT HEAT

SENSIBLE HEAT


Investigators

Last_name: Fisch
First_name: Gilberto
Email: gfisch@aca.iae.cta.br
Phone: +55-12-340.4565
Phone: +55-12-341.2522
 

Address: CTA
Praca Marechal E.Gomes,50
Vila das Acacias
City: Sao Jose dos Campos-12228-901
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Gash
First_name: Jonh
Middle_name: H.C.
Email: j.gash@ua.nwl.ac.uk
Phone: 44-1491692331
Phone: 44-1491692424
 

Address: Institute of Hydrology
Wallingford Ox10 8BB
UK
 

Last_name: Nobre
First_name: Carlos
Middle_name: A.
Email: nobre@cptec.inpe.br
Phone: +55 12 561 2822
FAX: +55 12 561 2835
 

Address: CPTEC-INPE
Rodovia Presidente Dutra, Km 40
C. P.01 - Zip code 12630-000
City: Cachoeira Paulista
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Shuttleworth
First_name: W.
Middle_name: James
Email: shuttle@hwr.arizona.edu
 

Address: University of Arizona
City: Tuscon
State_or_Province: Arizona
Country: USA
 

Last_name: Patel
First_name: R.
Middle_name: S.
 

Address: UFPB
City: Joao Pessoa
State_or_Province: Paraiba
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Cabral
First_name: Oswaldo
Email: ocabral@cnpma.embrapa.br
Phone: 55-19-8675635
FAX:55-19-8675225
 

Address: EMBRAPA
R.Sete de Setembro 405/33
City: Campinas
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Marques
First_name: Ary
Middle_name: de O.
Email: ary@cr.am.rnp.br
 

Address: INPA
 

Last_name: Molion
First_name: Luiz
Middle_name: Carlos
Email: eos@dcc.ufal.br
Phone: 55-082-2310853
FAX:55-082-2141615
 

Address: UFPA
R.Gaspar Ferrari,375
Zip code:57035-10
City: Maceio
State_or_Province: Alagoas
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Moraes
First_name: Jose
Middle_name: Carvalho
 

Address: UFPA
City: Belim
State_or_Province: Para
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Silva Filho
First_name: Vicente
Middle_name: de Paula
Email: vicente@zeus.funceme.br


 

Address: FUNCEME
City: Fortaleza
State_or_Province: Ceara
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: Abreu
First_name: Leonardo
Middle_name: de
Email: leonardo@met.inpe.br
 

Address: INPE
Av. dos Astronautas, 1758
C.P.515 - Zip code: 12201-970
City: Sao Jose dos Campos
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Last_name: lloyd
First_name: Collin
Email: C.R.L.loyd@unixa.nerc
 

Address: Institute of Hydrology
Country: England
 

Last_name: Roberts
First_name: John
Email: J.M.Roberts@unixa.nerc
 

Address: Institute of Hydrology
Country: England
 

Technical_Contact

Last_name: Gash
First_name: Jonh
Middle_name: H.C.
Email: j.gash@ua.nwl.ac.uk
Phone: 44-1491692331
Phone: 44-1491692424
 

Address: Institute of Hydrology
Wallingford Ox10 8BB
UK  
 

Start_Date: 1983-09-01

Stop_Date: 1986-09-01


Coverage

Southernmost_latitude: 2S
Northernmost_latitude: 3S
Westernmost_longitude: 59W
Easternmost_longitude: 60W


Maximum_altitude: 80 m
Minimum_depth: Superface
 

Location: SOUTH AMERICA
 

Author Last_name: Nobre
First_name: Carlos
Middle_name: A.
Email: nobre@cptec.inpe.br
Phone: +55 12 561 2822
FAX: +55 12 561 2835

Address

Address: CPTEC-INPE
Rodovia Presidente Dutra, Km 40
C. P.01 - Zip code 12630-000
City: Cachoeira Paulista
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Data_Center

Data_Center_Name: INPE,INPA,UFPA, > CTA,EMBRAPA e IH.
Dataset_ID: ARME
 

Data_Center_Contact


Last_name: Nobre
First_name: Carlos
Middle_name: A.
Email: nobre@cptec.inpe.br
Phone: +55 12 561 2822
FAX: +55 12 561 2835
 

Address

Address: CPTEC-INPE
Rodovia Presidente Dutra, Km 40
C. P.01 - Zip code 12630-000
City: Cachoeira Paulista
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Originating_Center: INPE,INPA,UFPA
 


Revision_Date: 1998-01-21
 

Constraints


Access: Data may not be used for commercial applications.
Use: Data may not be used for commercial applications.

Data Description

ARME Data Types

Data files for each data type described below has been compiled and compressed in a separate file:

ARME_CLIMATE.zip

ARME_INTERCEPTION.zip

ARME_MICROMETEOROLOGY.zip

ARME_SOIL_MOISTURE.zip

Climate:

The climate data were recorded using an automatic weather station from September 1983 to August 1985. The data are continuous, and the format is "space delineated" with one line for each hour (4I3,7F6.) Columns 5 to 10 give an average for the variable, calculated over the hour which COMMENCES from the time given in column 4.

Description of Variables:

Ex.
Files: RD_yymmm.DAT e.g., AM_84MAY.DAT

Column No. Data

1 Year
2 Month
3 Day
4 Local time
5 Solar radiation, W/m2
6 Net radiation, W/m2
7 Wet bulb depression (aspirated), deg C
8 Air temperature, deg C
9 Windspeed, m/s
10 Wind direction, deg from North
11 Hourly Total Rainfall, mm

Example Data Records

(RD_83DEC.TXT)

83 12  1  0     0   -27  1.47  24.8   1.5    93  0.00
83 12  1  1     0   -29  1.18  24.6   1.1   143  0.00
83 12  1  2     0   -19  0.91  24.3   0.9   194  0.00
83 12  1  3     0    -7  0.69  24.0   1.0   209  0.00
83 12  1  4     0    -7  0.65  24.0   1.2   199  0.00
83 12  1  5     0    -7  0.71  24.0   1.1   225  0.00
83 12  1  6    78    54  0.70  24.3   1.0   200  0.00
83 12  1  7   214   163  1.14  25.6   0.6   190  0.00
83 12  1  8   252   186  1.48  26.4   0.7   155  0.00
83 12  1  9   565   402  2.75  28.0   1.6   117  0.00
83 12  1 10   548   422  3.81  29.3   1.3   123  0.00
83 12  1 11   617   462  4.64  30.1   1.3   104  0.00
83 12  1 12   378   289  4.72  30.2   1.4   104  0.00
...

Interception

All the rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data are contained in the RD_INT.DAT file. The data are reported in mm, for periods varying in length from 4-32 days. The majority of the periods are 7 days in duration. The variable values in the file records are 'space delimited' and were written with the FORTRAN format of (3I3,F7.,I5,2F8.,F7.,2F6.).

After 27-July-1984, the time at which the measurement commences is given. Before this date, the time is not available and the most likely time is given, (i.e. 11 AM). The throughfall data given for periods between 01-June-1984 and 29-June-1984, and all stemflow data before 23-August-1984, have been synthesized to allow a continuous record of interception. The synthesized values are proportionally related to gross rainfall. Full details are given by Lloyd et al. (1988) and Lloyd and Marques (1988).

Description of Variables:


Column No. Data

1 Year
2 Month
3 Start day for period
4 Start time (decimal) for period
5 Number days duration of period
6 Gross Rainfall
7 Throughfall
8 Standard error of throughfall
9 Stemflow
10 Standard error of stemflow

Example Data Records

(RD_INT.TXT)

83 9 1 11 32 260 202.79 68.95 4.23 2.35
83 10 3 11 11 38.5 28.4 7.78 0.69 0.39
83 10 14 11 17 92.5 101.96 25.88 1.67 0.93
83 10 31 11 4 1.5 0.39 0.28 0.03 0.02
83 11 4 11 7 20.25 17.26 6.05 0.36 0.2
83 11 11 11 7 20.25 18.07 6.6 0.36 0.2
83 11 18 11 7 0 0 0 0 0
83 11 25 11 7 36.75 36.29 14.93 0.66 0.37
83 12 2 11 5 160.46 140.08 53.65 2.89 1.6
83 12 7 11 9 31.75 26.74 9.41 0.57 0.32
83 12 16 11 8 142.7 112.95 24.36 2.57 1.43
83 12 22 11 7 44.25 41.5 10.68 0.8 0.44
83 12 29 11 8 188 185.69 68.88 3.38 1.88
84 1 6 11 7 58.5 52.87 13.52 1.05 0.59

...

Micrometerology

The file rd_flux.txt contains the micrometeorological data from 03-Sep-1983 to 28-Sep-1985. Data are not included from periods when the wind direction was unfavorable or the canopy was wet. Only data from periods when the canopy was dry are included. Full details are given in the papers by Shuttleworth et al (1984a) and Shuttleworth (1988). The variables in the file records are 'space delimited' and were written with the FORTRAN format (4I3,9F6.). Columns 5 to 13 contain mean values for the variable, calculated over the hour which COMMENCES from the time given in column 4.

Description of Variables:


Column No. Description
---------- -----------
1 Year
2 Month
3 Day
4 Hour (Local time)
5 Mean Dry bulb temperature, deg C
6 Mean Specific humidity, g/kg
7 Mean Specific humidity deficit, g/kg
8 Mean Solar radiation, W/m2
9 Mean Net radiation, W/m2
10 Mean Evaporation, W/m2
11 Mean Sensible heat flux, W/m2
12 Mean Aerodynamic resistance, s/m
13 Mean Surface resistance, s/m

Example Data Records

(RD_FLUX.TXT)

83 9 3 7 27.4 17.5 5.6 261 242 95 45 56 196
83 9 3 8 29.4 17.9 8 461 414 151 90 38.1 193
83 9 3 11 30.7 17.6 10.4 645 516 189 101 13.3 168
83 9 3 12 30.9 17.5 10.7 587 481 229 103 14.6 142
83 9 3 13 31.9 17.1 12.9 682 557 232 118 12.7 168
83 9 3 14 31.5 17.9 11.2 630 519 210 81 18.7 159
83 9 4 11 30.9 18.1 10.1 778 617 312 250 29.6 153
83 9 4 12 30.9 17.6 10.7 510 431 318 151 23.7 114
83 9 4 13 31.6 17 12.4 666 540 372 113 24.2 99
83 9 4 14 32.2 16.3 14.2 602 508 301 75 20.9 131
83 9 4 15 31.9 16 14 443 368 228 58 15.2 172
83 9 4 16 31.4 16.1 13 189 148 83 12 25.4 425
83 9 5 6 23.5 16.9 1.3 25 16 18 6 44.7 198
83 9 5 15 30.1 17.8 9.1 244 197 175 41 29.7 142
83 9 5 16 29.1 18.1 7.3 176 132 76 9 24.3 256

...

Soil Moisture

The file RD_SOIL.DAT contains soil tension data from September 1983 to October 1985. The file records contain values of smoothed daily soil tensions described on page 327 of Shuttleworth (1988) and are a useful relative index of seasonal changes in soil water status. The data are continuous with one estimate of soil tension, in kPa,for each day. The values in the file records are "space delimited" and were written with the FORTRAN format of (2I3,28-31F7.) with one line of data for each month.

Description of Variables:


Column No. Description
---------- -----------
1 Year
2 Month
3 Tension for 1st day of month (kPa)
4 Tension for 2nd day of month (kPa)
- -
- -
28 Tension for 28th day of month (kPa)
29 Tension for 29th day of month (kPa) (only if needed)
30 Tension for 30th day of month (kPa) (only if needed)
31 Tension for 31st day of month (kPa) (only if needed)

Example Data Records

(RD_SOIL.TXT)

83 9 -59.2 -72.3 -76.4 -80.5 -84.6 -84.4 -84.3 -84.2 -84.1 -83.8 -83.7 -83.6 -83.4 -77.4 -28.1 -17.9 -15.2 -12.3 -9.5 -10.2 -8.6 -5.2 -5.3 -6.1 -6.8 -7.5 -9.3 -8.9 -6.7 -6.9
83 10 -6.4 -6 -5.5 -6 -6.4 -6.8 -7.3 -7.8 -8.2 -8.7 -9.1 -9.5 -10 -10.5 -10.9 -11.3 -11.8 -11 -10.3 -9.5 -8.8 -8 -7.3 -6.5 -6.6 -6.5 -6.6 -6.6 -6.7 -6.6 -6.7
83 11 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.8 -6.8 -6.8 -6.8 -7.5 -8.1 -8.7 -9.2 -9.9 -10.5 -11.1 -11.8 -12.3 -13 -13.5 -14.2 -14.8 -15.4 -14.7 -14.1 -13.5 -12.8 -12.2 -11.5 -10.8 -10.2 -9.6
83 12 -8.9 -8.3 -7.6 -7 -6.3 -5.7 -5.7 -5.7 -5.7 -5.7 -5.7 -5.7 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.8 -5.9 -5.9 -5.9 -5.9 -5.9 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6
84 1 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6.1 -6.1 -6.1 -6.1 -6.1 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.2 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.4 -6.4 -6.4 -6.4
84 2 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.5 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.6 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.7 -6.8 -6.8
84 3 -6.8 -6.8 -6.8 -6.9 -6.9 -6.9 -6.9 -6.9 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.1 -7.2 -7.2 -7.2 -7.2 -7.2
84 4 -7.2 -7.2 -8.9 -10.4 -12 -11.2 -10.5 -9.7 -9 -8.7 -8.5 -8.2 -8 -7.8 -7.6 -7.3 -7.1 -6.9 -6.8 -6.7 -6.6 -6.5 -6.5 -6.4 -6.3 -6.2 -6.1 -6 -6.1 -6.1
...

 

References

KEY PUBLICATIONS

Lloyd,C.R., Gash,J.H.C., Shuttleworth,W.J. and Marques,A. de O.,1988. The measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by Amazonian rain forest. Agric. and Forest Meteorol., 43: 277-294.

Lloyd,C.R. and Marques,A.de O, 1988. Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rainforest. Agric and Forest Meteorol.,42: 63-73.

Roberts,J., Cabral,O.M.R. and de Aguiar,L.F.,1990. Stomatal and boundary-layer conductances measured in a terra firme rain forest, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. J. Appl. Ecol., 27: 336-353.

Shuttleworth,W.J., 988. Evaporation from Amazonian rain forest. Proc. Roy. Soc. (Lond.) B, 233: 321-346.

Shuttleworth,W.J., Gash,J.H.C., Lloyd,C.R., Moore,C.J., Roberts,J., Marques,A. de O., Fisch,G., Silva,V. de P., Ribeiro,M.N.G., Molion,L.C.B., de Abreu Sa,L.D., Nobre,J.C., Cabral,O.M.R., Patel,S.R., and de Moraes,J.C., 1984a. Eddy correlation measurements of energy partition for Amazonian forest. Quart.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 110: 1143-1162.

Shuttleworth,W.J., Gash,J.H.C., Lloyd,C.R., Moore,C.J., Roberts,J., Marques,A. de O., Fisch,G., Silva,V. de P., Ribeiro,M.N.G., Molion,L.C.B., de Abreu Sa,L.D., Nobre,J.C., Cabral,O.M.R., Patel,S.R., and de Moraes,J.C., 1984b. Observations of radiation exchange above and below Amazonian forest. Quart.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 110: 1163-1169.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Dolman,A.J., Gash,J.H.C., Roberts,J. and Shuttleworth,W.J., 1991 Stomatal and surface conductance of tropical rainforest. Agric. and Forest Meteorol., 54: 303-318.

Gash,J.H.C. and Shuttleworth,W.J., 1991. Tropical deforestation: albedo and the surface energy balance. Climate Change, 19: 123-133.

Henderson-Sellers,A., Drake,F., McGuffie,K. Fattori,A.P., Marques,A. de O., Lloyd,C.R. and Shuttleworth,W.J., 1987. Observations of day-time cloudiness over the Amazon forest using an all-sky camera. Weather, 42: 209-218.

Lloyd,C.R., 1990. The temporal distribution of Amazonian rainfall and its implications for forest interception. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 116: 1487-1494.

Moore,C.J. and Fisch,G., 1986. Estimating heat storage in Amazonian tropical forest. Agric and Forest Meteorol., 38: 147-169.

Roberts,J.M., Cabral,O.M.R., Fisch,G., Molion,L.C.B., Moore,C.J., and Shuttleworth,W.J., 1993. Transpiration from Amazonian rainforest calculated from stomatal conductance measurements. Agric. and Forest Meteorol., 65: 175-196.

Sellers,P.J., Shuttleworth,W.J., Dorman,J.L., Dalcher,A. and Roberts,J., 1989. Calibration, the simple biosphere model (Sib) for Amazonian tropical forest using field and remote sensing data: Part 1, average calibration with field data. J. Clim. and Appl. Meteorol., 28: 727-759.

Shuttleworth,W.J., 1989. Micrometeorology of temperate and tropical forest. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.(Lond.) B, 324: 299-334.

Shuttleworth,W.J. and Dickinson,R.E., 1989. Tropical deforestation: comment on the discrepancy between recent GCM and observational results. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 115: 1177-1179.

Shuttleworth,W.J., Gash,J.H.C., Lloyd,C.R., Moore,C.J., Roberts,J., Marques,A. de O., Fisch,G., Silva,V. de P., Ribeiro,M.N.G., Molion,L.C.B., de Abreu Sa,L.D., Nobre,J.C., Cabral,O.M.R., Patel,S.R., and de Moraes,J.C., 1984b. Daily variations of temperature and humidity within and above Amazonian forest. Weather, 40: 102-108.

Shuttleworth,W.J., Gash,J.H.C., Lloyd,C.R., Moore,C.J., Roberts,J., Molion,L.C.B., Nobre,J.C., de Abreu Sa,L.D., Marques,A. de O., Fisch,G., Januario,M., Fattori,A.P., Ribeiro,M.N.G., Cabral,O.M.R., 1987. Amazonian evaporation. Revista Brasileira da Meteorologia, 2: 179-191.

Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)  [http://daac.ornl.gov].

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952