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The BOREAS RSS-11 team operated a network of five automated (Cimel) and two hand-held (Miami) solar radiometers from 1994 to 1996 during the BOREAS field campaigns. The data provide aerosol optical depth measurements, size distribution, phase function, and column water vapor amounts over points in northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. The data are useful for the correction of remotely sensed aircraft and satellite images. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

A guide document which includes more information about this data set can be found at

ORNL DAAC maintains information on the entire BOREAS Project.

Data Citation

Cite this data set as follows:

Markham, B. L., and J. Schafer. 1998. BOREAS RSS-11 Ground Sunphotometer Data. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/297.


Ahern, F.J., R.P. Gauthier, P.M. Teillet, J. Sirois, G. Fedosejevs, and D. Lorente, 1991, Investigation of continental aerosols with high-spectral-resolution solar-extinction measurements, Appl. Optics, 30, 5276-5287.

Bruegge, C.T., J.E. Conel, R.O. Green, J.S. Margolis, R.G. Holm, and G. Toon, 1992, Water vapor column abundance retrievals during FIFE, JGR, 97(D19), 18759-18768.

Bruegge, C.T., R.N. Halthore, B. L. Markham, M. Spanner, and R. Wrigley, 1992, Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie, JGR, 97(d19), 18743-18758.

d'Almeida, G.A., and P. Koepke, 1998, An approach to a global optical aerosol climatology, in Aerosols and Climate, edited by P.V. Hobbs and M.P. McCormick, Deepak Publishing, Hampton, VA.

Halthore, R.N., B.L. Markham, R.A. Ferrare, and T.O. Aro, 1992, Aerosol optical properties over the midcontinental United States, JGR, 97(D17), 18769-18778.

Halthore, R.N., T.F. Eck, B.N. Holben and Brian Markham, 1997, Sunphotometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band, JGR.

Hansen, J.E. and A.A. Lacis, 1990, Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: An assessment of their relative roles in global climate change, Nature, 345, 713-719.

Hegg, D.A., P.V. Hobbs, R.J. Ferek, and A.P. Waggoner, 1995, Measurements of some aerosol properties relevant to radiative forcing on the east coast of the United States, J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2306-2315.

Holben, B.N., T.F. Eck and R.S. Fraser, 1991b, Temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth in the Sahel region in relation to vegetation remote sensing, Int. J. Remote Sens., 12, 1147-1163.

Holben, B.N., T.F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J.P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J.A. Reagan, Y.J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu and I. Jankowiak, Automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for network aerosol monitoring, Rem. Sens. Environ. (in press)

Holben, B.N., Y.J. Kaufman, A. Setzer, D. Tanré, and D.E. Ward, 1991a, Optical properties of aerosol from biomass burning in the tropics, BASE-A, in Global Biomass Burning, the MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 403-411.

Kaufman, Y.J., A. Setzer, D. Ward, D. Tanré, B.N. Holben, P. Menzel, M.C. Pereira, and R. Rasmussen, 1992, Biomass burning airborne and spaceborne experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A), J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13), 14581-14599.

Kaufman, Y.J., B.N. Holben, D. Tanré, and D.E. Ward, 1994, Remote sensing of biomass burning in the Amazon, Remote Sensing Reviews, 10, 51-90.

Lenoble, J., 1993, Atmospheric Radiative Transfer, Deepak Publishing: Hampton, VA, pp 532.

Markham, B.L., J.S. Schafer, B.N. Holben, and R.N.Halthore, 1997, "Atmospheric aerosol and water vapor characteristics over north central Canada during BOREAS", JGR (in press)

Nakajima, Y., M. Tanaka and T. Yamauchi, 1983, Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data, Appl. Opt., 22, 2951-2959.

Reagan J.A., K.J. Thome, and B.M. Herman, 1992, A simple instrument and technique for measuring columnar water vapor via Near-IR differential solar transmission measurements, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 30, 825-831.

Sellers, P.and F. Hall. 1994. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1994-3.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 94).

Sellers, P.and F. Hall. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1996-2.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 96).

Sellers, P., F. Hall and K.F. Huemmrich. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1994 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 94).

Sellers, P., F. Hall and K.F. Huemmrich. 1997. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1996 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 96).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, H. Margolis, B. Kelly, D. Baldocchi, G. den Hartog, J. Cihlar, M.G. Ryan, B. Goodison, P. Crill, K.J. Ranson, D. Lettenmaier, and D.E. Wickland. 1995. The boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 76(9):1549-1577.

Sellers, P.and F. Hall. 1997. BOREAS Overview Paper. JGR Special Issue (in press).

Shaw, G.E., 1983, Sun photometry, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 64, 4-10.

Thome, K.J., B.M. Herman and J.A. Reagan, 1992, Determination of precipitable water from solar transmission, J. Appl. Met., 31, 157-165.

Twomey, S., 1991, Aerosols, clouds and radiation, Atmos. Environ., 25(A), 2435-2442.

Ward, D.E., R.A. Susott, J.B. Kauffman, R.E. Babbit, D.L. Cummings, B.Dias, B.N. Holben,Y.J. Kaufman, R.A. Rasmussen and A.W. Setzer, 1992, Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13), 14601-14619.

Data Format:

For information on Parameter/Variable Names, Variable Description/Definition, Units of Measurement, and Data File Format see the companion file

Document Information:

15-Sept-1998 (data citation revised on 26-Sep-2002)

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