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BOREAS FOLLOW-ON HMET-04 1996-1998 NSA METEOROLOGICAL DATA
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Summary

As part of the BOREAS Follow-On, an extended period of data collection was supported in the NSA because of the continued efforts at the NSA-OBS site. This data set contains near-surface meteorological data collected and averaged over 15 minute intervals from two sites in the NSA, the SRC tower at the Thompson airport (YTH) and a temporary walkup wooden tower at the Old Black Spruce (OBS) tower site.

Data Citation

Cite this data set as follows (citation revised on October 30, 2002):

Betts, A. K., S. R. Shewchuk, H. Osborne, K. Young, and V. Wittrock. 2001. BOREAS Follow-On HMet-04 1996-1998 NSA Meteorological Data. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Table of Contents

  1. Data Set Overview
  2. Investigator(s)
  3. Theory of Measurements
  4. Equipment
  5. Data Acquisition Methods
  6. Observations
  7. Data Description
  8. Data Organization
  9. Data Manipulations
  10. Errors
  11. Notes
  12. Application of the Data Set
  13. Future Modifications and Plans
  14. Software
  15. Data Access
  16. Output Products and Availability
  17. References
  18. Glossary of Terms
  19. List of Acronyms
  20. Document Information

1. Data Set Overview

1.1 Data Set Identification
      BOREAS Follow-On HMet-04 1996-1998 NSA Meteorological Data

1.2 Data Set Introduction
      This data set contains near-surface data collected and averaged over 15 minutes from two sites at and near the Thompson, Manitoba airport (SRC-Airport) and at the BOREAS NSA-OBS flux tower site (SRC-Old Black Spruce).
      One data set is a continuation of the Thompson Airport site, which collected "Suite A" (meteorological) data throughout BOREAS (1994-1996). Data processing and quality checks continued though July 4, 1997, using the procedures in place for BOREAS. After this date, the work was subcontracted by SRC, the sites were visited only to change the data loggers, and data quality was significantly reduced. A separate data logger, and instruments to measure diffuse radiation and incoming long-wave (Suite B), were added to this site in the Fall 1997.
      A second site was established at the northern Old Black Spruce location (BOREAS TF03 team) in summer of 1997, which ran for about one year, when measurements terminated at both sites. This site too was visited only to change the data loggers. The flux and separate meteorological measurements associated with TF-03/FLX-01 continue at this site.
      Because of missing data (primarily when data loggers failed), researchers may have to merge the 2 data sets to get a single atmospheric driver set for Thompson for 1997 and the first half of 1998.

1.4 Summary of Parameters
      Note that the file structure is identical for both sites:
Parameter Units
SITE_NAME NA
LOCATION NA
DATE_OBS DD-MON-YY
TIME_OBS HHMM (start-time)
PAR_RAD Wm^-2
S_PAR_RAD Wm^-2
NET_RAD Wm^-2
S_NET_RAD Wm^-2
SOL_DOWN Wm^-2
S_SOL_DOWN Wm^-2
SOL_REFL Wm^-2
S_SOL_REFL Wm^-2
TEMP_UPPER Deg_C
S_TEMP_UPPER Deg_C
TEMP_LOWER Deg_C
S_TEMP_LOWER Deg_C
SOIL_10CM Deg_C
S_SOIL_10CM Deg_C
SOIL_20CM Deg_C
S_SOIL_20CM Deg_C
SOIL_50CM Deg_C
S_SOIL_50CM Deg_C
HUMIDITY %_RH
S_HUMIDITY %_RH
PRESSURE mb
S_PRESSURE mb
IR_TEMP Deg_C
S_IR_TEMP Deg_C
WIND_SPEED ms^-1
S_WIND_SPEED ms^-1
WIND_DIR Deg_True
S_WIND_DIR Deg_True
PRECIP_BELFORT mm
SNOW_DEPTH mm
TIP_B_15MIN mm
TIP_BUCKET mm
DIFFUSE Wm^-2
LW_DOWN Wm^-2
CRTFCN_CODE NA
REVISION_DATE DD-MON-YY

The data values are forward looking, that is, the data value at TIME_OBS=0 represents an average of the data stream from Time>=0 through Time<15 min. TIME_OBS is in GMT. Local time is GMT - 6 hours.

1.5 Discussion
      Missing data. There are major blocks of time when the data are missing, primarily because of data logger failure. See section 6.1.

1.6 Related Data Sets
BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data
BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data
BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data
BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data
BOREAS TF-03 NSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data.

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2. Investigator(s)

2.1 Investigator(s) Name and Title
     BOREAS Staff Science

2.2 Title of Investigation
     BOREAS Follow-on HMet-4 1996-1998 NSA Meteorological Data

2.3 Contact Information
      Although these data were collected by a sub-contractor to SRC, the data set was assembled by Alan Betts and John Ball, as the data files sent to the archive were not usable, nor were they documented.

Contact 1:
Alan K. Betts
Atmospheric Research
Pittsford, VT
(802) 483-2087
(802) 483-6167 (FAX)
akbetts@aol.com

Contact 2:
Stanley R. Shewchuk
Sask. Research Council
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Canada
(306) 933-5437
(306) 933-7817
shewchuk@src.sk.ca

Contact 3:-
Heather Osborne/Kim Young
Saskatchewan Research Council
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Canada
(306) 933-6759
osborne@src.sk.ca
young@src.sk.ca

Contact 4:
Virginia Wittrock
Saskatchewan Research Council
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Canada
(306) 933-8122
wittrock@ src.sk.ca

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3. Theory of Measurements

The theory behind the meteorological measurements made for BOREAS were to enhance the understanding of the general climate of the Canadian boreal region. The main purpose of each AMS station was to gather enough precipitation, temperature and other meteorological information to fully understand the climate for that portion of the boreal forest. Data from all of the instruments were stored on a data logger which performed some of the initial data processing.

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4. Equipment

4.1 Sensor/Instrument Description
      This section is a comprehensive description of the AMS sites. The parameters included are: site name, location and elevation and a list of each instrument at the site. Within are detailed descriptions of the instruments used, an explanation of what the instrument is used for, heights of the sensors, the supplier and/or manufacturers, and serial number when possible. Additionally, the description of radiation sensors will contain the wavelengths they are able to measure.
4.1.1 Collection Environment
      The collection environment for the SRC AMS stations varied greatly from season to season and site to site. All instruments, except where otherwise noted, were exposed to the elements at all times. The sites were located in relatively undisturbed locations.
      During winter, the instruments were exposed to frequent snow storms and temperatures that reached -40° C. During the summer months, temperatures at the sites reached 30° C. No covers were built to protect the instrumentation from precipitation, wind, animal damage, or vandalism.

4.1.2 Source/Platform
      Suite A sites use a triangular cross-section Rohn tower as a platform for mounting the majority of the suite A instruments. Each side of the tower is roughly 0.5 meters across and is internally supported by solid steel "zigzag" cross braces. The tower is designed with a hinge roughly halfway along its length that allows the tower to be folded down so that instruments may be attached and serviced without climbing gear. When the installation is complete the tower can be extended to its full height. Components mounted on the tower include the data logger, pressure sensor, solar panel, albedometer, net radiometer, air temperature and relative humidity sensors, PAR sensor and wind speed and direction sensor. A lightning rod is also attached to the top of each tower.
      The precipitation gauges at each site are mounted on a separate wooden platform located a short distance from the Rohn tower. The distance varies by site. The platform is three meters high and 0.9 meters wide, and 2.4 meters long.
      The Suite B sites are usually located a fair distance away from the Rohn tower that holds the suite A instrumentation. The suite B sites recorded information on a separate data logger (usually a CR10).

4.1.3 Source/Platform Mission Objectives
      The objective of the Rohn tower is to provide a stable place to hang instrumentation for the duration of the experiment. Additionally, the tower provides a method of placing instruments at various levels within the canopy.

4.1.4 Key Variables
Instrument Type Measured Parameters
PAR radiometer PAR radiation
Net radiometer Net radiation
Albedometer Incoming solar radiation
Reflected solar radiation
Temperature and relative humidity probe Upper canopy air temperature
Relative humidity
Temperature probe Lower canopy air temperature
Soil temperature probe Soil temperature
Barometric pressure Air pressure
IR temperature Surface IR temperature
Wind monitor Wind direction
Wind speed
Belfort rainfall transmitter Precipitation
Ultrasonic depth gauge Snow depth
Soil moisture sensor Soil moisture
Tipping bucket rain gauge Precipitation
Pyrgeometer Incoming longwave radiation
Outgoing longwave radiation
Pyranometer with shadow band Diffuse solar radiation

4.1.5 Principles of Operation
Instrument Principle of Operation
Data Logger This instrument is used to store and partially manipulate the data.
Multiplexer The Multiplexer is used to increase the number of sensors that may be scanned by Campbell Scientific (CS) data loggers.
Spark Gapped Junction Box The Junction Box is designed to minimize damage to instruments connected to wires on which a high voltage could be induced through electrostatic discharge due to lightening. There are two per tower.
Modem The DC112 Modem is a 300/1200 baud modem employing the "AT" command set. It is used as a remote site modem connected to a CS data logger.
Solar Panels The Model MSX-30 Solarex Solar Panel photovoltaic module is designed to operate DC loads with small to moderate energy requirements.
PAR Radiometer The Skye Single Channel PAR Sensor is used to measure PAR Radiation. These sensors have cosine-corrected heads, each containing a semiconductor diode and filter system responding to light.
Net Radiometer The Fritschen Q-6 Net Radiometer is a high output instrument that is designed to measure net radiation. Net radiation is defined as the sum of all incoming radiation minus the outgoing radiation. Incoming radiation consists of direct and diffuse shortwave radiation and longwave sky radiation. Outgoing radiation consists of reflected and terrestrial longwave radiation.
Albedometer (Solar & Reflected) None given
Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe (Above Canopy) None given
Temperature Probe (Lower Canopy) None given
Soil Temperature Probe None given
Barometric Pressure sensor None give
IR Thermometer The Everest Interscience Model 4000AL Infrared Thermometer measures the IR radiation emitted by objects and outputs the temperature, or a signal that is related to the temperature, of the object. The major advantage of this IR sensor is that no physical contact is made with the object being measured.
Wind Direction/Wind Speed sensor: None given  
Belfort Precipitation Gauge None given
Snow Depth Sensor None given
Soil Moisture Sensor The Matrix Water Potential Soil Moisture Sensor measures soil moisture by measuring the heat differential between a warmed temperature probe and an unwarmed probe. The theory is that when a probe is heated the temperature rise will be a function of the water content of the medium (the soil). By inserting a heater and a temperature sensor in a fixed porous block in contact with soil, the temperature rise of the heater can be correlated to the water potential of the soil.
Tipping Bucket Precipitation Gauge None given
Pyrgeometer This instrument measures the exchange of radiation between a horizontal blackened surface and the target viewed. For the measurement of longwave radiation in general, and for the isolation of this from the solar shortwave radiation in daytime, a 30 mm diameter hemisphere of silicon is used. This instrument is measuring downward longwave radiation from the atmosphere only.
Pyranometer None given
Shadow Band Stand The shadow band attaches to the suite B pyranometer that measures incoming solar radiation. The shadow band is intended to block out the direct rays of the sun, forcing the pyranometer to measure only the diffuse component of solar radiation. The band is wide enough to block the sun's direct rays for a few weeks at a time and requires regular manual adjustment. This was not performed for this post-BOREAS data.

4.1.6 Sensor/Instrument Measurement Geometry
      Unless otherwise noted, all instruments are on the suite A tower present at each site. A negative height indicates that the instrument is located below ground surface.

Thompson Airport
Instrument Height on tower/Location
PAR radiometer 18.9 m
Net radiometer 18.9 m
Albedometer 18.9 m
Temperature/relative humidity probe 18.9 m
Lower canopy temperature probe 1.8 m
Soil temperature probe -10 cm, 2 m northwest of the tower
Soil temperature probe -20 cm, 2 m northwest of the tower
Soil temperature probe -50 cm, 2 m northwest of the tower
Barometric pressure 5.5 m
IR temperature 18.9 m
Wind monitor 18.9 m
Belfort precipitation gauge 7.3 m, 10 m northeast of tower
Snow depth gauge 2100 cm, 50 m east-northeast of tower
Soil moisture sensor -10 cm, Not available
Tipping bucket precipitation 50 m east-northeast of tower

NSA-OBS
     The NSA-OBS instruments were installed on a temporary walkup wooden tower, nominally above the canopy at 15m, but exact heights and locations are unknown.
Instrument Height on tower/Location
PAR radiometer 15.8 m
Net radiometer 15.8 m
Albedometer 15.8 m
Temperature/relative humidity probe 15.8 m
Lower canopy temperature probe 4.6 m
Soil temperature probe -10 cm, Not available
Soil temperature probe -20 cm, Not available
Soil temperature probe -50 cm, Not available
Barometric pressure 16.2 m, north of the tower
IR temperature 15.8 m
Wind monitor 15.8 m
Belfort precipitation gauge northwest of tower
Snow depth gauge 2200 cm, northwest of tower
Soil moisture sensor -10 cm, Not available
Tipping bucket precipitation northwest of tower
Pyrgeometer 3.7 m
Pyranometer 3.7 m
Shadow Band Stand 3.7 m

4.1.7 Manufacturer of Sensor/Instrument
Instrument Description Manufacturer
PAR radiometer Skye Single Channel PAR Sensor Skye Instruments Ltd.
Net radiometer Fritschen Q-6 Net Radiometer Radiation and Energy Balance Systems, Inc.
Albedometer (Solar and reflected) Eppley Model PSP Precision Spectral Pyranometers The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.
Temperature and relative humidity probe Model HMP35CF Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe Campbell Scientific
Lower canopy temperature probe Model 107F Temperature Probe Campbell Scientific
Soil temperature probe Model 108BAM Temperature Probe Campbell Scientific
Barometric pressure sensor Model SBP270 Barometric Pressure Sensor Setra
IR temperature sensor Model 4000AL Infrared Thermometer Everest Interscience
Wind monitor Model 05103-10 Wind Monitor R.M. Young
Belfort precipitation gauge Belfort Rainfall Transmitter Belfort Instrument Company
Snow depth gauge UDG01 Ultrasonic Depth Gauge Campbell Scientific.
Soil moisture sensor Matrix Water Potential Soil Moisture Sensor Matrix
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge Model TE525 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Texas Electronics
Pyrgeometer Model PIR Precision Infrared Radiometer The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.
Pyranometer Model PSP Precision Pyranometer The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.
Shadow band stand   The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.

The following tables list the instrument serial numbers by site.

Thompson Airport Suite A
Instrument Serial Number
PAR radiometer SKE51006937022
Net radiometer 93213
Albedometer - Solar 29876F3
Albedometer - Reflected 29877F3
Temperature and relative humidity probe C1187
Lower canopy temperature probe C1233
Soil temperature probe at -10 cm C1807
Soil temperature probe at -20 cm C1832
Soil temperature probe at -50 cm C1805
Barometric Pressure 414247
IR Temperature 2608-1
Wind monitor 14288
Belfort precipitation gauge 5-4057
Snow depth gauge C1341
Soil moisture sensor 1038
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge Not available

NSA-OBS Suite A
Instrument Serial Number
PAR radiometer SKE51006937023
Net radiometer 93236
Albedometer - Solar 29806F3
Albedometer - Reflected 29807F3
Temperature and relative humidity probe C1053
Lower canopy temperature probe C1234
Soil temperature probe at -10 cm C1823
Soil temperature probe at -20 cm C1806
Soil temperature probe at -50 cm C1808
Barometric Pressure 395168
IR Temperature 2608-9
Wind monitor 14681
Belfort precipitation gauge Not available
Snow depth gauge C1505
Soil moisture sensor 1039
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge Not available

NSA-OBS Suite B
Instrument Serial Number
Pyrgeometer 29754F3
Pyranometer 29721F3
Shadow band stand Not available


4.2 Calibration

4.2.1 Specifications
      The following tables give the calibration multiplier and constant (if applicable) for each instrument at each site.

Thompson Airport Suite A
Instrument Type Multiplier Calibration Constant
PAR radiometer 0.5 Not available
Net radiometer 0.0645 12.9 w^2/(mVm^2)
Albedometer - Solar 0.58343 8.57 microV/wm^2
Albedometer - Reflected 0.57274 8.73 microV/wm^2
Temperature and relative humidity probe 0.001 (temp)
0.1 (humidity)
10 feet
Lower canopy temperature probe 0.001 None given
Soil temperature probe at -10 cm None given None given
Soil temperature probe at -20 cm None given None given
Soil temperature probe at -50 cm None given None given
Barometric Pressure 0.12 80
IR Temperature None given None given
Wind monitor 0.098 (speed)
0.071 (direction)
None given
Belfort precipitation gauge 0.11518 None given
Snow depth gauge 1 None given
Soil moisture None given None given
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge None given None given

NSA-OBS Suite A
Instrument Type Multiplier Calibration Constant
PAR radiometer None given None given
Net radiometer 0.0645 12.9 w^2/(mVm^2)
Albedometer - Solar 0.59595 8.39 microV/wm^2
Albedometer - Reflected 0.61652 8.11 microV/wm^2
Temperature and relative humidity probe 0.001 (temp)
0.1 (humidity)
None given
Lower canopy temperature probe 0.001 None given
Soil temperature probe at -10 cm None given None given
Soil temperature probe at -20 cm None given None given
Soil temperature probe at -50 cm None given None given
Barometric Pressure 0.12 80
IR Temperature None given None given
Wind monitor 0.098 (speed)
0.071 (direction)
None given
Belfort precipitation gauge 0.07824 None given
Snow depth gauge None given None given
Soil moisture sensor None given None given
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge 0.025 None given

NSA-OBS Suite B
Instrument Type Multiplier Calibration Constant
Pyrgeometer None given 3.42 W/m^2
Pyranometer None given 8.55 W/m^2

 
4.2.1.1 Tolerance
      The following list gives information relating to the tolerances of the instruments used:
Instrument Tolerance
PAR radiation Without filters, this instrument is sensitive to electromagnetic energy with wavelengths between 300 and 1000 nanometers. The instrument contains glass and metal interference filters that cut the response to between 400 and 700 nanometers.
Net radiation A 5 degree error in leveling the net radiometer may result in an error of up to 6 percent under normal conditions (e.g. the sun is relatively high in the sky). Errors greater than 6 percent may occur when the sun is near the horizon.
Albedometer The albedometers used in the BOREAS study are sensitive to electromagnetic energy with wavelengths between 285 and 2800 nanometers.
Temperature and relative humidity probe The temperature piece of this ensemble has an accuracy rating of +/- 0.4° C over a temperature range from -53 to +48° C. The humidity probe has an accuracy of +/- 2 percent relative humidity from 0 to 90 percent and a rating of +/- 3 percent over a relative humidity of 90 percent.
Lower canopy temperature probe This probe has an accuracy rating of +/- 0.4° C over a temperature range from -53 to +48° C.
Soil temperature probes The soil temperature probes located at the BOREAS sites have an accuracy of +/- 0.4° C over a from of temperature from -33 to +48° C.
Barometric pressure sensor The accuracy of the Setra SBP270 is +/- 0.2 millibars.
IR Thermometer None given.
Wind sensor The range in wind speeds measured by the R.M. Young Wind Monitor is - to 60 meters/second with a maximum gust survival of 100 meters/second.
Belfort precipitation gauge None given.
Snow depth sensor The snow depth sensor can measure depths between 0.6 meters and 10 meters with an accuracy of +/- 1 centimeter or 0.4 percent of the distance from the sensor to the target. The vertical resolution of the sensor is 0.5 millimeters.
Soil moisture None given.
Tipping bucket precipitation gauge None given.
Pyrgeometer The Eppley pyrgeometer has a temperature dependence of +/- 2 percent when the temperature is between -20 and +40° C.
Pyranometer The pyranometers used for Suite B sites have a temperature dependence of +/- 1 percent over a range in ambient temperatures from -20 to +40° C.


4.2.2 Frequency of Calibration
      All instruments were calibrated by the manufacturer or by SRC before being installed in the sites before the first BOREAS field campaigns. Most of the instruments were again calibrated at the end of March, 1994 during the spring inspection tour. Due to the relative brevity of the experiments the instruments were not required to have full laboratory calibrations. Not calibration was performed after 1994.

4.2.3 Other Calibration Information
      None given.

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5. Data Acquisition Methods

The AMS system installed for BOREAS consists of transportable computerized weather observing stations that routinely measure wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, and precipitation at all stations. The stations are equipped to measure soil temperature, surface radiative temperature, shortwave, net, and infrared radiation, and soil moisture. Most of the instruments are scanned every five seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. Many of the stations are powered by solar panels, thereby enabling them to be located remotely without the need for commercial power. Data are collected via a modem and commercial phone lines. The data is downloaded every six hours to the base station at SRC. A computerized limit checker examines the data to be sure it is within specified limits.

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6. Observations

6.1 Data Notes
      Detailed notes on site maintenance and problems are given in Section 11. 6.2 Field Notes
      Detailed notes on site maintenance and problems are given in Section 11.

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7. Data Description

7.1 Spatial Characteristics
7.1.1 Spatial Coverage:
Site                      Latitude    Longitude    Elevation
-----------------------   --------    ---------    ---------
NSA-9BS-YTHSA (Airport)   55.8° N     -97.87° W      221m
NSA-OBS-FLXTR             55.879° N   -98.48° W      250m
NSA-9BS-YTHSA (Airport)
      The Thompson Airport is a fully-instrumented Suite A AMS site. The instruments are located in an area that is dominated by spruce and poplar. The tops of the trees nearest the tower are approximately 13 meters while the top of the tower extends to 19 meters. This site is about 1 kilometer away from the town of Thompson.

NSA-OBS-FLXTR
      The NSA-OBS site was installed new in summer 1997 on a new makeshift tower, near the NSA-OBS TF03 site. The suite A and B instruments were moved from the NSA-OJP and NSA-FEN sites, and reinstalled here. The site is a 70-100 year old Black Spruce site of medium to high density, with an average height of approximately 10 m.

7.1.2 Spatial Coverage Map
      Not available.

7.1.3 Spatial Resolution
      The data represent point source measurements taken at the sites indicated.

7.1.4 Projection
      Not applicable

7.1.5 Grid Description
      Not applicable


7.2 Temporal Characteristics

7.2.1 Temporal Coverage
      See section 7.2.2.

7.2.2 Temporal Coverage Map
      The table below gives detailed date ranges for individual sites:

Site                      Dates of Data Set               Type of Data
-----------------------   -----------------------------   ------------
NSA-9BS-YTHSA (Airport)   Dec 1, 1996 - June 30, 1998     Suite A&B*
NSA-OBS-FLXTR             July 24, 1997 - June 26, 1998   Suite A&B
Note: This table gives nominal start and end dates for data collection at site. Specific instruments did not necessarily begin or end data collection at the above times. *See section 6.1 Data Notes.

7.2.3 Temporal Resolution
      To fully understand the microclimate of the boreal forest, it was necessary to make consistent measurements over a long time period. Consequently, the nominal sampling period did not change for the duration of the experiment. Individual cases of instrument error or data logger failure occasionally caused the period between recorded data to change. A list of known errors of this type are given in Section 11.
      For the most part, the BOREAS SRC AMS sites collected data with the same sampling strategy. Samples of each variable were acquired every five seconds. These samples were then averaged over fifteen minute periods to get the actual data values. The standard deviations given are for the five-second samples that make up the fifteen minute averages.
      The exceptions to this strategy were the Belfort precipitation, Snow depth, Tipping bucket precipitation, and Soil moisture data. The Belfort precipitation and Snow depth data were sampled every minute, the reported data for each hour were the average from minute 55 to minute 59, and the standard deviations were recorded from those five minute periods. The Tipping bucket precipitation was sampled every five seconds, the data values are the running total, and the standard deviations of the samples are given every fifteen minutes. The Soil Moisture data were sampled every 30 seconds, the data value is given at minute 50, and the standard deviation of the samples are taken every minute.


7.3 Data Characteristics
      "Suite A" Data are a set of 14 meteorological variables and their standard deviations plus precipitation measurements (see section 1.4). "Suite B" Data measures the two additional fluxes of DIFFUSE and LW-DOWN radiation. There are major blocks of time when the data is missing, primarily because of data logger failure: see section 1.5.

7.3.1 Parameter/Variable
     The parameters contained in the data files are:
         Column Name
------------------------------
SITE_NAME
LOCATION
DATE_OBS
TIME_OBS
PAR_RAD
S_PAR_RAD
NET_RAD
S_NET_RAD
SOL_DOWN
S_SOL_DOWN
SOL_REFL
S_SOL_REFL
TEMP_UPPER
S_TEMP_UPPER
TEMP_LOWER
S_TEMP_LOWER
SOIL_10CM
S_SOIL_10CM
SOIL_20CM
S_SOIL_20CM
SOIL_50CM
S_SOIL_50CM
HUMIDITY
S_HUMIDITY
PRESSURE
S_PRESSURE
IR_TEMP
S_IR_TEMP
WIND_SPEED
S_WIND_SPEED
WIND_DIR
S_WIND_DIR
PRECIP_BELFORT
SNOW_DEPTH
TIP_B_15MIN
TIP_B_TOTAL
DIFFUSE
LW_DOWN
CRTFCN_CODE
REVISION_DATE

7.3.2 Description/Definition
     The descriptions of the parameters contained in the data files are:
         Column Name                             Description
------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------
SITE_NAME                      The identifier assigned to the site by BOREAS, in
                               the format SSS-TTT-CCCCC, where SSS identifies
                               the portion of the study area: NSA, SSA, REG,
                               TRN, and TTT identifies the cover type for the
                               site, 999 if unknown, and CCCCC is the identifier
                               for site, exactly what it means will vary with
                               site type.
LOCATION                       A more detailed description of the location.
DATE_OBS                       The date on which the data were collected.
TIME_OBS                       The Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) of the start of the
                               15 minute observation period.
PAR_RAD                        Photosynthetically active radiation.
S_PAR_RAD                      Standard deviation of the photosynthetically 
                               active radiation.
NET_RAD                        Net radiation.
S_NET_RAD                      Standard deviation of the net radiation.
SOL_DOWN                       Incoming solar radiation.
S_SOL_DOWN                     Standard deviation of the incoming solar 
                               radiation.
SOL_REFL                       Reflected solar radiation.
S_SOL_REFL                     Standard deviation of the reflected solar 
                               radiation.
TEMP_UPPER                     Upper canopy air temperature.
S_TEMP_UPPER                   Standard deviation of the upper canopy air 
                               temperature.
TEMP_LOWER                     Lower canopy air temperature.
S_TEMP_LOWER                   Standard deviation of the lower canopy air 
                               temperature.
SOIL_10CM                      Soil temperature at 10 cm.
S_SOIL_10CM                    Standard deviation of the soil temperature at
                               10 cm.
SOIL_20CM                      Soil temperature at 20 cm.
S_SOIL_20CM                    Standard deviation of the soil temperature at
                               20 cm.
SOIL_50CM                      Soil temperature at 50 cm.
S_SOIL_50CM                    Standard deviation of the soil temperature at
                               50 cm.
HUMIDITY                       Relative humidity.
S_HUMIDITY                     Standard deviation of the relative humidity.
PRESSURE                       Air pressure.
S_PRESSURE                     Standard deviation of the air pressure.
IR_TEMP                        Surface IR temperature.
S_IR_TEMP                      Standard deviation of the surface IR temperature.
WIND_SPEED                     Wind speed.
S_WIND_SPEED                   Standard deviation of the wind speed.
WIND_DIR                       Wind direction.
S_WIND_DIR                     Standard deviation of the wind direction.
PRECIP_BELFORT                 Precipitation from a Belfort rainfall transmitter.
SNOW_DEPTH                     Snow depth.
TIP_B_15MIN                    Precipitation from a tipping bucket, amount within 
                               the 15 minute period.
TIP_B_TOTAL                    Precipitation from a tipping bucket (running 
                               total since the instrument was reset).
DIFFUSE                        Diffuse solar radiation.
LW_DOWN                        Incoming longwave radiation.
CRTFCN_CODE                    The BOREAS certification level of the data.
                               Examples are CPI (Checked by PI), CGR (Certified
                               by Group), PRE (Preliminary), and CPI-??? (CPI
                               but questionable).
REVISION_DATE                  The most recent date when the information in the
                               referenced data base table record was revised.


7.3.3 Unit of Measurement
     The measurement units for the parameters contained in the data files are:

         Column Name                                Units
------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------
SITE_NAME                      [none]
LOCATION                       [none]
DATE_OBS                       [DD-MON-YY]
TIME_OBS                       [HHMM GMT]
PAR_RAD                        [Watts][meter^-2]
S_PAR_RAD                      [Watts][meter^-2]
NET_RAD                        [Watts][meter^-2]
S_NET_RAD                      [Watts][meter^-2]
SOL_DOWN                       [Watts][meter^-2]
S_SOL_DOWN                     [Watts][meter^-2]
SOL_REFL                       [Watts][meter^-2]
S_SOL_REFL                     [Watts][meter^-2]
TEMP_UPPER                     [Degrees C]
S_TEMP_UPPER                   [Degrees C]
TEMP_LOWER                     [Decrees C]
S_TEMP_LOWER                   [Degrees C]
SOIL_10CM                      [Degrees C]
S_SOIL_10CM                    [Degrees C]
SOIL_20CM                      [Degrees C]
S_SOIL_20CM                    [Degrees C]
SOIL_50CM                      [Degrees C]
S_SOIL_50CM                    [Degrees C]
HUMIDITY                       [percent]
S_HUMIDITY                     [percent]
PRESSURE                       [millibars]
S_PRESSURE                     [millibars]
IR_TEMP                        [Degrees C]
S_IR_TEMP                      [Degrees C]
WIND_SPEED                     [meters][second^-1]
S_WIND_SPEED                   [meters][second^-1]
WIND_DIR                       [Degrees true]
S_WIND_DIR                     [Degrees true]
PRECIP_BELFORT                 [millimeters]
SNOW_DEPTH                     [millimeters]
TIP_B_15MIN                    [millimeters]
TIP_B_TOTAL                    [millimeters]
DIFFUSE                        [Watts][meter^-2]
LW_DOWN                        [Watts][meter^-2]
CRTFCN_CODE                    [none]
REVISION_DATE                  [DD-MON-YY]

7.3.4 Data Source
     The source of the parameter values contained in the data are (see Table 9.2 for detailed information):
         Column Name                    Data Source
------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------
SITE_NAME                      [BORIS Designation]
LOCATION                       [BORIS Designation]
DATE_OBS                       [Human Observer]
TIME_OBS                       [Human Observer]
PAR_RAD                        [Instrument]
S_PAR_RAD                      [Calculated]
NET_RAD                        [Instrument]
S_NET_RAD                      [Calculated]
SOL_DOWN                       [Instrument]
S_SOL_DOWN                     [Calculated]
SOL_REFL                       [Instrument]
S_SOL_REFL                     [Calculated]
TEMP_UPPER                     [Instrument]
S_TEMP_UPPER                   [Calculated]
TEMP_LOWER                     [Instrument]
S_TEMP_LOWER                   [Calculated]
SOIL_10CM                      [Instrument]
S_SOIL_10CM                    [Calculated]
SOIL_20CM                      [Instrument]
S_SOIL_20CM                    [Calculated]
SOIL_50CM                      [Instrument]
S_SOIL_50CM                    [Calculated]
HUMIDITY                       [Instrument]
S_HUMIDITY                     [Calculated]
PRESSURE                       [Instrument]
S_PRESSURE                     [Calculated]
IR_TEMP                        [Instrument]
S_IR_TEMP                      [Calculated]
WIND_SPEED                     [Instrument]
S_WIND_SPEED                   [Calculated]
WIND_DIR                       [Instrument]
S_WIND_DIR                     [Calculated]
PRECIP_BELFORT                 [Instrument]
SNOW_DEPTH                     [Instrument]
TIP_B_15MIN                    [Instrument]
TIP_B_TOTAL                    [Instrument]
DIFFUSE                        [Instrument]
LW_DOWN                        [Instrument]
CRTFCN_CODE                    [BORIS Designation]
REVISION_DATE                  [BORIS Designation]

7.3.5 Data Range
     The actual ranges for the various parameters were not determined.


7.4 Sample Data Record
     The following are samples of the first few data records contained the data files (records will wrap if longer that 80 characters):

SITE_NAME,LOCATION,DATE_OBS,TIME_OBS,PAR_RAD,S_PAR_RAD,NET_RAD,S_NET_RAD,
SOL_DOWN,S_SOL_DOWN,SOL_REFL,S_SOL_REFL,TEMP_UPPER,S_TEMP_UPPER,TEMP_LOWER,
S_TEMP_LOWER,SOIL_10CM,S_SOIL_10CM,SOIL_20CM,S_SOIL_20CM,SOIL_50CM,S_SOIL_50CM,
HUMIDITY,S_HUMIDITY,PRESSURE,S_PRESSURE,IR_TEMP,S_IR_TEMP,WIND_SPEED,
S_WIND_SPEED,WIND_DIR,S_WIND_DIR,PRECIP_BELFORT,SNOW_DEPTH,TIP_B_15MIN,
TIP_B_TOTAL,DIFFUSE,LW_DOWN,CRTFCN_CODE,REVISION_DATE
NSA-9BS-YTHSA,SRC-Airport,1-Dec-96,15,0.03074,0,-0.19228,0.2,0.00216,0,0.14832,
0,-21.53,0.152,-21.19,0.025,-2.203,0.006,-0.707,0.005,0.161,0.005,83.9,0.433,
989.56,0.06,-21.23,0.104,1.022,0.61,79.5,27.98,497.57,260,-999,-999,-999,-999,
CPI,28-Dec-00
NSA-9BS-YTHSA,SRC-Airport,1-Dec-96,30,0.0985,0,-0.03698,0,0.0043,0,0.01696,0,
-21.42,0.027,-21.12,0.025,-2.208,0.005,-0.708,0.005,0.161,0.005,84.5,0.384,
989.4,0.04,-21.13,0.1,1.09,0.669,71.3,28.46,497.57,260,-999,-999,-999,-999,
CPI,28-Dec-00
NSA-9BS-YTHSA,SRC-Airport,1-Dec-96,45,0.10249,0,0.03451,0,0.06673,0,0.00636,0,
-21.31,0.039,-21,0.03,-2.212,0.005,-0.71,0.005,0.161,0.005,84.9,0.268,989.29,
0.02,-21.01,0.097,1.087,0.615,79.8,30.69,497.57,260,-999,-999,-999,-999,CPI,
28-Dec-00
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8. Data Organization

8.1 Data Granularity
      The data are organized by year, month, and station.

8.2 Data Format
      The data files contain a series of numerical and character fields of varying length separated by commas. There are no spaces between the fields.
 

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9. Data Manipulations

9.1 Formulae
9.1.1 Derivation Techniques and Algorithms
      The data loggers accumulated radiation in KJ m^-2. The radiation data (PAR_RAD, NET_RAD, SOL_DOWN, SOL_REFL, LW_DOWN, DIFFUSE) have been corrected by a factor of (1000/900) to convert from KJ m^-2 to W m^-2 (900 seconds averaging interval).
      The standard deviations of these radiation flux data have been multiplied by a factor of (1000/5) to convert the data logger calculation (based on 180 5-sec accumulated values in units of KJ m^-2 ) to Wm^-2 . Please note that these values are true standard deviation in Wm^-2. Please note also that these values, while correct, are not consistent with the radiation flux standard deviations in the BOREAS archive of AFM07 data for the preceding time period, 1994-1996. As of this date (12/15/98) these earlier data were incorrectly converted, and need to be divided by a factor of 5 (the 5-sec sampling period) to give standard deviation in Wm^-2 .This error is so large as to be obvious on partly cloudy days.
      Some individual data files contained time errors of +/-6hrs, when the sub-contractor confused local time (GMT - 6) and GMT, and/or erred in correcting local time. These have been fixed, based on sunrise and sunset.


9.2 Data Processing Sequence

9.2.1 Processing Steps
      None given

9.2.2 Processing Changes
      None given


9.3 Calculations

9.3.1 Special Corrections/Adjustments
      See Section 14.

9.3.2 Calculated Variables
      See Section 14.


9.4 Graphs and Plots
      None.

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10. Errors

There has been little quality control of this data. Known errors are: Return to top of document

11. Notes

11.1 Limitations of the Data
      None given.

11.2 Known Problems with the Data
      See section 9 and 10.

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12. Application of the Data Set

Although this was not necessarily a great data collection exercise, it is still valuable since combined, these two data sets fill in the gaps from each other and give a useful climate driver data set.

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13. Future Modifications and Plans

None.

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14. Software

14.1 Software Description
      None given.

14.2 Software Access
      None given.

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15. Data Access

15.1 Contact for Data Center/Data Access Information
      These BOREAS data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOS-DIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The BOREAS contact at ORNL is:

ORNL DAAC User Services
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(865) 241-3952
ornldaac@ornl.gov
ornl@eos.nasa.gov

15.2 Procedures for Obtaining Data
      BOREAS data may be obtained through the ORNL DAAC World Wide Web site at http://www.daac.ornl.gov/ [Internet Link] or users may place requests for data by telephone or by electronic mail.

15.3 Output Products and Availability
      Requested data can be provided electronically on the ORNL DAAC's anonymous FTP site or on various media including, CD-ROMs, 8-mm tapes, or diskettes.

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16. Output Products and Availability

16.1 Tape Products
      None.

16.2 Film Products
      None.

16.3 Other Products
      None.

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17. References

17.1 Platform/Sensor/Instrument/Data Processing Documentation
BEI Motion Systems Company. ND. Specifications: Series m25 Absolute Position Encoders. BEI MotionSystems Company, Chatsworth, CA.

Belfort Instrument Company. 1987. Instruction Book for Rainfall Transmitter Cat. No. 5915 Series - Related Instruction Book Chart Drive Mechanism 12049. Belfort Instrument Company, Baltimore, Maryland.

Belfort Instrument Company. 1985. Instruction Manual Rain Gage Catalog Numbers 35-1558 and 35-1559: Instructions - Maintenance - Parts List.. Belfort Instrument Company, Baltimore, Maryland.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1994. 4000AL Everest Interscience Infrared Thermometer Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1994. Q-7 Net Radiometer. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1992. 036, 038 Spark Gapped Junction Box. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1992. RF95 Radio Frequency System. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1993. 05103-10, 05305-10 and 05701-10 R.M. Young Wind Monitors Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1993. 4000AL Everest Interscience Infrared Thermometer Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1993. Model 107F Temperature Probe Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1993. Model HMP35CF Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation.

Campbell Scientific, Inc. 1993. PC208 Data Logger Support Software Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific, Inc.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1993. UDG01 Ultrasonic Depth Gauge Operator's Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1992. FP/BCD Interface Instruction Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1991. DC112 Modem. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1991. Precision Meteorological Instruments. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1991. Radiotelemetry Network Applications Manual. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1991. TE525 Tipping Bucket Raingage. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta..

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1987. Model TE525 Tipping Bucket Raingage. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation. 1985. Belfort Weighing Rain and Snow Gage Series 5915 and 6071P. Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta.

DSG Communications Inc. 1993. LineShare LS-2 User's Manual. DSG Communications Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

E.F. Johnson Data Telemetry Products. ND. 3410 Series Telemetry Modules. E.F. Johnson Data Telemetry Products, Pickering, Ontario.

Environment Canada. 1992. Manual of Surface Weather Observations (MANOBS). Environment Canada. Downsview, Ontario.

The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. ND. Instrumentation for the Measurement of the Components of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. The Eppley Laboratory, Inc., Newport, Rhode Island.

Meteorology Research, Inc. 1967. Tipping Bucket Raingage Model 302.. Meteorology Research, Inc., Altadena, CA.

ROHN Towers. 1983. "Fold-over" Towers. ROHN, Peoria, Illinois.
 

17.2 Journal Articles and Study Reports
Sellers, P., F. Hall. 1994. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1994-3.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 94).

Sellers, P., F. Hall. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: Experiment Plan. Version 1996-2.0, NASA BOREAS Report (EXPLAN 96).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, K.F. Huemmrich. 1996. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1994 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 94).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, K.F. Huemmrich. 1997. Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study: 1996 Operations. NASA BOREAS Report (OPS DOC 96).

Sellers, P., F. Hall, H. Margolis, B. Kelly, D. Baldocchi, G. den Hartog, J. Cihlar, M.G. Ryan, B. Goodison, P. Crill, K.J. Ranson, D. Lettenmaier, and D.E. Wickland. 1995. The boreal ecosystem-atmosphere study (BOREAS): an overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 76(9):1549-1577.

Sellers, P. J., F. G. Hall, R. D. Kelly, A. Black, D. Baldocchi, J. Berry, M. Ryan, K. J. Ranson, P. M. Crill, D. P. Lettenmaier, H. Margolis, J. Cihlar, J. Newcomer, D. Fitzjarrald, P. G. Jarvis, S. T. Gower, D. Halliwell, D. Williams, B. Goodison, D. E. Wickland, and F. E. Guertin. 1997. BOREAS in 1997: Experiment Overview, Scientific Results and Future Directions. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (D24): 28,731-28,770.

Shewchuk, S.R., 1997: Surface mesonet for BOREAS. J. Geophys. Res. 29077-29082.
 

17.3 Archive/DBMS Usage Documentation
      None.

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18. Glossary of Terms

None.

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19. List of Acronyms

    AES     - Atmospheric and Environmental Services
    AFM     - Aircraft Flux and Meteorology
    AMS     - Automatic Meteorological Station
    BOREAS  - BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study
    BORIS   - BOREAS Information System
    CD-ROM  - Compact Disk-Read-Only Memory
    DAAC    - Distributed Active Archive Center
    EOS     - Earth Observing System
    EOSDIS  - EOS Data and Information System
    FAX     - Facsimile
    GSFC    - Goddard Space Flight Center
    IFC     - Intensive Field Campaign
    IR      - Infrared
    ISLSCP  - International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project
    MARSII  - Meteorological Automatic Reporting System II
    MESONET - Mesoscale Network
    NASA    - National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    NSA      - Northern Study Area
    OBS     - Old Black Spruce
    ORNL    - Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    PAR     - Photosynthetically Active Radiation
    READAC  - Remote Environmental Automated Data Acquisition Concept
    SRC     - Saskatchewan Research Council
    URL     - Uniform Resource Locator
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20. Document Information

20.1 Document Revision Date

Written: 15-Dec-1998
Last Updated: 05-Feb-2001 (citation revised on 30-Oct-2002)

20.2 Document Review Date(s)

BORIS Review: 15-Mar-2000
Science Review:

20.3 Document ID

hmet04_met

20.4 Citation

Cite this data set as follows (citation revised on October 30, 2002):

Betts, A. K., S. R. Shewchuk, H. Osborne, K. Young, and V. Wittrock. 2001. BOREAS Follow-On HMet-04 1996-1998 NSA Meteorological Data. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

20.5 Document Curator:

webmaster@daac.ornl.gov

20.6 Document URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/BOREAS/FollowOn/guides/hmet04_src_nsa_met_doc.html

Keywords
SURFACE METEOROLOGY
TEMPERATURE
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
WIND SPEED
WIND DIRECTION

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