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ECHIDNA Lidar Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009
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Release Date: November 4, 2011

Summary:

This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI) and field measurements data from three campaigns conducted in the United States: 2007 New England Campaign; 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign; and 2009 New England Campaign. The New England field sites were located in Harvard Forest (Massachusetts), Howland Research Forest (Maine), and the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire).

The objective of the research was to evaluate the ability of the EVI ground-based, scanning near-infrared lidar to retrieve stem diameter, stem count density, stand height, leaf area index, foliage profile, foliage area volume density, and other useful forest structural parameters rapidly and accurately.

The EVI scan data are Andrieu Transpose (AT) Projection images in ENVI *.img and *.hdr file pairs. There are 28 images from the 2007 New England Campaign, 40 images from the 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign, and 54 images from the 2009 New England Campaign. There are range-weighted mean preview image files (.jpg format) for each AT Projection image.

Manual measurements of tree structural properties were made during each campaign at EVI scan locations. The field measurements are provided in one file for each campaign (.csv format). Parameters include species identification, DBH, tree height, crown base, etc. organized by field plot. 

There is also a data file (.csv format) which compares EVI derived measurements to the field measured data (DBH, stem density, basal area, biomass, and LAI) from the 2007 New England Campaign (Yao et al., 2011 and Zhao et al., 2011).

Sierra_49

Figure 1.Example of EVI data for Bartlett Experimental Forest. Preview image of Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 01, Center Point, 2007. The images are in a plate carrée projection that displays the data by azimuth angle (x-axis) and zenith angle (y-axis).  (2007_Bart_Plot01CP_Scan63_ND015_AT_project_Mean_range.jpg)

Data and Documentation Access:

Description and Links to Companion Files and Supplemental Information:

Get Data:  ECHIDNA Lidar Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009

Related Data Set:
Cook B., R. Dubayah, F.G. Hall, R. Nelson, J. Ranson, A.H. Strahler, P. Siqueira, M. Simard, and P. Griffith. 2011. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http:dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1046

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Strahler, A.H., C. Schaaf, C. Woodcock, D. Jupp, D. Culvenor, G. Newnham, R. Dubayah, T. Yao, F. Zhao, and X. Yang. 2011. ECHIDNA Lidar Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1045

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: EOS Land Validation

The objective of this research was to prove the ability of a ground-based, scanning near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), to retrieve stem diameter, stem count density, stand height, leaf area index, foliage profile, foliage area volume density, and other useful forest structural parameters rapidly and accurately. The Echidna® instrument, built by CSIRO Australia, directs a horizontal 1,064 nm laser beam with 5 mr divergence and a pulse rate of 2 kHz to a rotating mirror at 45° incidence to scan a vertical circle, recording data from +137° to –130° zenith angles and all azimuths as the instrument revolves 180° on a tripod mount. The return signal is sampled at 2 gigasamples per second, digitizing the full scattered waveform. The shape of the return pulse distinguishes readily between hard targets (tree boles, branches) and soft targets (leaves).

To test the ability of the EVI ground-based lidar to retrieve forest structural parameters, lidar scans and manual tree measurements were acquired in 2007 and 2009 at three classic New England locations: Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts; Howland Research Forest, Howland, Maine; and Bartlett Experimental Forest, Bartlett, New Hampshire. Another field campaign was conducted in 2008 in the Sierra National Forest, California. This data set provides the results from these campaigns, both the scan imagery and the field measurements.

2. Data Description:

This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), field measurement data from the three campaigns, and a comparison of EVI derived measurements to the field measured data from the 2007 New England Campaign.

EVI Images:

28 Andrieu Transpose (AT) Projection image files (.img) from the 2007 New England Campaign, 

40 AT Projection image files from the 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign, and 

54 AT Projection image files from the 2009 New England Campaign. 

EVI Preview Images:

There are range-weighted mean image files (.jpg format) for each AT Projection image. See tables below of field campaign locations for preview image links.

Field Measurement Data:

Comparison of EVI derived measurements to the field measurements from the 2007 New England Campaign.


Spatial Coverage

Site: United States

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site(Region)Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
New England, U.S.A. -72.18222 -68.72358 45.21483 42.53097
Sierra National Forest, California, U.S.A. -119.249 -119.0504 37.0979 36.961

The New England campaign field sites were located in Harvard Forest (Massachusetts), Howland Research Forest (Maine), and Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire). There were two field plots in each forest for a total of six plots per campaign (2007 and 2009). Two of the plots were studied in both campaign years [Harvard Forest Hemlock site (HF_HH) and Howland Forest BU Shelterwood site (HOW8)]. The New England site locations are shown in Tables 1 and 3 below. The GPS locations may not match to each other from 2007 to 2009 due to the GPS accuracy. For these sites, the 2009 GPS locations should be the most accurate. The number of subplots varied per location and campaign (See Tables 5, 8, and 10).  Table 4 is a cross reference for the various Plot IDs used for the New England sites.

The California campaign field sites were located in the Sierra National Forest. There are eight forest plots in this campaign (2008). Site locations are shown in Table 2 below.

Table 1. New England Sites, Plot Center Points, 2007

SitePlot Longitude*** Latitude
Harvard ForestPlot 01 -72.1822242.53097
Harvard Forest Plot 02* -72.1775642.53828
Howland Research ForestPlot 01** -68.73806 45.21053
Howland Research ForestPlot 02  -68.7235845.20475
Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 01 -71.2894444.04756
Bartlett Experimental ForestPlot 02 -71.27 44.04756

* The Harvard Forest Plot 02 in 2007 was revisited in 2009 and designated "HF_HH".

** The Howland Research Forest Plot 01 was revisited in 2009 and designated "HOW8".

*** The GPS locations may not match to each other from 2007 to 2009 due to the GPS accuracy. For revisited sites, the 2009 GPS locations should be the most accurate.

Table 2. Sierra National Forest Site, Plot Center Points, 2008

SitePlotLongitude Latitude
Sierra National ForestSite 23 -119.249 37.0979
Sierra National ForestSite 99  -119.187937.0373
Sierra National ForestSite 168  -119.0504 36.961
Sierra National ForestSite 301  -119.056836.98
Sierra National ForestSite 305  -119.0523 36.9796
Sierra National ForestSite 338  -119.056136.9703
Sierra National Forest Site 406  -119.22137.0959
Sierra National ForestSite 801 -119.1085 37.0215

Table 3. New England Sites, Plot Center Points, 2009

SitePlotLongitude*Latitude
Harvard Forest HF_PH3-72.17266 42.53665
Harvard Forest HF_HH **-72.17763 42.53665
Howland Research ForestHOW7 -68.7347945.21483
Howland Research Forest HOW8 **-68.7380645.21054
Bartlett Experimental ForestBF_38M-71.27894 44.05432
Bartlett Experimental ForestBF_NACP -71.2880944.06486

*The GPS locations may not match to each other from 2007 to 2009 due to the GPS accuracy. For revisited sites, the 2009 GPS locations should be the most accurate.

** 2009 plots samples in 2007.

Table 4.  New England Sites Plot ID cross reference table.  Note that Plot IDs changed from 2007 to 2009 and only two 2007 plots were revisited in 2009. Also note that the 2009 plots are included in the related data set, NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010, and slightly different Plot IDs were used.

Site 2007 Plot ID 2007 Plot ID Description Dominant tree species or location 2009 Plot ID 2009 Plot ID Description Biomass_ID NACP citation)
Harvard Forest Harvard Forest Plot 01 Plot 01 Hardwood species     
Harvard Forest Plot 02 Plot 02 Hemlock treesHF_HH HF_HH is Hemlock plot
(revisited in 2009)
Hemlock
   HF_PH3 HF_PH3 is EMS Tower plot  PH3
          
Howland Research Forest Howland Research Forest Plot 01 Plot 01 Shelterwood locationHOW8 HOW8 is Boston University (BU) Shelterwood plot (revisited in 2009) H8
Howland Research Forest Plot 02  Plot 02 Tower location    
   HOW7 HOW7 is Andrew Shelterwood plot H7
          
Bartlett Experimental Forest Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 01 Plot 01 B2 location    
Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 02 Plot 02 C2 location    
   BF_38M BF_38M is the site dominated by sugar maple 38M
   BF_NACP BF_NACP is Tower site NACP

Site Information

Harvard Forest  is an ecological research area of 1,200 ha owned and managed by Harvard University and located in Petersham, Massachusetts. The property, in operation since 1907, includes one of North America's oldest managed forests, educational, and research facilities. The forest stands are in the transition hardwoods - white pine - hemlock zone and are comprised mainly of red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), yellow birch (Betula allleghaniensis), white birch (B. papyrifera), black birch (B. lenta), beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The study plots are located in the Prospect Hill tract. The soils are mainly sandy loam glacial till and are moderately to well drained. The climate is cool, moist temperate. July mean temperature is 20 C and January mean temperature -7 C. The annual mean precipitation of 1,066 mm is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Harvard Forest Website:  http://HarvardForest.fas.harvard.edu/.

Howland Research Forest is a 558 acre tract of mature, lowland evergreen forest located in central Maine, about 35 miles north of Bangor. The natural stands in this boreal-northern hardwood transitional forest consist of hemlock-spruce-fir, aspen-birch, and hemlock-hardwood mixtures ranging in age from 45 to 130 years. Dominant species composition includes red spruce (Picea rubens), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis ), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis). The land was designated as research forest in 1986 by the former owner, International Paper, and was purchased by Northeast Wilderness Trust in 2007, protecting the forest from any future logging activities. The terrain is flat to gently rolling with a maximum elevation of less than 68 m. Soils throughout the forest are glacial tills, acid in reaction, with low fertility and high organic composition. The climate is temperate continental. Howland Research Forest Website: http://HowlandForest.org/.

Bartlett Experimental Forest is a 1,052 ha tract within the U.S. Forest Service, White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire. Research activities began at the Experimental Forest when it was established in 1931. Bartlett Experimental Forest extends from the village of Bartlett in the Saco River valley at 210 m to about 915 m at its upper reaches. The terrain is rolling to mountainous; aspects across the forest are primarily north and east. The primary forest cover is the sugar maple-beech-yellow birch association. The upper elevations support stands of spruce and fir. There are areas of old-growth northern hardwoods with beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Betula allleghaniensis), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) being the dominant species. Even-aged stands of red maple (Acer rubrum), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and aspen (Populus tremuloides) occupy sites that were once cleared. Red spruce (Picea rubens) stands cover the highest slopes. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is confined to the lowest elevations. The soils at the Bartlett Experimental Forest are spodosols, developed on glacial till derived from granite and gneiss. The soils are moist but, for the most part, well drained. The climate in the Bartlett area includes warm summers and cold winters with mean January temperatures of 9.8 C and mean July temperatures of 19.8 C. Mean annual precipitation is 1,300 mm, distributed throughout the year. Bartlett Experimental Forest Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/durham/4155/bartlett.htm.

Sierra National Forest encompasses more than 24,000 km2 between 274 m and 4,263 m in elevation on the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada in the state of California. The forest was placed under U.S. Forest Service protection and management in 1893. Distributions of species are largely governed by climate, which is strongly dependent on altitude. The biotic zones include the foothill woodland zone from 300 to 910 m (interior live oak), the lower montane zone from 910 to 2,100 m (yellow pine), the upper montane zone from 2,100 to 2,700 m (lodgepole pine/red fir), the subalpine zone from 2,700 to 2,900 m (whitebark pine), and the alpine zone from 2,900 m (above the tree line). In addition, some 1,550 km2 of the forest are old growth, containing lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and red fir (Abies magnifica). Sierra National Forest Website:  http://fs.usda.gov/sierra.

Spatial Resolution

2007 New England Campaign Lidar scans and manual tree measurements were made at six New England forest plots, two plots at each location: Harvard Forest (Massachusetts), Howland Research Forest (Maine), and Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) (Table 1). Each plot was 100 x 100 m square (1 ha) in size. The Echidna Validation Instrument was used to scan the center point of the square and center points of four 50 m x 50 m squares nested within the plot for a total of five scans at each site (except at Howland Research Forest Plot 2 where only three scans were made) (Table 4). Placements of the instrument were sometimes shifted by a few meters in order to avoid larger, nearby trunks or shrub crowns. Manual measurements of trees were made in circular plots around the scan point of 20 m range (or 25 m at Harv_01 site).

NE plot layouts

Figure 2. Plot layout in 2007 New England field work. At each one-hectare site, we acquired five ground-based lidar scans at the approximate locations shown.  Circles of 20-m radius show the areas around the scan points in which stems were mapped and measured as described within the text.

2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign Lidar scans and manual tree measurements were made at eight Sierra National Forest locations (Table 2). Each plot was 100 x 100 m square (1 ha) in size, with 9 subplots in each plot (Figure 3). Manual tree measurements were made in each subplot.

Sierra plot layout


Figure 3. 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign plot layout.

2009 New England Campaign Lidar scans and manual tree measurements were made at six New England forest plots, two plots at each location: Harvard Forest (Massachusetts), Howland Research Forest (Maine), and Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) (Table 3). Each plot was 50 m x 50 m square, with four 25 x 25 m intensive subplots grouped together in center of the plot. Echidna® scans were made in the four corners of each plot (NW, NE, SW, and SE), in the center (C), and at N, E, S, and W locations (Figure 4A). To collect the manual tree measurements, each 50 m x 50 m plot was divided into 5 subplots (C, NW, NE, SW and SE) (Figure 4B). The central subplot was a square plot, measuring 28.53 m by 28.53 m; the other subplots were isosceles right triangle plots, with 25 m right-angle side. The numbers of stems, with DBH < 10 cm and >3 cm, were counted within a 10 m distance of the reference point in each subplot (Figure 5).


2009 plot locations


Figure: 4A


stem map subplots


Figure: 4B

Figure 4.2009 New England Campaign (A) plot layout and Echidna® locations and (B) subplots for manual tree measurements around reference point. The "extra trees" were selected in order to register the entire stem plot map based on 13 different reference points.

stem map subplots

Figure 5. 2009 New England Campaign  small-stem 10-m radius sample subplots.


Temporal Coverage

2007 New England Campaign: August 1 to August 11, 2007
2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign: July 16 to July 29, 2008
2009 New England Campaign: July 23 to August 5, 2009

Temporal Resolution

Measurements were made once at the subplots listed in Tables 4-14.

Campaign Data Descriptions

2007 New England Campaign

2007 Harvard

Figure 6.  Preview image of Harvard Forest Plot 02, Center Point, 2007, the images are in a plate carrée projection that displays the data by azimuth angle (x-axis) and zenith angle (y-axis). (2007_Harv_Plot02CP_Scan23_ND015_AT_project_Mean_range.jpg)

2007 New England Campaign EVI Scans

Example of Data File StructureImage File Characteristics
EVI scan image data are distributed as *.zip files:
Harv_Plot02CP_Scan23_ND015_AT_project.zip

Contains:
Harv_Plot02CP_ Scan23_ND015_AT_project.img
Harv_Plot02CP_ Scan23_ND015_AT_project.hdr
Harv_Plot02CP_ Scan23_ND015_AT_project_Mean_range.jpg

Data file access: http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/
Images are ENVI .img and .hdr file pairs.

Compressed files range in size from 50 - 200 MB.

Image files, uncompressed, range from 1.5 - 2.5 GB.

Image properties:
1257 (rows) * 454 (cols) * 1248 (bands)

Andrieu Transpose (AT) Projection

Table 5.  2007 New England Campaign dates and locations of EVI scans and field measurements. Scan image file names and links to Preview images are included.

Plot_IDSubplotField Measurement DateEVI Scan Date Longitude LatitudeSubplot EVI Scan Image Files
 (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/)
Subplot Preview Image
Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 01

Field Measurement Plot:  Bart_01
Center (CP)2007080920070809-71.2894 44.06422 2007_Bart_Plot01CP_Scan63_ND015_AT_project.zip 2007_Bart_Plot01CP_Scan63
Northeast (NE)2007080820070809-71.2891 44.06461 2007_Bart_Plot01NE_Scan65_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot01NE_Scan65
Northwest (NW)2007080920070809-71.2897 44.0645 2007_Bart_Plot01NW_Scan61_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot01NW_Scan61
Southeast (SE)2007080820070809-71.2891 44.063862007_Bart_Plot01SE_Scan67_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot01SE_Scan67
Southwest (SW)2007080920070809-71.2898 44.0642007_Bart_Plot01SW_Scan69_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot01SW_Scan69
Bartlett Experimental Forest Plot 02

Field Measurement Plot: Bart_02
Center (CP)2007081020070809-71.2867 44.064222007_Bart_Plot02CP_Scan55_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot02CP_Scan55
Northeast (NE)2007081020070809-71.2864 44.064472007_Bart_Plot02NE_Scan59_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot02NE_Scan59
Northwest (NW)2007081020070809-71.2871 44.064442007_Bart_Plot02NW_Scan51_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot02NW_Scan51
Southeast (SE)2007080920070809-71.2864 44.064062007_Bart_Plot02SE_Scan57_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot02SE_Scan57
Southwest (SW)2007080920070809-71.2869 44.0642007_Bart_Plot02SW_Scan53_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Bart_Plot02SW_Scan53
Harvard Forest Plot 01

Field Measurement Plot:  Harv_01
Center (CP)2007080220070801-72.1821 42.530972007_Harv_Plot01CP_Scan21_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot01CP_Scan21
Northeast (NE)2007080220070801-72.181742.53119 2007_Harv_Plot01NE_Scan19_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot01NE_Scan19
Northwest (NW)2007080120070801-72.1824 42.531172007_Harv_Plot01NW_Scan15_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot01NW_Scan15
Southeast (SE)2007080120070801-72.1818 42.530752007_Harv_Plot01SE_Scan75_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot01SE_Scan75
Southwest (SW)2007080120070801-72.182342.53092 2007_Harv_Plot01SW_Scan17_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot01SW_Scan17
Harvard Forest Plot 02

Field Measurement Plot:  Harv_02
Center (CP)2007080320070802-72.1776 42.538282007_Harv_Plot02CP_Scan23_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot02CP_Scan23
Northeast (NE)2007080320070802-72.1773 42.538392007_Harv_Plot02NE_Scan73_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot02NE_Scan73
Northwest (NW)2007080320070802-72.1779 42.538392007_Harv_Plot02NW_Scan25_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot02NW_Scan25
Southeast (SE)2007081120070802-72.1774 42.537892007_Harv_Plot02SE_Scan71_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot02SE_Scan71
Southwest (SW)2007080320070802-72.1779 42.537922007_Harv_Plot02SW_Scan27_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_Harv_Plot02SW_Scan27
Howland Research Forest Plot 01

Field Measurement Plot:  How_01
Center (CP)2007080620070806-68.7381 45.210532007_How_Plot01CP_Scan35_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot01CP_Scan35
Northeast (NE)2007080620070806-68.7378 45.210812007_How_Plot01NE_Scan33_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot01NE_Scan33
Northwest (NW)2007080620070806-68.7384 45.210722007_How_Plot01NW_Scan31_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot01NW_Scan31
Southeast (SE)2007080620070806-68.7378 45.210222007_How_Plot01SE_Scan37_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot01SE_Scan37
Southwest (SW)2007080620070806-68.7383 45.210362007_How_Plot01SW_Scan39_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot01SW_Scan39
Howland Research Forest Plot 02

Field Measurement Plot:  How_02
Center (CP)2007080720070807-68.7403 45.204752007_How_Plot02CP_Scan43_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot02CP_Scan43
North (NN)2007080720070807-68.7403 45.205032007_How_Plot02NN_Scan49_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot02NN_Scan49
South (SS)2007080720070807-68.7403 45.204362007_How_Plot02SS_Scan41_ND015_AT_project.zip2007_How_Plot02SS_Scan41


2007 New England Campaign Field Measurement Data

Plot level field measurements data are provided in a single ASCII file in comma-separated-value (.csv) format:  ne_2007_forest_field_data.csv.

Table 6. Column headings in the field measurement file for the 2007 New England Campaign.

COLUMN HEADINGS FORMAT TYPE UNITS SIGNIFICANT DIGITS MISSING CODE DESCRIPTION
Date Char none none none YYYYMMDD (YearMonthDay)
Site Char none none none Name of site
Plot_IDChar none none none Harv_01/02 are the plots in Harvard Forest
Bart_01/02 are the plots in Bartlett Experimental Forest
How_01/02 are the plots in Howland Research Forest
Subplot_IDChar none none none NW, NE, CP, SW, SE, NN and SS are abbreviation for northwest, northeast, central, southwest, southeast, north and south subplot in each plot.
Tree_noIntegernone none none The ID number of the tree in each subplot.
SpeciesChar none none none Common name of living tree species.
DBH Float cm 1 -9999 Diameter Breast Height.
DistanceFloat meter1 -9999 The distance of the tree from the reference point of the subplot. In this data set, the reference point is the center of the subplot.
Bearing1 Float decimal degrees 1 -9999 The bearing of the tree from the reference point of the subplot. In this data set, the reference point is the center of the subplot.
Tree_heightFloat meter1 -9999 The height from ground to the top of the tree.
Crown_baseFloat meter1 -9999 The height from ground to the bottom of the tree crown.
OCCL Charnonenone none The tree is tallied as visible (V), partly occluded (P) or fully occluded(O) from the plot center.
CR_PCharnonenone none Crown position of the tree, such as dominant (D), co-dominant (C),intermediate (I), suppressed (S), or dead (Dead).
Radius1Float meter3 -9999 The crown radius in one direction.
Radius2 Float meter3 -9999 The crown radius in the direction perpendicular to previous one (Radius1).
NotesCharnonenone none The notes were made if the tallied tree is also in other plots, or if the tree has some special properties. For example, the note “Bart_01_NE-30” associated with data for Bart_01 CP tree number 19 means that Bart_01 NE tree number 30 and Bart_01 CP tree number 19 are the same tree.

Note: 1Bearing is relative to magnetic north. It is the bearing of the tree from the reference point in the plot.

Sample of field measurement file for 2007 New England Campaign

Date,Site,Plot_ID,Subplot_ID,Tree_no,Species,DBH,Distance,Bearing,Tree_height,Crown_base,OCCL,CR_P,Radius1,Radius2,Notes

20070809,Bartlett_Forest,Bart_01,CP,19,Beech,11,18,38,-9999,-9999,O,I,-9999,-9999,Bart_01_NE-30
20070809,Bartlett_Forest,Bart_01,CP,18,Hemlock,11.7,18.8,42,-9999,-9999,O,S,-9999,-9999,Bart_01_NE-31
20070809,Bartlett_Forest,Bart_01,CP,17,YellowBirch,21.8,18.5,46,-9999,-9999,O,C,-9999,-9999,Bart_01_NE-32
 ...

2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign

2008_Site406_Centre_Scan49

Figure 7. Preview image of Sierra National Forest Plot 406,Center Point, 2008. The images are in a plate carrée projection that displays the data by azimuth angle (x-axis) and zenith angle (y-axis). (2008_Site406_Centre_Scan49_ND015_AT_project_Mean_range2.jpg)

2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign EVI Scans

Table 7. Dates and locations of field measurements and EVI scans during the 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign

Plot_ID Field Measurement Date EVI Scan Date LongitudeLatitude
23 2008072920080726-119.249 37.0979
99 2008071620080717-119.1879 37.0373
168 2008072120080722 -119.050436.961
301 2008071920080721-119.0568 36.98
305 20080718 20080717-119.052336.9796
338 2008071920080723 -119.056136.9703
406 2008072620080725-119.22137.0959
801 2008072320080724-119.108537.0215


Example of Data File StructureImage File Characteristics
EVI scan image data are distributed as *.zip files:
2008_Site023_Centre_Scan57_ND015_AT_project.zip

Contains:
Site023_Centre_Scan57_ND015_AT_project.img
Site023_Centre_Scan57_ND015_AT_project.hdr
Site023_Centre_Scan57_ND015_AT_project_Mean_range2.jpg

Data file access:  http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/
Images are ENVI .img and .hdr file pairs.

Compressed files range in size from 50 - 200 MB.

Image files, uncompressed, range from 1.5 - 2.5 GB.

Image properties:
1257 (rows) * 508 (cols) * 1915 (bands)

Andrieu Transpose (AT) Projection



Table 8.  2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign locations of EVI scans. Scan image file names and links to Preview images are included.

Plot_IDSubplotSubplot EVI Scan Image Files
 (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/)
Subplot Preview Image
23Centre2008_Site023_Centre_Scan57_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site023_Centre_Scan57
LLcorner2008_Site023_LLcorner_Scan62_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site023_LLcorner_Scan62
LRcorner2008_Site023_LRcorner_Scan61_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site023_LRcorner_Scan61
ULcorner2008_Site023_ULcorner_Scan59_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site023_ULcorner_Scan59
URcorner2008_Site023_URcorner_Scan60_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site023_URcorner_Scan60
99Centre 2008_Site99_Centre_Scan11_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site99_Centre_Scan11
LLcorner2008_Site99_LLcorner_Scan09_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site99_LLcorner_Scan09
LRcorner 2008_Site99_LRcorner_Scan05_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site99_LRcorner_Scan05
ULcorner2008_Site99_ULcorner_Scan13_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site99_ULcorner_Scan13
URcorner 2008_Site99_URcorner_Scan02_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site99_URcorner_Scan02
168Centre 2008_Site168_Centre_Scan31_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site168_Centre_Scan31
LLcorner2008_Site168_LLcorner_Scan34_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site168_LLcorner_Scan34
LRcorner2008_Site168_LRcorner_Scan35_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site168_LRcorner_Scan35
ULcorner2008_Site168_ULcorner_Scan33_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site168_ULcorner_Scan33
URcorner2008_Site168_URcorner_Scan36_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site168_URcorner_Scan36
301Centre2008_Site301_Centre_Scan24_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site301_Centre_Scan24
LLcorner2008_Site301_LLcorner_Scan27_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site301_LLcorner_Scan27
LRcorner2008_Site301_LRcorner_Scan30_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site301_LRcorner_Scan30
ULcorner2008_Site301_ULcorner_Scan26_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site301_ULcorner_Scan26
URcorner2008_Site301_URcorner_Scan23_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site301_URcorner_Scan23
305Centre2008_Site305_Centre_Scan17_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site305_Centre_Scan17
LLcorner2008_Site305_LLcorner_Scan21_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site305_LLcorner_Scan21
LRcorner2008_Site305_LRcorner_Scan22_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site305_LRcorner_Scan22
ULcorner2008_Site305_ULcorner_Scan18_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site305_ULcorner_Scan18
URcorner2008_Site305_URcorner_Scan20_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site305_URcorner_Scan20
338Centre 2008_Site338_Centre_Scan37_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site338_Centre_Scan37
LLcorner2008_Site338_LLcorner_Scan42_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site338_LLcorner_Scan42
LRcorner2008_Site338_LRcorner_Scan41_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site338_LRcorner_Scan41
ULcorner2008_Site338_Scan40_URcorner_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site338_ULcorner_Scan39
URcorner2008_Site338_ULcorner_Scan39_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site338_URcorner_Scan40
406Centre 2008_Site406_Centre_Scan49_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site406_Centre_Scan49
LLcorner2008_Site406_LLcorner_Scan56_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site406_LLcorner_Scan56
LRcorner2008_Site406_LRcorner_Scan55_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site406_LRcorner_Scan55
ULcorner2008_Site406_ULcorner_Scan53_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site406_ULcorner_Scan53
URcorner2008_Site406_URcorner_Scan54_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site406_URcorner_Scan54
801Centre 2008_Site801_Centre_Scan45_ND015_AT_project.zip2008_Site801_Centre_Scan45
LLcorner2008_Site801_LLcorner_Scan47_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site801_LLcorner_Scan47
LRcorner2008_Site801_LRcorner_Scan48_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site801_LRcorner_Scan48
ULcorner2008_Site801_ULcorner_Scan44_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site801_ULcorner_Scan44
URcorner2008_Site801_URcorner_Scan43_ND015_AT_project.zip 2008_Site801_URcorner_Scan43

Plot level field measurements data are provided in a single ASCII file in comma-separated-value (.csv) format:  sierra_2008_forest_field_data.csv.

Table 9. Column headings in field measurements file for 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign.

COLUMN HEADINGS FORMAT TYPE UNITS SIGNIFICANT DIGITS MISSING CODE DESCRIPTION
Date Char none none none YYYYMMDD (YearMonthDay)
Site Char none none none Name of site.
Plot_IDChar none none none There are eight plots totally with the name of number: 23, 99, 168, 301, 305, 338, 406, 801.
Subplot_ID Char none none none There are 9 subplots within each plot identified with numbers from 1 to 9. Figure 1 shows the locations of the subplots.
Tree_no Integer none none none The ID number of the tree in each subplot
Species1 Char none none none Tree species code. The code “none” indicates that the tree was not identified to species. See Table 18.
StatusChar none none none L means the tree is live, and D means the tree is dead.
DBH Float cm 1 -9999 Diameter Breast Height
Biomass_JenkinsFloatmegagrams (Mg)???-9999 Biomass was calculated using the equations from Jenkins et al. 2004.(NACP citation)
DistanceFloat meter 1 -9999 The distance from the front of the tree to the reference point in the plot.
Bearing2 Float degrees 1 -9999 The bearing of the tree from the reference point in the plot.
Tree_heightFloat meter 1 -9999 The height from ground to the top of the tree.
Crown_baseFloat meter 1 -9999 The height from ground to the bottom of the tree crown.
Crown_along_slopeFloat meter 1 -9999 The crown diameter along the slope direction.
Crown_across_slopeFloat meter 1 -9999 The crown diameter across the slope direction.
Crown_formChar none none none The shape of the crown.
NotesChar none none none Thenotes were made if the tree has some special properties.

Notes: 1The code list for the parameter species. The species codes are derived from the USDA NRCS PLANTS Database at http://plants.usda.gov/. The complete list is available for download at http://plants.usda.gov/dl_all.html.

2Bearing is relative to magnetic north. It is the bearing of the tree from the reference point in the plot.

Tree species code list for 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign


Species_code Species Name Common Name
ABCO Abies concolor White Fir
ABMA Abies magnifica Red Fir
FRLAFraxinuslatifoliaOregon ash
SEGI Sequoiadendron giganteumGiant Sequoia
LIDE Libocedrus decurrens Incense cedar
PICO Pinus contorta Lodgepole pine
PIJE Pinus jeffreyi Jeffrey pine
PILA Pinus lambertiana Sugar pine
PIMO Pinus monticola Western white pine
PIPO Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine
PISA Pinus sabiniana Gray pine
POTR Populus tremuloides Trembling aspen
PREM Prunus emarginate Bitter cherry
PRSU Prunus subcordata Sierra plum
PRVI Prunus virginiana Western chokecherry
QUCH Quercus chrysolepis Canyon live oak
QUKE Quercus kellogii Black oak
UNK unknown species  

Sample of field measurement file for 2008 Sierra National Forest Campaign

Date,Site,Plot_ID,Subplot_ID,Tree_no,Species,Status,DBH,Distance,Bearing,Tree_height,Crown_base,
Crown_along_slope,Crown_cross_slope,Crown_form,Notes
none,none,none,none,none,none,none,cm,meter,decimal_degrees,meter,meter,meter,meter,none,none
20080729,Sierra_National_Forest,23,1,1,PIJE,L,70.1,-9999,-9999,26.39,-9999,-9999,-9999,none,none
20080729,Sierra_National_Forest,23,1,2,PIJE,L,28,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,none,none
20080729,Sierra_National_Forest,23,1,4,PIJE,L,69.8,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,none,none ...

2009 New England Campaign

2009 Howland Plot 08


Figure 8. Preview image of Howland Forest Plot, HOW8, Center Point, 2009. The images are in a plate carréeprojection that displays the data by azimuth angle (x-axis) and zenith angle (y-axis). (2009_HOW8_Scan_04_Centre_AT_project_Mean_range.jpg)


2009 New England Campaign EVI Scans

Example of Data File StructureImage File Characteristics
EVI scan image data are distributed as *.zip files:
2009_HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW_AT_project.zip

Contains:
HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW_AT_project.img
HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW_AT_project.img.hdr
HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW_AT_project_Mean_range.jpg

Data file access:  http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/
Images are ENVI .img and .hdr file pairs.

Compressed files range in size from 50 - 200 MB.

Image files, uncompressed, range from 1.5 - 2.5 GB.

Image properties:
1257 (rows) * 454 (cols) * 1515 (bands)

Andrieu Transpose (AT) Projection


Table 10.  2009 New England Campaign dates and locations of EVI scans and field measurements. Scan image file names and links to Preview images are included.

LocationPlot_IDSubplot_IDField Measurement Date Scan_IDEVI Scan DateLongitudeLatitude Subplot EVI Scan Image Files
 (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/nacp/echidna/data/)
Subplot Preview Image
Harvard ForestHF_PH3N  Scan_01_N20090726-72.1727642.53675 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_01_N_AT_project.zip 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_01_N
Harvard ForestHF_PH3 NE20090723Scan_02_NE20090726-72.1723842.53669 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_02_NE_AT_project.zip 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_02_NE
Harvard ForestHF_PH3E  Scan_03_E20090726 -72.1724642.536582009_HF_PH3_Scan_03_E_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_03_E
Harvard ForestHF_PH3SE20090723Scan_04_SE20090726 -72.1724442.536392009_HF_PH3_Scan_04_SE_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_04_SE
Harvard ForestHF_PH3S  Scan_05_S20090726-72.17274 42.536292009_HF_PH3_Scan_05_S_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_05_S
Harvard ForestHF_PH3SW20090723Scan_06_SW20090726-72.1730442.536 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_06_SW_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_06_SW
Harvard ForestHF_PH3C20090723Scan_07_Centre20090726-72.1726642.53665 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_07_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_07_Centre
Harvard ForestHF_PH3W  Scan_08_W20090726-72.1730642.53666 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_08_W_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_08_W
Harvard ForestHF_PH3NW20090723Scan_09_NW20090726-72.1729742.53688 2009_HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW_AT_project.zip2009_HF_PH3_Scan_09_NW
Harvard ForestHF_HHC20090726Scan_01_Centre20090725-72.1776342.53819 2009_HF_HH_Scan_01_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_01_Centre
Harvard ForestHF_HHNE20090726Scan_02_NE20090725-72.1771742.53833 2009_HF_HH_Scan_02_NE_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_02_NE
Harvard ForestHF_HHSE20090726Scan_03_SE20090725-72.1773642.53781 2009_HF_HH_Scan_03_SE_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_03_SE
Harvard ForestHF_HHS  Scan_04_S20090725-72.1777342.53786 2009_HF_HH_Scan_04_S_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_04_S
Harvard ForestHF_HHSW20090726Scan_05_SW20090725-72.1779342.53788 2009_HF_HH_Scan_05_SW_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_05_SW
Harvard ForestHF_HHW  Scan_06_W20090725-72.1778442.53817 2009_HF_HH_Scan_06_W_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_06_W
Harvard ForestHF_HHNW20090726Scan_07_NW20090725-72.1777942.53839 2009_HF_HH_Scan_07_NW_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_07_NW
Harvard ForestHF_HHN  Scan_08_N20090725-72.1774942.53833 2009_HF_HH_Scan_08_N_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_08_N
Harvard ForestHF_HHE  Scan_09_E20090725-72.1773142.53798 2009_HF_HH_Scan_09_E_AT_project.zip2009_HF_HH_Scan_09_E
Howland ForestHOW7S  Scan_01_S20090801N/AN/A 2009_HOW7_Scan_01_S_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_01_S
Howland ForestHOW7SW20090801Scan_02_SW20090801-68.7350445.21456 2009_HOW7_Scan_02_SW_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_02_SW
Howland ForestHOW7W  Scan_03_W20090801 N/AN/A2009_HOW7_Scan_03_W_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_03_W
Howland ForestHOW7NW20090801Scan_04_NW20090801-68.735145.2152009_HOW7_Scan_04_NW_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_04_NW
Howland ForestHOW7N  Scan_05_N20090801 N/AN/A2009_HOW7_Scan_05_N_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_05_N
Howland ForestHOW7NE20090801Scan_06_NE20090801-68.7345845.21512009_HOW7_Scan_06_NE_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_06_NE
Howland ForestHOW7E  Scan_07_E20090801-68.7341445.21492009_HOW7_Scan_07_E_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_07_E
Howland ForestHOW7C20090801Scan_08_Centre20090801-68.7347945.214832009_HOW7_Scan_08_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_08_Centre
Howland ForestHOW7SE20090801Scan_09_SE20090801-68.7344645.214682009_HOW7_Scan_09_SE_AT_project.zip2009_HOW7_Scan_09_SE
Howland ForestHOW8NW20090801Scan_01_NW20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_01a_NW_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_01a_NW
Howland ForestHOW8N  Scan_02_N20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_02_N_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_02_N
Howland ForestHOW8NE20090801Scan_03_NE20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_03_NE_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_03_NE
Howland ForestHOW8C20090801Scan_04_Centre20090731-68.7380645.210542009_HOW8_Scan_04_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_04_Centre
Howland ForestHOW8E  Scan_05_E20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_05_E_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_05_E
Howland ForestHOW8W  Scan_06_W20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_06_W_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_06_W
Howland ForestHOW8SW20090801Scan_07_SW20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_07_SW_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_07_SW
Howland ForestHOW8S  Scan_08_S20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_08_S_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_08_S
Howland ForestHOW8SE20090801Scan_09_SE20090731 N/AN/A2009_HOW8_Scan_09_SE_AT_project.zip2009_HOW8_Scan_09_SE
Bartlett ForestBF_38MC20090803Scan_01_Centre20090805-71.2789444.054322009_BF_38M_Scan_01_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_01_Centre
Bartlett ForestBF_38MNW20090803Scan_02_NW20090805-71.279244.054552009_BF_38M_Scan_02_NW_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_02_NW
Bartlett ForestBF_38MNE20090803Scan_03_NE20090805-71.2787544.054542009_BF_38M_Scan_03_NE_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_03_NE
Bartlett ForestBF_38MSE20090803Scan_04_SE20090805-71.2787244.054052009_BF_38M_Scan_04_SE_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_04_SE
Bartlett ForestBF_38MS  Scan_05_S20090805-71.279144.054062009_BF_38M_Scan_05_S_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_05_S
Bartlett ForestBF_38MW  Scan_06_W20090805-71.2792944.054332009_BF_38M_Scan_06_W_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_06_W
Bartlett ForestBF_38MN  Scan_07_N20090805-71.2789844.054552009_BF_38M_Scan_07_N_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_07_N
Bartlett ForestBF_38ME  Scan_08_E20090805-71.2786944.054322009_BF_38M_Scan_08_E_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_08_E
Bartlett ForestBF_38MSW20090803Scan_09_SW20090805-71.2792444.054082009_BF_38M_Scan_09_SW_AT_project.zip2009_BF_38M_Scan_09_SW
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPE  Scan_01_E20090804-71.287844.064992009_BF_NACP_Scan_01_E_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_01_E
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPSE20090805Scan_02_SE20090804-71.2877144.064742009_BF_NACP_Scan_02_SE_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_02_SE
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPNE20090805Scan_03_NE20090804-71.2879644.065132009_BF_NACP_Scan_03_NE_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_03_NE
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPN  Scan_04_N20090804 -71.2882844.065122009_BF_NACP_Scan_04_N_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_04_N
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPC20090805Scan_05_Centre20090804-71.2880944.064862009_BF_NACP_Scan_05_Centre_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_05_Centre
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPS  Scan_06_S20090804-71.2879844.064692009_BF_NACP_Scan_06_S_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_06_S
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPSW20090805Scan_07_SW20090804-71.2883144.064582009_BF_NACP_Scan_07_SW_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_07_SW
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPW  Scan_08_W20090804-71.2883944.064782009_BF_NACP_Scan_08_W_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_08_W
Bartlett ForestBF_NACPNW20090805Scan_09_NW20090804-71.288544.065032009_BF_NACP_Scan_09_NW_AT_project.zip2009_BF_NACP_Scan_09_NW

Plot level field measurement data are provided in a single ASCII file in comma-separated-value (.csv) format: ne_2009_forest_field_data.csv.

Table 11. Column headings in field measurements file for 2009 New England Campaign

COLUMN HEADINGS FORMAT TYPE UNITS SIGNIFICANT DIGITS MISSING CODE DESCRIPTION
Date Char None None NA YYYYMMDD(YearMonthDay)
Site Char None None NA Harvard Forest site is in MA;
Howland Forest site is in ME;
Bartlett Forest site is in NH.
Plot_IDChar None None NA HF_PH3 is Harvard Forest EMS Tower plot;
HF_HH is Harvard Forest Hemlock plot (revisited);
HOW7 is Howland Forest Andrew Shelterwood plot;
HOW8 is Howland Forest BU Shelterwood plot (revisited);
BF_38M is plot in Bartlett Forest dominated by sugar maple;
BF_NACP is Bartlett Forest Tower site.
Subplot_IDChar None None NA Each plot is divided into 5 subplots based on different reference point: C, NW, NE, SW and SE (Figure 2).
Tree_noInteger None 1 -9999 The number of the tree in each subplot.
Species1Char None None NA Tree species for each tree.
StatusChar None None NA The tree is live (L) or dead (D).
DBH Float centimeter 1 -9999 Diameter at Breast Height (about 1.3 m)
DistanceFloat meter 1 -9999 The distance of the tree from the reference point of the subplot.
Bearing2Float decimal degree 1 -9999 The bearing of the tree from the reference point of the subplot.
Tree_heightFloat meter 1 -9999 Tree height, height to crown base and crown dimensions (the longest axis and the perpendicular one), were measured on every tenth tree.
Crown_baseFloat meter 1 -9999 The height from the ground to the base of live tree crown.
Crown_diameter_maxFloat meter 2 -9999 The max crown diameter.
Crown_diameter_cross Float meter 2 -9999 The crown diameter in the cross direction.
NotesChar None None NA Field observations
Cross-ref_distance3Float meter 1 -9999 The distance from the central reference point to “extra” trees in the subplot NW/NE/SW/SE (Figure 2).See Methods Section for explanation.
Cross-ref_bearing3Float decimal degree 1 -9999 The bearing from the central reference point to “extra” trees in the subplot NW/NE/SW/SE (Figure 2). See Methods Section for explanation.

Sample of field measurements file for 2009 New England Campaign

Date,Site,Plot_ID,Subplot_ID,Tree_no,Species,Status,DBH,Distance,Bearing,Tree_height,Crown_base,
Crown_diameter_max,Crown_diameter_cross,Notes,Cross-ref_distance,Cross-ref_bearing

none,none,none none none none none cm m degrees meter meter meter meter none degrees degrees
20090723,Harvard_Forest,HF_PH3,C,1,ACRU,L,29,9.5,89,15.2,11,8.4,7.9,none,-9999,-9999
20090723,Harvard_Forest,HF_PH3,C,2,ACRU,L,27,11.7,103,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,none,-9999,-9999
20090723,Harvard_Forest,HF_PH3,C,3,ACRU,L,64,13.5,103.5,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,none,-9999,-9999 ...



Field Measurements Results and EVI Derived Data Comparison, New England 2007

This data file contains results of field measurements (DBH, stand density, basal area, biomass, and LAI) and comprable EVI scan derived values (EVI_*)  from the 2007 New England Campaign.  Data are provided in one ASCII file in comma-separated-value (.csv) format:   ne_2007_echidna_field_comparisons.csv

Tables 13, 14, and 15 contain various summary statistics of comparitive analyses of manual field measurements of forest canopy parameters to those derived from the Echidna scan data.  Source: Yao et al., 2011.

Table 12. Column headings in comparative analyses data file for 2007 New England Campaign.

COLUM NNAME FORMAT TYPE UNITS SIGNIFICANT DIGITSDESCRIPTION
DATE Char None None YYYYMMDD (YearMonthDay)
PLOT_IDChar none none Harv_01/02 are the plots in Harvard Forest
Bart_01/02 are the plots in Bartlett Experimental Forest
How_01/02 are the plots in Howland Research Forest
SUBPLOT_IDChar none none NW, NE, CP, SW, SE, NN and SS are abbreviation for northwest, northeast,central, southwest, southeast, north and south subplot in each plot. ALL means the entire plot.
FIELD_DBHFloat meter 3 Mean Diameter Breast Height
EVI_DBHFloat meter 3 Diameter Breast Height
FIELD_STEMDENInteger stems per hectare (stem/ha) 0 Total stem count density
EVI_STEMDENInteger stems per hectare(stem/ha) 0 Total stem count density
FIELD_BAFloat m2per hectare 2 Mean basal area of plot or subplot
EVI_BA Float m2 per hectare 2 Mean basal area of plot or subplot
FIELD_BIOMASS Float ton per hectare 2 Mean above ground woody biomass
EVI_BIOMASSFloat ton per hectare 2 Mean above ground woody biomass
LAI_2000Float m2/m22 One sided green leaf area per unit ground area in broadleaf canopies, or as the projected needle leaf area per unit ground area in needle canopies from LAI_2000 data
HEMI_LAIFloat m2/m22 One sided green leaf area per unit ground area in broadleaf canopies, or as the projected needle leaf area per unit ground area in needle canopies from Hemispherical photographs data
EVI_LAI_REGREFloat m2/m22 One sided green leaf area per unit ground area in broadleaf canopies, or as the projected needle leaf area per unit ground area in needle canopies from EVI data. It's calculated by a simple regression method.
EVI_LAI_HINGEFloat m2/m22 One sided green leaf area per unit ground area in broadleaf canopies, or as the projected needle leaf area per unit ground area in needle canopies from EVI data. It's calculated by "hinge angle" method.
DOMI_SPECIESChar none none Common name of dominant tree species

Sample of results file for comparative analyses file for 2007 New England Campaign.

DATE,PLOT_ID,SUBPLOT_ID,FIELD_DBH,EVI_DBH,FIELD_STEMDEN,EVI_STEMDEN,FIELD_BA,
EVI_BA,Field_BIOMASS,EVI_BIOMASS,LAI_2000,HEMI_LAI,EVI_LAI_REGRE,EVI_LAI_HINGE,
DOMI_SPECIES
none,none,none,meter,meter,stem/ha,stem/ha,m2/ha,m2/ha,ton/ha,ton/ha,m2/m2,m2/m2,m2/m2,m2/m2,none
20070808-20070809,Bart_01,ALL,0.166,0.161,1432,1467,44.96,45.49,254.06,240.02,4.76,
3.92,4.6,4.95,RedMaple YellowBirch
20070809,Bart_01,CP,0.173,0.152,1472,1400,47.7,42.24,284.73,232,4.89,4.16,4.3,4.55,RedMaple WhiteAsh
20070808,Bart_01,NE,0.176,0.2,1289,1265,44,48.09,249.2,251.4,4.52,3.7,4.56,4.95,RedMaple YellowBirch ...

Table 13. Summary of stand attributes, New England forest sites, 20071

 HarvardHowland BartlettSite R2Plot R2 95% Confidence Interval of Intercept (Plot level) 95% Confidence Interval of Slope (Plot level)
Plot 01 Plot 02Plot 01 Plot 02 Plot 01 Plot 02  
Arithmetic mean of DBH (m) Field0.168
±
0.008
0.198
±
0.006
0.156
±
0.015
0.127
±
0.009
0.166
±
0.007
0.148
±
0.007
0.936 0.479(-0.107,0.015)(0.902,1.642)
EVI 0.170
±
0.016
0.200
±
0.002
0.165
±
0.011
0.118
±
0.009
0.161 ±
0.014
0.134
±
0.011
Stem
count
Density
(trees/ha)
Field 1020
±
72
1284
±
98
1017
±
179
3281
±
353
1432
±
67
1485
±
27
0.999 0.902 (-211.1, 211.1) (0.901,1.162)
EVI 1105
±
71
1331
±
130
1042
±
179
3341
±
494
1467
±
73
1549
±
84
Basal
area
(m2/ha)
Field 37.46
±
1.65
55.48
±
1.96
26.50
±
0.86
55.36
±
3.08
44.96
±
1.55
40.66
±
3.21
0.938 0.656 (-11.807,9.386)(0.780,1.263)
EVI 38.78 ±
3.34
55.38
±
3.65
29.36
±
4.02
49.81
±
4.46
45.49
±
2.41
38.11
±
5.22
Biomass
(t/ha)
Field 249.25
±
8.90
234.08
±
7.01
94.40
±
3.26
161.79
±
11.82
254.06
±
14.11
216.43
±
14.22
0.975 0.841 (-32.028, 35.892) (0.830,1.147)
EVI 264.02
±
25.90
233.00
±
9.69
100.99
±
5.62
160.93 ±
5.77
240.02
±
9.45
211.39
±
9.34
Dominant species Red Oak HemlockHemlock Red Spruce Red Maple Beech  
Red Maple White Pine Red Spruce Yellow Birch Red Maple

Notes:  1Data are averages for 5 scans or plots at each site arranged at the corners and center of a square 50 m x 50 m.

Table 14. Leaf area index retrievals, New England forest sites, 20071

Site NameBartlettHarvardHowland
Plot 01 (B2)Plot 02 (C2)Plot 01 (Hardwood)Plot 02 (Hemlock) Plot 02 (Tower)Plot 01 (Shelterwood)
Site type Hardwood Hardwood Hardwood Conifer Conifer Conifer
EVI LAI, hinge angle 4.95±0.292 3.90±0.52 4.45±0.83 4.85±0.51 5.25±0.39 3.75±0.29
EVI LAI, regression 4.60±0.27 4.23±0.24 4.16±0.11 4.47±0.46 4.80±0.69 3.74±0.87
LAI-2000, BU 4.76±0.96 4.34±1.04 4.37±0.14 4.70±0.04 4.07±0.51 3.42+0.41
Hemispherical photographs 3.92±0.29 4.17±0.49 3.46±0.34 3.66±0.22 3.52±0.26 3.86±0.29
LAI-2000, others 5.03±0.366 4.55±0.296 5.0±0.674 4.43 4.18±0.455 N/A

Notes:  1Data are averages for 5 scans or plots at each site arranged at the corners and center of a square 50 m x 50 m. 

2Standard deviations are based on values for these 5 scans. 

3Destructive sampling (Catovsky and Bazzaz, 2000). 

4Cohen et al., 2006. 

5J. T. Lee, University of Maine (pers. comm.). 

6A. Richardson, University of New Hampshire (pers. comm.). 

N/A = Not available.

Table 15. Lidar height retrievals, New England forest sites, 20071

Site NameBartlettHarvardHowland
Plot 01 (B2)Plot 02 (C2)Plot 01 (Hardwood)Plot 02 (Hemlock) Plot 02 (Tower)Plot 01 (Shelterwood)
Site type HardwoodHardwoodHardwoodConifer ConiferConifer
Canopy mean top height (EVI) 23.0±0.8 22.4±1.725.4±0.7 23.6±1.221.0±2.919.2±1.4
RH100 canopy height (LVIS)25.1±0.724.9±0.625.8±0.422.8±1.1 20.7±1.6 20.5±0.3

Notes:  1Data are averages for 5 scans or plots at each site arranged at the corners and center of a square 50 m x 50 m.

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The objective of this research was to prove the ability of a ground-based, scanning near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), to retrieve stem diameter, stem count density, stand height, leaf area index, foliage profile, foliage area volume density, and other useful forest structural parameters rapidly and accurately.  

4. Quality Assessment:

See instrument description below and Yao et al. 2011.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Instrument Description

The Echidna validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, is based on a concept for an under-canopy, multiple-view-angle, scanning lidar, with variable beam size and waveform digitizing termed Echidna. The EVI, which is the first realization of the Echidna concept, utilizes a horizontally-positioned laser that emits pulses of near-infrared light at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The pulse is sharply peaked so that most of the energy is emitted in the middle of the pulse. The time length of the pulse, measured as the time at which the pulse is at or above half of its maximum intensity, is 14.9 ns, which corresponds to about 2.4 m in distance. Pulses are emitted at a rate of 2 kHz. The pulses are directed toward a rotating mirror that is inclined at a 45-degree angle to the beam. As the mirror rotates, the beam is directed in a vertical circle, producing a scanning motion that starts below the horizontal plane of the instrument, rises to the zenith, and then descends to below the horizontal plane on the other side of the instrument. Coupled with the motion of the mirror is the motion of the entire instrument around its vertical axis, rotating the scanning circle through 180° of azimuth. In this way, the entire upper hemisphere and a portion of the lower hemisphere of the instrument is scanned. Although the laser beam is a parallel ray only 29 mm in width, it passes through an optical assembly that causes the beam to diverge into a fixed solid angle. This expansion of the beam with distance allows the laser pulses to census the entire hemisphere. The size of the solid angle can be varied from 2–15 mrad. The rotation speeds of the mirror and the instrument on its mount are also varied so that the hemisphere can be covered slowly by many fine pulses or rapidly by fewer coarser pulses. As the light pulse passes through the forest, it may hit an object and be scattered. The light returning to the instrument is focused on a detector that measures the intensity of the light it receives as rapidly as 2 giga (GS/s) samples per second. Since the pulse is traveling at a known speed, the time between emission of the pulse and its receipt at the detector indicates the distance to the object. At 2 GS/s this equates to one sample every  7.5 cm of range from the instrument. However, because the pulse shape is consistent and stable, it is possible to estimate the range to the peak of the pulse by interpolation. The accuracy is a function of signal relative to the noise level but is normally less than half the sample spacing (i.e., 3.75 cm) with highest accuracy being in the near field where peak return signal power is high. The output of the detector is digitized electronically and stored by computer to provide a full-waveform return that records the scattering of the pulse from within a meter or less of the instrument to as much as 150 m away.  Description from Yao et al. 2011.

instrument    scan

Figure 9. Echidna® ground-based lidar. Lidar pulses strike a rotating mirror at an angle of 45, providing a scan through zenith angles of 130 in a vertical circle. As the instrument rotates on its vertical axis, data from all azimuths are acquired.

Field Investigations

To test the ability of the EVI ground-based lidar to retrieve forest structural parameters, lidar scans and manual tree measurements were acquired in 2007 and 2009 at three classic New England locations: Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts; Howland Research Forest, Howland, Maine; and Bartlett Experimental Forest, Bartlett, New Hampshire. In 2008, lidar scans and manual tree measurements were acquired in the Sierra National Forest, near Clovis, California.

New England 2007 Campaign

Each plot was 100 x 100 m square (1 ha) with four 50 m x 50 m squares nested within it. True north compass readings were used to establish the grid. The compass was corrected for magnetic declination.

EVI scans were made at the center point of the square and at center points of the four 50 m x 50 m squares for a total of five scans at each site (except at Howland Research Forest Plot 2 where only three scans were made) (Table 4).

Manual measurements of trees were made in circular plots around the scan point of 20 m range (or 25 m at Harv_01 site). Each tree was numbered and identified to species. The distance from the center point to the tree was measured using a sonar or laser rangefinder. The azimuth of the tree from the center point was measured using a sighting compass (magnetic north; the compass used to measure the bearings was not corrected for magnetic declination). The tree’s diameter (DBH) at breast height (1.3 m) was measured using a diameter tape. All trees of DBH greater than 3 cm within 10 m of the plot center, and all trees of DBH greater than 10 cm beyond that distance were included. Also noted was the extent to which each tree would be visible to the EVI while scanning from the center point by tallying it as visible, partly occluded by intervening trunks or foliage, or fully occluded. In addition, 10 individual trees were selected (taken as the first tree at or beyond an azimuth increment of 36°) for measurements of the tree height, the height at which the crown began, and the crown diameter. The height of the tree was measured by a laser range finder, and the crown diameter was measured by a tape. Forest field biomass was calculated by allometric equations based on DBH measurements.

Field LAI values were measured in two ways: hemispherical canopy photograph and LAI-2000. In this study, a Nikon Coolpix 900 camera with a 180° fisheye lens pointed toward the zenith was used at a resolution of 1,391 x 1,405. All photographs were taken before sunrise or after sunset under clear sky conditions to ensure homogeneous, shadow-free illumination of the canopy and high contrast in the blue spectral region between the canopy and the sky. To properly sample the spatial variability over the plot, 13 hemispherical photographs were taken at a spacing of 10 m inside a square or 30 m on a side centered on the point. All digital photographs were collected as highest-quality JPEG images and were analyzed using HemiView software. The LAI-2000 instrument was operated in one-sensor mode, starting and ending with reference readings that are linearly scaled with time to match undercanopy readings. Transmittance is calculated from the ratio of undercanopy to open measurements for each sky sector. LAI is then retrieved by the internal software. Under canopy samples were acquired using the same sample design as hemispherical canopy photographs.

By using a"find trunks" algorithm, the investigators retrieved values of mean DBH, stem density, basal area, and above-ground woody biomass at each scan point (plot). The algorithm classifies laser returns into hard and soft targets, and works only with the hard target returns. Trunk diameter is obtained by observing the angular distance at range between the trunk’s edges. The calculation of the mean DBH of trees identified by the find trunks algorithm weights each retrieved diameter inversely by its variance, which is a function of both its size and distance. As not every tree is visible in the EVI scan because of occlusion of far trunks by near ones, the count must be adjusted for this occlusion effect. By using EVI data, the investigators used two methods to retrieve LAI from gap probability with height: single direction and multiple directions.

Sierra National Forest 2008 Campaign

Each plot was 100 x 100 m square (1 ha) in size, with 9 subplots in each plot (Figure 1). True north compass readings were used to establish the grid. The compass was corrected for magnetic declination. GPS records were made at the center of each field plot.

EVI scans were made at the center point of the square and at the corners of the central subplot .

Manual tree measurements were made in each subplot. Each tree was numbered and identified to species. The distance from the center point to the tree was measured using a sonar or laser rangefinder. The azimuth of the tree from the center point was measured using a sighting compass (magnetic north; the compass used to measure the bearings was not corrected for magnetic declination). The tree’s diameter (DBH) at breast height (1.3 m) was measured using a diameter tape. DBH and tree identification was recorded for every tree of DBH greater than 10 cm, but tree height and crown diameter were measured for a subsample (1-3) of trees in each subplot. Field LAI values were measured in three ways: hemispherical canopy photographs, TRAC, and LAI-2000. See methods for New England 2007 Campaign for details. Biomass for each stem was calculated in megagrams (Mg) using the general equations from Table 1 of Jenkins et al. 2004.

Calculation of stem biomass from Table 1 of Jenkins et al. (2004)
 
Allometric equation used: biomass (kg)= Exp(B0 + B1(ln(dbh (cm)))
Tree/Shrub speciesB0 B1
   
Aspen/alder/willow-2.2094 2.3867
Soft maple/ birch--1.9123 2.3651
Mixed hardwood-2.4800 2.4835
Hard maple/ oak/ beech-2.0127 2.4342
Cedar/ larch-2.0336 2.2592
Douglas fir-2.2304 2.4435
True fir/ hemlock-2.5384 2.4814
Pine-2.5356 2.4349
Spruce-2.0773 2.3323
Juniper/oak/ mesquite-0.7152 1.7029
 
Jenkins, JC, DC Chojnacky, LS Heath and RA Birdsey. 2004. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species. USDA/ Forest Service GTR-319

New England 2009 Campaign

Each plot was 50 m x 50 m with four 25 m x 25 m intensive subplots nested within it. For 3-D reconstruction, the exact Echidna® scan locations were surveyed to cm relative accuracy, in addition to GPS records. The locations of Echidna scan points in the plot were determined by triangulation (chain of triangles method) to centimeter accuracy. True north compass readings were used to establish the grid. The compass was corrected for magnetic declination.

Nine EVI scans were made in each plot: in the four corners of each plot (NW, NE, SW, and SE), in the center (C), and at N, E, S, and W locations (Figure 2).

To collect the manual tree measurements, each 50 m x 50 m plot was divided into 5 subplots (C, NW, NE, SW and SE) (Figure 3). The central subplot was a square plot, measuring 28.53 m x 28.53 m; the other subplots were isosceles right triangle plots, with 25 m right-angle side. In each subplot (C, NW, NE, SW and SE), all trees, with a diameter at breast height (DBH) equal to or larger than 10 cm, were numbered, species identified, live or dead recorded, and diameter measured. The distance from the reference point to the tree was measured using a laser rangefinder, and the bearing from the center point was determined using a sighting compass (magnetic north; the compass used to measure the bearings was not corrected for magnetic declination). The reference points were located in the center of the central subplot, and in the vertex of other subplots. Tree height, height to crown base, and crown dimensions (the longest axis and the perpendicular one) were measured on every 10th tree. The numbers of stems, with DBH smaller than 10 cm and larger or equal to 3 cm, were counted within a 10 meter distance of the reference point in each subplot (Figure 4B). Species and condition (live or dead) for the small trees was recorded. In order to register the entire plot stem map based on different reference points, some “extra” trees were selected and located to both of the central and other subplot reference points (the green points in Figure 4B).

During the 2009 campaign, the investigators revisited two sites: Harvard Forest Hemlock site (HF_HH) and Howland Forest BU Shelterwood site (HOW8), where they repeated all of the ECHIDNA® scans in the same location as 2007 (Subplot_ID C, NW, SW, and SE) and added four more scans in each site in 2009 (Subplot_ID W, E, N, and S). The GPS locations may not match to each other from 2007 to 2009 due to the GPS accuracy. For the revisited sites, the 2009 GPS locations should be the most accurate.

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Yao, T., et al., Measuring forest structure and biomass in New England forest stands using Echidna ground-basedlidar, Remote Sensing of Environment (2011), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.03.019

Catovsky, S., and F.A. Bazzaz. 2000. Contributions 625 of coniferous and broad-leaved species to temperate forest carbon uptake: a bottom-up approach. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 627(30): 100–111.

Cohen, W.B., T.K. Maiersperger, D.P. Turner, W.D. Ritts, and D. Pflugmacher. 2006. MODIS land cover and LAI collection 4 product quality across nine states in the western hemisphere. IEEE Transaction on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 44(7): 1843-1856.

Jenkins, JC, DC Chojnacky, LS Heath and RA Birdsey. 2004. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species. USDA/ Forest Service GTR-319.

Young HE, Ribe JH, Wainwright K (1980) Weight tables for tree and shrub species in Maine. Life Sciences and Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Maine at Orono. Miscellaneous Report 230, 84 pp.

Zhao, F., et al., Measuring effective leaf area index, foliage profile, and stand height in New England forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar, Remote Sensing of Environment (2011), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.08.030

Additional Sources of Information:

Jupp, D.L.B., and J.L. Lovell. 2007. Airborne and ground-based lidar systems for forest measurement: background and principles. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research paper, 17: 151 pp.

Jupp, D.L.B. D.S. Culvenor, J.L. Lovell, G.J. Newnham, A.H. Strahler, and C.E. Woodcock. 2008. Estimating forest LAI profiles and structural parameters using a ground-based laser called 'Echidna®'. Tree Physiology, 29: 171–181.

Magnussen, S., P. Eggermont, and V.N. LaRiccia. 1999. Recovering Tree Heights from Airborne Laser Scanner Data. Forest Science, 45(3): 407-422.

Ni-Meister, W., D.L.B. Jupp, and R. Dubayah. 2001. Modeling lidar waveforms in heterogeneous and discrete canopies. EEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39(9): 1,943-1,958.

Strahler, A. H., D.L.B. Jupp, C.E. Woodcock, C.B. Schaaf, T. Yao, F. Zhao, X. Yang, J. Lovell, D. Culvenor, G. Newnham, W. Ni-Meister, and W. Boykin-Morris. 2008. Retrieval of forest structural parameters using a ground-based lidar instrument (Echidna®). Can J. Remote Sensing, 34(Suppl. 2): S426-S440.

Yang, X., T. Yao,. A.H. Strahler, C.E. Woodcock, C.B. Schaaf, R. Myneni,. J. Liu, G.J. Newnham, D.L.B. Jupp, D.S. Culvenor, J.L. Lovell, W. Ni-Meister, S. Lee, X. Li, F. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Schull, M. Roman, Z. Wang, and Y. Shuai. 2008. Validation Of Improved Forest Canopy Measurements From A Ground-Based Lidar Instrument (Echidna®). Abstract. IEEE International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.