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SAFARI 2000 METEOROLOGICAL AND FLUX TOWER MEASUREMENTS IN MAUN, BOTSWANA, 2000
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Summary:

To investigate potential contributions of savanna ecosystems to the Earth's carbon balance, an eddy covariance system was used to measure the seasonal variation in carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux at the Maun micrometerological tower site in a broadleaf semi-arid savanna in Southern Africa, approximately 20 km east of Maun in northeastern Botswana. The open woodland studied consists of an overstory dominated by Colophospermum mopane with a sparse understory of grasses and herbs. Measurements presented in this data set cover the wet and dry season periods that coincided with field activities of the SAFARI 2000 project in February-April and August-September, 2000, respectively.

The data files contain numeric values that represent 30-minute averages from instrumentation mounted on the Maun tower. The parameters measured, or derived from measurements, include: air pressure, air temperature, albedo, carbon dioxide flux, dewpoint temperature, friction velocity, latent heat flux, longwave radiation, net radiation, precipitation, relative humidity, sensible heat flux, shortwave radiation, soil moisture, soil temperature, specific humidity, vapor pressure, and wind speed. The data files are stored as ASCII table files, one file per month, in comma-separated-value (.csv) format, with column headers.

Long term climatic data of the Maun area (monthly rainfall, maximum recorded monthly rainfall, mean maximum daily temperature, mean minimum daily temperature, and potential evapotranspiration) are provided, along with data set documentation, in the companion file: http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/safari2k/climate_meteorology/maun_met_flux/comp/maun_met_flux_readme.pdf.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Lloyd, J., O. Kolle, E. Veenendaal, A. Arneth, and P. Wolski. 2004. SAFARI 2000 Meteorological and Flux Tower Measurements in Maun, Botswana, 2000. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov/] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/760.

References:

Bird, M. I., E. M. Veenendaal, and J. Lloyd. 2004. Soil carbon inventories and delta C-13 along a moisture gradient in Botswana. Global Change Biology, 10(3): 342-349.

Greenberg, J. P., A. Guenther, P. Harley, L. Otter, E. M. Veenendaal, C. N. Hewitt, A. E. James, and S. M. Owen. 2003. Eddy flux and leaf-level measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from mopane woodland of Botswana. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8466, doi:10.1029/2002JD002317.

Veenendaal, E. M., O. Kolle, and J. Lloyd. 2004. Seasonal variation in energy fluxes and carbon dioxide exchange for a broad-leaved semi-arid savanna (Mopane woodland) in Southern Africa. Global Change Biology 10(3): 309-317.

Data Format:

The data files contain numeric values that represent 30 minute averages from instrumentation mounted on the Maun tower for February-April and August-September, 2000. The data files are stored as ASCII table files, one file per month, in comma-separated-value (.csv) format, with column headers. The files are:

maun_met_flux_2000-02.csv
maun_met_flux_2000-03.csv
maun_met_flux_2000-04.csv
maun_met_flux_2000-08.csv
maun_met_flux_2000-09.csv

Missing data values are represented by a value of -9999. The content of the data files are described below.

Column Name Column Description Units
Date Date of measurement dd-mon-yyyy
Time Time at end of 30-min measurement period hh:mm UTC
p Air pressure mbar
T Air temperature (tower top) degrees Celsius
Tpot Potential temperature K
Tdew Dew point temperature degrees Celsius
rh Relative humidity %
VPmax Vapor pressure maximum mbar
VPact Vapor pressure actual mbar
VPdef Vapor pressure deficit mbar
sh Specific humidity g kg-1
H2O C Water vapor concentration mmol mol-1
rho Density g m-3
vhor_cup Horizontal windspeed, measured by cup anemometer m s-1
vhor_sonic Horizontal windspeed, measured by sonic m s-1
H Sensible heat W m-2
LE Latent heat W m-2
E Water vapor flux mmol
C CO2 Flux µmol m-2 s-1
U* Friction velocity m s-1
corr. LE corrected Latent exchange W m-2
corr. E corrected Latent exchange mmol
corr. C corrected Latent exchange µmol m-2 s-1
rain Precipitation mm
Srain Sum precipitation mm
Tpyr Temperature, pyranometer degrees Celsius
TDR Total downward radiation W m-2
TUR Total downward radiation W m-2
SWDR Shortwave downward radiation W m-2
SWUR Shortwave upward radiation W m-2
Albedo Albedo %
LWDR Longwave downward radiation W m-2
LWUR Longwave upward radiation W m-2
TRAD Temperature radiometer degrees Celsius
PAR Photosynthetically active radiation µmol m-2 s-1
Rn Net radiation W m-2
SHF1 Sensible heat flux, probe 1 W m-2
SHF2 Sensible heat flux, probe2 W m-2
SHF3 Sensible heat flux, probe 3 W m-2
SHF4 Sensible heat flux, probe 4 W m-2
SHF5 Sensible heat flux, probe 5 W m-2
SHFM Sensible heat flux mean W m-2
ST002a Soil temperature, 0.02 m depth, probe a degrees Celsius
ST005a Soil temperature, 0.05 m depth, probe a

degrees Celsius

ST010a Soil temperature, 0.1 m depth, probe a degrees Celsius
ST050a Soil temperature, 0.5 m depth, probe a degrees Celsius
ST100a Soil temperature, 1 m depth, probe a degrees Celsius
ST002b Soil temperature, 0.02 m depth, probe b degrees Celsius
ST005b Soil temperature, 0.05 m depth, probe b degrees Celsius
ST010b Soil temperature, 0.1 m depth, probe b degrees Celsius
ST050b Soil temperature, 0.5 m depth, probe b degrees Celsius
ST100b Soil temperature, 1 m depth, probe b degrees Celsius
ST002M Soil temperature, 0.02 m depth, probe M degrees Celsius
ST005M Soil temperature, 0.05 m depth, probe M degrees Celsius
ST010M Soil temperature, 0.1 m depth, probe M degrees Celsius
ST050M Soil temperature, 0.5 m depth, probe M degrees Celsius
ST100M Soil temperature, 1 m depth, probe M degrees Celsius
Tlog Temperature, datalogger degrees Celsius
Vref1 Reference voltage1 mV
Vref2 Reference voltage2 mV
SM010a Soil moisture, 0.10 m, probe a %
SM050a Soil moisture, 0.50 m, probe a %
SM100a Soil moisture, 1 m, probe a %
SM150a Soil moisture, 1.5 m, probe a %
SM010b Soil moisture, 0.10 m, probe b %
SM050b Soil moisture, 0.50 m, probe b %
SM100b Soil moisture, 1 m, probe b %
SM150b Soil moisture, 1.5 m, probe b %
SM010c Soil moisture, 0.10 m, probe c %
SM050c Soil moisture, 0.50 m, probe c %
SM100c Soil moisture, 1 m, probe c %
SM150c Soil moisture, 1.5 m, probe c %

Additional information about the parameters measured, instrumentation, and data format is found in the companion file: http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/safari2k/climate_meteorology/maun_met_flux/comp/maun_met_flux_readme.pdf.

Document Information:

2004/9/22

Document Review Date:

2004/9/22

Document Curator:

webmaster@www.daac.ornl.gov

Document URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov