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NPP Tropical Forest: San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela, 1975-1984, R1
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Revision date: October 15, 2013

Summary:

This data set includes five ASCII files (.txt format). Three files contain above- and below-ground biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) data, one file for each tropical forest study site near San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela. The study sites are located along an ecosystem gradient from riverine to lateritic hill: Tall Amazon Caatinga forest on coarse sandy spodosols close to river level; Bana vegetation on sandy soils less prone to flooding; and Tierra Firme mixed forest on clay oxisols of higher ground. Bioelement concentrations are also provided. The other two files contain climate data from a weather station in San Carlos village.

ANPP for the Tierra Firme forest is estimated at 1,590 g/m2/year, including woody biomass increment of 600 g/m2/year, and BNPP values in the range of 201-1,117 g/m2/year, suggesting a minimum estimate of TNPP of 1,800-2,700 g/m2/year. ANPP of a nearby cut-and-burned oxisol plot attained 1,940 g/m2 in the fifth year following clearing. ANPP of Tall Amazon Caatinga is estimated at 1,150 g/m2/year, with root turnover of 120 g/m2/year, giving a minimum estimate of TNPP of 1,270 g/m2/year. TNPP estimate for Bana vegetation, based on annual litterfall accumulation plus root production, is 478 g/m2/year.

Revision Notes: The NPP files for San Carlos have been revised to replace previously missing values, add additional root data, and add additional primary references. Leaf litter nutrient values for the Tall Amazon Caatinga forest, and LAI, litter accumulation, and dead wood biomass data for the Bana forest were also added. Please see the Data Set Revisions section of this document for detailed information.

Figure 1. Aerial view of the terrain near the San Carlos de Rio Negro tropical forest site, Venezuela. (Patches of dark green are caused by distinctive vegetation on Oxisol hills which contrasts with the lighter caatinga vegetation between the hills. Photograph reproduced by kind permission of Prof. C.F. Jordan, University of Georgia, U.S.A.). (SCR2-1.jpg)

Additional Documentation:

The Net Primary Productivity (NPP) data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored by the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visit the NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Jordan, C.F., E. Cuevas, and E. Medina. 2013. NPP Tropical Forest: San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela, 1975-1984, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/479 .

This data set was originally published as:

Jordan, C.F., E. Cuevas, and E. Medina. 1999. NPP Tropical Forest: San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela, 1970-1971. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

The study area is a moist tropical forest near the confluence of the Casiquiare River and the Rio Negro in the Amazon Territory of Venezuela where well-differentiated vegetation-soil associations occur along a topological gradient from gently rolling hills (< 40 m) to the surrounding lowlands and floodplains. The data set presented here contains biomass dynamics, nutrient flux, and NPP component data for three San Carlos study sites located along this forest sequence.

For the non-flooded mixed forest on oxisols (Tierra Firme forest), a minimum total NPP estimate is based on field measurements of total annual litterfall accumulation + increase in woody biomass increment + a partial determinations of below-ground NPP (root biomass increment and root production). For the nutrient-poor, less flood-prone forest on spodosols (Tall Amazon Caatinga forest), a minimum NPP estimate is based on field measurements of annual leaf and branch litterfall accumulation + increase in branch and trunk biomass increment + root production. For the low Bana forest, where there is frequent alternation of flooded and dry periods, a minimum NPP estimate is based on field measurements of annual litterfall accumulation (leaf + wood + fruit/flower) plus root production. Other field data presented in the data files, where measured, include stand height, average basal area, above- and below-ground biomass, LAI, litter decomposition rates, and nutrient concentrations in live vegetation (above- and below-ground) and in litterfall components. These studies were conducted at the Tierra Firme and Bana sites from 1975 to 1984, and at the Tall Caatinga site from 1975 to 1983.

Two ASCII files containing climate data are also provided in this data set. Monthly and annual precipitation amount, average temperature, and maximum/minimum temperature (and their mean values) are derived from measurements at a weather station in San Carlos village over several time periods (1950-1958, 1970-1978, 1975-1981, and 1950-1991).

ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values for San Carlos are also reported in Olson et al. (2012a, b), Scurlock and Olson (2012), and Clark et al. (2001a, b). Some of these values differ from the values presented herein due to different calculation methods (Table 1).

Table 1. ANPP, BNPP, and TNPP values reported by various published data sources

File Name or Description Data Source(s) Sub-Site ANPP BNPP TNPP
  gC/m2/year
scr1_npp_r1.txt
Jordan (1989)1
scr oxisol (tierra firme)
795 340
1,125
scr2_npp_r1.txt
scr spodosol (tall caatinga)
575 60
635
scr3_npp_r1.txt
scr bana
NA NA
239

NPP_Multibiome_EnvReview
_Table_A1_R1.csv

Scurlock and Olson (2012) based on Jordan (1989)
scr oxisol
795 559
1,354
GPPDI_ClassA_NPP_162_R2.csv    
Olson et al. (2012a); Clark et al. (2001a)2 based on Jordan (1989)
Class A Site 33 (MI 36) (not identified but probably oxisol)
577 402
979
Olson et al. (2012a);Clark et al. (2001a)2 based on Klinge and Herrera (1983), Jordan and Herrera (1981)
Class A Site 34 (MI 37) (spodosol)
522 364
886
EMDI_ClassA_NPP_81_R2.csv
Olson et al. (2012b); Clark et al. (2001a)2 based on Jordan (1989)
Class A Site 33 (av. of two sites from GPPDI)
500 383
933
Table 1 in Clark et al. (2001a)  
Clark et al. (2001a)2 based on Jordan (1989), Klinge and Herrera (1983), and Jordan and Herrera (1981)
San Carlos (oxisol)
580 120-690 (av 405)
690-1,270 (av 980)
San Carlos (tall caatinga - spodosol)
520 100-630 (av 365)
630-1,150 (av 890)
Appendix A in Clark et al. (2001a)
Raich et al. (1991)
Lowland mixed "tierra firme" forests with predominantly evergreen or weakly seasonal species
NA NA
1,310
Alvarez-Sanchez (1991) based on Jordan and Escalante (1980)
620 NA
NA
Clark et al. (2001a)2
NA NA
690-1,270 (av 980)
tropfornapp.csv
Clark et al. (2001b)3 based on Jordan (1989)1
Venezuela - San Carlos (Oxisol)

682

NA

NA

Clark et al. (2001b)3 based on Klinge and Herrera 1983, Herrera and Jordan 1981

 

Venezuela-San Carlos tall caatinga

298

NA

NA

Notes: NA = Not available. MI = Measurement ID number in GPPDI files. The differences in NPP values reported in this table are mainly due to differences in calculation methods, as explained in these notes. Please consult original references for details. Revised data sets (R1, R2, etc) are accompanied by ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information files. Please see the corresponding documentation for reasons why the data values were revised. 1For this table, NPP data from the original data source were converted from grams of dry weight per meter square per year to grams of carbon per meter square per year using a conversion factor of 0.5. The NPP estimates are based on field measurement. See above paragraph for measurement components. 2Clark et al. (2001a) used a different approach to calculate net primary production values. ANPP was calculated by summing reported above-ground biomass increment + reported fine litterfall + estimated losses to consumers + estimated VOC emissions. BNPP was calculated by summing 0.2 x estimated ANPP for a low BNPP estimate + 1.2 x estimated ANPP for a high BNPP estimate. TNPP was calculated as the range between the low and high values of ANPP + BNPP. Average BNPP and TNPP estimates were also calculated. See Clark et al. (2001a) for a discussion of calculation methods, including how unmeasured components of ANPP were estimated and the basis for setting bounds on BNPP. 3ANPP estimate is the sum of litterfall + branch fall + above-ground biomass increment.

 

 

2. Data Description:

Spatial Coverage

Site: San Carlos De Rio Negro, Venezuela

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Elevation (m)
San Carlos De Rio Negro, Venezuela  -67.05 -67.05 1.93 1.93
117-122

Site Information

The San Carlos study area (1.93 N 67.05 W) is situated near the confluence of the Casiquiare River and the Rio Negro in the Amazon Territory of Venezuela. It is about 4 km east of the village of San Carlos, 1,000 km south of Caracas, and close to the common border between Venezuela, Colombia, and Brazil. Annual rainfall is relatively high at 3,565 mm (based on the 1950-1981 time series in this data set). In spite of the high monthly rainfall, a clear seasonality in phenological behavior of the dominant tree species has been observed (Cuevas and Medina, 1986). Although the area is very remote and apparently free from anthropogenic disturbance, there is some evidence of burning around the year 1750.

The study area is classified as humid tropical forest (Bailey ecoregion #423). As is typical for much of the central part of the Amazon Basin, the soils near San Carlos are very low in nutrients as a result of both intensive leaching under humid tropical conditions for millions of years, and the lack of unweathered parent material as a source of nutrients. The terrain is gently rolling, with hills up to 40 m higher than the surrounding lowland. The hills and valleys are a reflection of the surface of underlying granitic bedrock. On the top of the hills, where the clay formed from the granite is exposed at or near the soil surface, the soils are classified as oxisol. The soils in the areas between the hills is comprised of coarse sands or spodosols.

The study area consists of three sub-sites representing three well-differentiated soil types along the topological gradient in San Carlos:

An idealized transect (Figure 2) shows variation in soils as a function of topography and how vegetation is correlated with topography, soil, and water table. In the forests on the oxisol hills, species diversity is high and there is no strong dominance of any one species. The height diameter of the trees and biomass of the forest is not particularly large. On the sides of the hills on ultisols, the trees are taller and larger in diameter, but the diversity is low and often just one or a few species are dominant.

The vegetation occurring on the spodosols depends primarily on the depth of the water table. Where the water table is deepest, a very reduced vegetation or 'bana' occurs. With decreasing depth of the water table along the transect, bana grades into intermediate vegetation, sometimes called campina or low caatinga, and then into high caatinga. The caatinga of the Rio Negro region is called 'Amazon caatinga' to distinguish it from the caatinga of the arid region of northeastern Brazil. Amazon caatinga forests resemble the so-called heath forests, Kerangas, of Southeastern Asia.

The climate of San Carlos de Rio Negro is humid tropical with mean annual rainfall of 3,565 mm and mean annual temperature of 26 C (based on the mean values for 1950-1958 and 1970-1978 time periods in this data set). A less rainy season (200-300 mm per month) lasts from July to March, while the real rainy season is characterized by 300-500 mm rain per month. The climate data in this data set are from a government weather station in the village of San Carlos.

 

Figure 2. Idealized transect along a gradient from river to lateritic hill. The igapo forest on the banks of the Rio Negro on the left is flooded for part of the year. Where coarse sand has been deposited, caatinga forest occurs with shallow water table and bana occurs with deeper water table. Where bedrock forms hills, as towards the right of the diagram, granite grades into clay which comprises the subsoil. In places, the clay reaches the surface, but at the study site it was covered with a shallow layer of fine sand. On the shoulders of the hills, there sometimes occurs a mixture of fine sand and clay which supports a forest dominated by one or a few species. Figure reproduced by kind permission of Dr. C.F. Jordan, UNESCO and the Parthenon Publishing Group. (SCRD-1.jpg)

Figure 3. Aerial view of the terrain near the San Carlos de Rio Negro tropical forest site, Venezuela. (A recently abandoned agricultural site is visible near the river, and a recently cut and burned site near the center of the photograph. Both sites are on an Oxisol hill. A lower area, supporting caatinga forest on Spodosol, lies to the left and bottom of the picture. Photograph reproduced by kind permission of Prof. C.F. Jordan, University of Georgia, USA). (SCR3-1.jpg)

Spatial Resolution

The Tierra Firme study area was approximately 1 ha in size. The Tall Amazon Caatinga study area was 10 ha in size (200 x 500 m). The Bana study areas ranged from 0.9 to 18 ha in size. See Table 2 for details about study plots.

Table 2. Spatial resolution of the study plots at San Carlos, by parameter

SITE

ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW- GROUND BIOMASS

LITTERFALL

LITTER

NUTRIENTS LITTER DECOMP (k) LAI
Tierra Firme (oxisol) 1 ha with 5 x 20 m "control" plots1, 2 0.25 sq. m to 40-50 cm depth3, 8; 10 cm x 7.5 cm diameter ingrowth cylinders4; 25 x 25 cm pits to 50 cm depth16 Ten 0.5 sq. m baskets5; forty-three 32.5 cm x 37.7 cm baskets8 Ten 0.5 sq. m baskets5

Ten 0.5 sq. m litter baskets5; samples of plant biomass8

 

20 x 20 cm mesh bags randomly placed over 30 x 30 m area4 50-100 leaves from each felled tree in "experiment" plot analyzed for weight-area relationship6
Tall Amazon Caatinga (spodosol) 10 ha with ten 10 x 10 m inventory and harvest plots7, 15 10 cm x 7.5 cm diameter ingrowth cylinders4; 0.25 sq. m (50 x 50 cm monolith) down to water table depth in 10 plots7; 25 x 25 cm pits to 50 cm depth16 Ten 0.5 sq. m baskets5; forty-three 32.5 cm x 37.7 cm baskets8 50 x 50 cm areas7 10 cm x 7.5 cm diameter ingrowth cylinders4, 13 20 x 20 cm mesh bags randomly placed over 30 x 30 m area4 Within each of the thirteen 100 sq. m plots7
Bana (tall, low, and open) 18 ha with seven 5 x 5 m harvest plots9, 10; 1 ha inventory plot11; 0.9 ha with three 10 x 10 m inventory and harvest plots7, 15 10 cm x 7.5 cm diameter ingrowth cylinders4; 0.25 sq. m soil pits, one on raised ground and one in a depression, on seven plots9, 10; 0.25 sq. m area at 3 harvest plots7, 15; 25 x 25 cm pits to 50 cm depth16 Ten 0.5 sq. m baskets5 Two to five 0.25 sq. m sample areas on each of nine plots9, 12

Ten 0.5 sq. m baskets5, 13

20 x 20 cm mesh bags randomly placed over 30 x 30 m area4

Within each of the seven 25 sq. m plots9, 10

Notes: 1Uhl and Jordan (1984). 2Jordan (1984). 3Stark and Spratt (1977). 4Cuevas and Medina (1988). 5Cuevas and Medina (1986). 6Jordan and Uhl (1978). 7Klinge and Herrera (1978; 1983). 8Jordan (1989). 9Bongers et al. (1985). 10From two plots in Tall Bana, three in Low Bana, and two in Open Bana. 11Veillon (pers. comm. in Klinge and Herrera (1983). 12From two in Tall Bana, five in Low Bana, and two in Open Bana. 13Medina and Cuevas (1989). 14Three replicates per species, per treatment, and per collection. See Methods section for details. 15Klinge and Herrera (1978). 16Sanford (1989).

Temporal Coverage

NPP measurements were made at the Tierra Firme and Bana study sites from 1975 to 1984, and at the Tall Caatinga site from 1975 to 1983. See Table 3 for details.

Climate data are available for several time periods, from 1950 through 1992.

Table 3. Temporal coverage of the studies at San Carlos, by parameter

SITE

ABOVE- GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW-GROUND BIOMASS

LITTERFALL

LITTER

NUTRIENTS LITTER DECOMP (k) LAI
Tierra Firme (oxisol)

19751
07/1975-07/19832, 8; 1975-198112; 1981-198312

19753, 8
09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814

57 weeks, 09/1980-09/19815; monthly average, 1975-19808 57 weeks, 09/1980-09/19815 09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814; 09/1975-07/19838; 1984(?)11 09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814 19756
Tall Amazon Caatinga (spodosol)1975(?)7, 13; 1975-198112; 1981-198312 1975(?)7, 13; 09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814 Monthly average, 1975-19808 Prior to phytomass harvest (1975)7 09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814 09/1980-01/1981 & 05/1981-08/19814 1975(?)7
Bana (tall, low, and open) 1975(?)7, 13; 03/1978-04/19789, 10 1975(?)7, 13; 09/1980-01/19814; 03/1978-04/19789 57 weeks, 09/1980-09/19815 Prior to phytomass harvest (1978)9

09/1980-01/19814; 1983-1984(?)11

09/1980-01/19814

19789

Notes: 1Uhl and Jordan (1984). 2Jordan (1984). 3Stark and Spratt (1977). 4Cuevas and Medina (1988). 5Cuevas and Medina (1986). 6Jordan and Uhl (1978). 7Klinge & Herrera (1983). 8Jordan (1989). 9Bongers et al. (1985). 10Veillon (pers. comm. in Klinge and Herrera (1983). 11Medina and Cuevas (1989). 12Jordan (1989). 13Klinge and Herrera (1978).

Temporal Resolution

NPP measurements were made on different occasions at each study location (see Table 4). All NPP estimates are based on plant dry matter accumulation, expressed as g/m2/year (dry matter weight).

Climate data are expressed as mean monthly and annual precipitation amounts (mm), mean monthly and annual average temperature (C), and mean monthly and annual maximum/minimum temperature (C) for various time periods.

Table 4. Temporal resolution of the studies at San Carlos, by parameter

SITE

ABOVE- GROUND BIOMASS

BELOW GROUND BIOMASS

LITTER-FALL

LITTER

NUTRIENTS LITTER DECOMP (k) LAI
Tierra Firme (oxisol) Once1, 12; Four times2 Once3; Two experiments (samples collected every 30 days)4 Weekly5 Weekly5 Two experiments (samples collected every 30 days)4; once8 Analyzed at 14, 32, 71, 132, 242, and 482 days4 Once6
Tall Amazon Caatinga (spodosol)Once7, 12 Once7, 12; Two experiments (samples collected every 30 days)4 Monthly8 Once7 Two experiments (samples collected every 30 days)4; Once7, 11 Analyzed at 14, 32, 71, 132, 242, and 482 days4 Once7
Bana (tall, low, and open) Once9, 10, 12 Once7, 12; One experiment (samples collected every 30 days)4; Once9 Weekly5 Once9

One experiment (samples collected every 30 days)4

Analyzed at 14, 32, 71, 132, 242, and 482 days4

Once9

Notes: 1Uhl and Jordan (1984). 2Jordan (1984). 3Stark and Spratt (1977). 4Cuevas and Medina (1988). 5Cuevas and Medina (1986). 6Jordan and Uhl (1978). 7Klinge & Herrera (1983). 8Jordan (1989). 9Bongers et al. (1985). 10Veillon (pers. comm. in Klinge and Herrera (1983). 11Medina and Cuevas (1989). 12Klinge and Herrera (1978).

Data File Information

Table 5. Data files in this data set archive

FILE NAME

FILE SIZE

TEMPORAL COVERAGE

FILE CONTENTS

scr1_npp_r1.txt

 10.2 KB

1975/01/01-1984/12/31

NPP data for Tierra Firme (oxisol) forest at San Carlos, Venezuela

scr2_npp_r1.txt

 5.0 KB

1975/01/01-1983/12/31 NPP data for Tall Amazon Caatinga (spodosol) forest at San Carlos, Venezuela

scr3_npp_r1.txt

 3.7 KB

1975/01/01-1984/12/31 NPP data for tall, low, and open Bana at San Carlos, Venezuela

scr1_cli.txt

 2.2 KB

1950/01/01-1981/12/31

Mean monthly and annual precipitation amount and mean monthly and annual average temperature data from weather station in San Carlos village, Venezuela

scr2_cli.txt

 1.5 KB

1951/01/01-1992/12/31

Mean values for precipitation amount, maximum/minimum temperature, and average temperature for different time periods from weather station in San Carlos village, Venezuela

NPP Data. NPP estimates for the San Carlos site are provided in three ASCII text files (Table 5), one for each sub-site. The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values. Biomass and NPP units are in g/m2 and g/m2/year (dry matter weight), respectively.

Table 6. Column headings in NPP files

COLUMN HEADINGS

DEFINITION

UNITS

Site

Site where data were gathered (code refers to site identification)

Text

Treatmt

Study area (sub-site) or forest subsystem type where measurements were made: oxisol = Tierra Firme; spodosol = Tall Caatinga; bana = tall bana, low bana, or open bana, as indicated in References / comments column

Text

Year

Year in which data were collected

Numeric

Month

Month in which data were collected

Numeric

Day

Day on which data were collected

Numeric

parameter

Parameters measured (see definitions in Tables 6, 7, and 8)

Text

amount

Data values

Numeric

units Unit of measure Text
References / comments Primary and secondary references plus explanatory comments Text

Table 7. Parameter definitions in <scr1_npp_r1.txt> (Tierra Firme Oxisol Forest)

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

height

Forest canopy height

cm

average from various sources

leaves

Predicted leaf biomass

g/m2

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaves

Leaf biomass in "control" plot1

g/m2

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

branches_+_trunks

Wood and bark biomass in "control" plot1

g/m2

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass in "control" plot (sum of leaf plus stem biomass)1

g/m2

Uhl & Jordan (1984), by addition

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass ("control" plot)

g/m2

Table 2.2 & Table C.2.4, Jordan (1989)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass, mixed tierra firme forest ("experimental" plot before cutting in slash-and-burn experiment)

g/m2

Table 2.2 & Table C.2.4, Jordan (1989)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass ("control" plot) OVERESTIMATE, later revised

g/m2

Jordan & Uhl (1978)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass ("control" plot) OVERESTIMATE, later revised

g/m2

Jordan & Uhl (1978)

Totlitter

Total fine litter biomass

g/m2

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

deadwood

Dead wood biomass

g/m2

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

Totroots

Pre-burn forest total root biomass [sum of below-ground root mass measured in a nearby mature forest (Stark and Spratt, 1977) + above-ground root mass measured in the intensive "experimental" study site (C. F. Jordan, pers. comm.)]

g/m2

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

Totroots

Below-ground root biomass, including roots in both sand and clay horizons

g/m2

Stark & Spratt (1977)

Totroots

Total root biomass in nearby undisturbed oxisol forest (sum of humus and root mass + "Horizon 2" root mass + "Horizon 3" root mass)

g/m2

Stark & Spratt (1977), Table C.2.3, Jordan (1989)

Totroots

Total root biomass in "control" plot (sum of above-ground root mass + below-ground root mass)

g/m2

Table C.2.1, Jordan (1989)

Totroots

Total root biomass (sum of surface root mass + below-ground root mass to 50 cm depth)

g/m2

Table 2, Sanford (1989)

LAI

Leaf area index

m2/m2

Jordan & Uhl (1978); Putz (1983)

LAI

Leaf area index

m2/m2

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflitter_C/N

Biomass carbon/nitrogen ratio of leaf litterfall (biomass = 50% carbon)

g/g

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflitter_C/P

Biomass carbon/phosphorus ratio of leaf litterfall (biomass = 50% carbon)

g/g

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflitter-N

Nitrogen concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) with 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

percent

Table 9, Medina & Cuevas (1989); Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaflitter-P

Phosphorus concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) with 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

percent

Table 9, Medina & Cuevas (1989); Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaflittfall

Average leaf litterfall rate

g/m2/year

P. G. Murphy (pers. comm.) in Jordan and Escalante (1980)

woodlittfall

Average wood litterfall rate

g/m2/year

P. G. Murphy (pers. comm). in Jordan and Escalante (1980)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

woodlittfall

Annual small wood litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

flofrtlittfall

Annual flower + fruit litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

Totlittfall

Total annual litter production

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaflittfall

Average monthly fall of leaves and of twigs < 1 cm diameter

g/m2/month

Table C.3.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Net annual leaf and twig (< 1 cm) litter production

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

roots_incr

Annual root growth in the surficial mat and in mineral soil

g/m2/year

Jordan and Escalante (1980); Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

root_production

Annual fine root production in litter and superficial soil layers (in ingrowth cylinders to 10 cm depth)

g/m2/year

Table 9, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production in "control" site (during the one year pre-cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the one year pre-cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

Total_NPP

Net annual primary production in "control" site (during the one year pre-cultivation period; NPP value does not include net root production of 201.0 g/m2/year, which was measured only once during pre-cultivation period

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production in "control" site (during the first year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the first year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

Total_NPP

Net annual primary production in "control" site (during the first year of cultivation period; NPP value does not include net root production)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production in "control" site (during the second year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the second year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

Total_NPP

Net annual primary production in "control" site (during the second year of cultivation period; NPP value does not include net root production)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production in "control" site (during the third year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the third year of cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

Total_NPP

Net annual primary production in "control" site (during the third year of cultivation period; NPP value does not include net root production)

g/m2/year

Table 5.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the first year of post-cultivation period)

g/m2/year

Table 6.1, Jordan (1989)

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem and branch production in "control" site (during the second and third year of post-cultivation period; wood production for these years us the average over the period)

g/m2/year

Table 6.1, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall production

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)2

branchlittfall

Annual stem + branch litterfall production

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)2

trunk_+_branch_incr

Annual wood increment

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)2

ANPP

Above-ground net primary production

g/m2/year

summed from Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989), above

leaflittfall-N

Nitrogen concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) with 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

percent

Table 9, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaves-N

Nitrogen concentration in leaves

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table 7, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaves-N

Nitrogen concentration in leaves of felled trees

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

branches_+_trunks-N

Nitrogen concentration in tree branches and trunks (including bark), as a percent of dry stem biomass (wood + bark)

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

Totlitter-N

Nitrogen concentration in fine litter

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

deadwood-N

Nitrogen concentration in dead tree trunks

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

Totroots-N

Nitrogen concentration in roots of felled trees

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

fineroots-N

Nitrogen concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

percent

Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflittfall-P

Phosphorus concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) with 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

percent

Table 7, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaves-P

Phosphorus concentration in leaves of felled trees

ppm

Table 7, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaves-P

Phosphorus concentration in leaves

ppm

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

branches_+_trunks-P

Phosphorus concentration in tree branches and trunks (including bark), as a proportion of dry stem biomass (wood + bark)

ppm

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

Totlitter-P

Phosphorus concentration in fine litter

ppm

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984)

deadwood-P

Phosphorus concentration in dead tree trunks

ppm

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

Totroots-P

Phosphorus concentration in roots of felled trees

percent

Table 6, Uhl & Jordan (1984); Table C.5.1, Jordan (1989)

fineroots-P

Phosphorus concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

percent

Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)3

N_fixation

Nitrogen fixation

g/m2/year

p. 232, Medina & Cuevas (1989)4

leaflitter_decomp_k

Leaf litter decomposition constant

1/year

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

litter_decomp_k

Litter decomposition constant

1/year

Table 10, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

litter_decomp_k

Litter decomposition constant

1/year

Table 11, Medina & Cuevas (1989)5

Notes: 1Forest aboveground biomass values for this site, as reported in Jordan and Uhl (1978), were overestimated because of drying difficulties. Correct values from Table 6 of Uhl & Jordan (1984) are included in this data file. 2Jordan & Murphy (unpublished); Jordan & Uhl (1978); and Cuevas & Medina (1986). 3From Cuevas & Medina (unpublished). 4From Jordan et al. (1982). 5From Cuevas (1983).

Sample NPP Data Record <scr1_npp_r1.txt> (Tierra Firme Oxisol Forest)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ comments

scr; oxisol; 1975?; -999.9; -999.9; height; 3000; cm; average various
scr; oxisol; 1975; 07; -999.9; leaves; 980; g/m2; Jordan (1989) p.22
scr; oxisol; 1975; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 865; g/m2; Uhl and Jordan (1984)
scr; oxisol; 1975; -999.9; -999.9; branches_+_trunks; 25232; g/m2; Uhl and Jordan (1984) ...

Table 8. Parameter definitions in <scr2_npp_r1.txt> (Tall Amazon Caatinga)

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

basal area

Basal area of trees > 10 cm dbh in the vicinity of the study site

m2/ha

J. P. Veillon, pers. comm. in Klinge & Herrera (1983)

leaves

Leaf biomass (standing crop of green foliage)

g/m2

Table 6, Klinge & Herrera (1978)

leaves

Leaf biomass (standing crop of green foliage)

g/m2

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaves

Leaf biomass (dry foliage, averaged for 13 plots)

g/m2

Table 13, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

leaves

Leaf biomass, eliminating outlier plots as suggested by authors

g/m2

Table 2, Medina & Cuevas, 1989)1

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass

g/m2

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

AGbiomass

Total above-ground living phytomass (dry matter, eliminating outlier plots as suggested by authors)

g/m2

Table 7, Klinge & Herrera (1983); Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

AGbiomass

Total above-ground living phytomass (dry matter, sum of components averaged for 13 plots)2

g/m2

Tables 5, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

totroots

Composite root biomass (average of 13 plots, including 3 plots in Bana forest)

g/m2

p. 93, Klinge and Herrera (1978); Table 5, Klinge & Herrera (1983); Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

totroots

Total root biomass (sum of surface root mass + below-ground root mass to 50 cm depth)

g/m2

Table 2, Sanford (1989)

BGbiomass

Total below-ground biomass (dry matter, eliminating outlier plots as suggested by authors

g/m2

Table 7, Klinge & Herrera (1983); Table 2, Medina & Cuevas, 1989)

BGbiomass

Total below-ground biomass (dry matter, sum of components averaged for 13 plots)3

g/m2

Table 5, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

Totbiomass

Total living phytomass (dry matter, sum of above- and below-ground biomass averaged for 13 plots)

g/m2

Table 5, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

LAI

Average leaf area index of 13 plots

m2/m2

Table 13, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

LAI

Average leaf area index of 13 plots, eliminating outlier plots as suggested by authors

m2/m2

Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflitter_C/N

Biomass carbon/nitrogen ratio of leaf litterfall (biomass = 50% carbon)

g/g

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflitter_C/P

Biomass carbon/phosphorus ratio of leaf litterfall (biomass = 50% carbon)

g/g

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflitter-N

Nitrogen concentration in leaf litterfall

percent

Table 3, Cuevas and Medina (1986)

leaflitter-P

Phosphorus concentration in leaf litterfall

ppm

Table 3, Cuevas and Medina (1986)

leaflittfall

Average monthly fall of leaves and of twigs < 1 cm diameter

g/m2/month

Table C.3.2, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litter production (1980-81)

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

woodlittfall

Annual small wood litter production (1980-81)

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

flofrtlittfall

Annual flower + fruit litter production (1980-81)

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

Totlittfall

Total annual litter production (1980-81)

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaflittfall

Net annual leaf and twig (< 1 cm) litter production (1976-78)

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall production

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)4

branchfall

Annual stem + branch litterfall production

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)4

trunk_+_branch_incr

Annual wood increment

g/m2/year

Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)4

trunk_+_branch_incr

Net annual stem + branch litter production

g/m2/year

Table 2.6, Jordan (1989)

ANPP

Net annual above-ground production

g/m2/year

Summed from Table 10, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

root_production

Annual fine root production in litter and superficial soil layers (in ingrowth cylinders to 10 cm depth)

g/m2/year

Table 9, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

stdead

Standing dead wood, averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

bolelitt

Bole wood litter on forest floor, averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

branchlitt

Branch wood litter on forest floor, averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

twiglitt

Twig wood litter on forest floor, averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

leaflitt

Leaf litter on forest floor, averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

Totlitt

Total dead above-ground phytomass (standing dead plus litter on forest floor), averaged for 13 plots

g/m2

Table 16, Klinge & Herrera (1983)

finelittfall

Annual fine litterfall accumulation

g/m2/year

Medina et al. (1980)

rawhumus

Standing crop of raw humus to depths of 4-12 cm, averaged for 13 plots

kg/m2

Table 1, Klinge & Herrera (1978)

fineroots-N

Nitrogen concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

percent

Table 2, Cuevas & Medina (1988); Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

fineroots-P

Phosphorus concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

ppm

Table 2, Cuevas & Medina (1988); Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflitt_decomp_k

Leaf litter decomposition constant

1/year

Table 2.2, Jordan (1989)

litter_decomp_k

Litter decomposition constant

1/year

Table 10, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

Notes: 1Data from Klinge and Herrera (1983). 2The components of above-ground biomass include: trees (> 1 cm in dbh and < cm in dbh), climbers (> 1 cm in dbh and < cm in dbh), epiphytes, moss, and groundflora. 3The components of below-ground biomass include: composite root mass, tap roots of trees mainly between 1 and 5 cm in dbh, and roots of trees < 1 cm in dbh. 4Based on Herrera (1979).

Sample NPP Data Record <scr2_npp_r1.txt> (Tall Amazon Caatinga)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ comments

scr; caatinga; 1975; 05; 05; basal_area; 29.4; m2/ha; Veillon pers. comm. (05/05/1978) in Klinge and Herrera (1983)

scr; spodosl; 1975; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 1027; g/m2; Medina et al. (1978)
scr; spodosl; 1975; -999.9; -999.9; leaves; 1080; g/m2; Jordan (1989) p. 22
scr; spodosl; 19??; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 26800; g/m2; Klinge and Herrera (1978), Jordan (1989) p. 22
scr; spodosl; 19??; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 23700; g/m2; Klinge and Herrera (1983) ...

Table 9. Parameter definitions in <scr3_npp_r1.txt> (Bana)

PARAMETER

DEFINITION

UNITS

SOURCE

basal area

Basal area of trees > 10 cm dbh in the vicinity of the study site

m2/ha

J. P. Veillon, pers. comm. in Klinge & Herrera (1983)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass

g/m2

Table 5, Klinge & Herrera (1978); Table C.2.4, Jordan (1989)

AGbiomass

Above-ground biomass (tall bana, mean of 2 plots; low bana, mean of 5 plots; and open bana, one plot)

g/m2

Table 3, Bongers et al. (1985); Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflitter

Leaf litter biomass (tall bana, mean of 2 plots; low bana, mean of 5 plots; and open bana, one plot)

g/m2

Table 10, Bongers et al. (1985)

woodlitter

Wood litter biomass (tall bana, mean of 2 plots; low bana, mean of 5 plots; and open bana, one plot)

g/m2

Table 10, Bongers et al. (1985)

Totlitter

Total litter biomass (tall bana, mean of 2 plots; low bana, mean of 5 plots; and open bana, one plot)

g/m2

Table 10, Bongers et al. (1985)

deadwood

Standing dead wood biomass including stumps (tall bana, mean of 2 plots; low bana, mean of 5 plots; and open bana, one plot)

g/m2

Table 10, Bongers et al. (1985)

Totroots

Total composite below-ground root biomass (Ao + A1 + A2 horizons; without distinction of dead and alive roots and plant species involved)

g/m2

Table 3 (Plot XIII) and p. 103, Klinge & Herrera (1978); Table C.2.4, Jordan (1989)

Totroots

Below-ground root biomass, tall bana

g/m2

Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

Totroots

Below-ground root biomass, low bana

g/m2

Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

Totroots

Below-ground root biomass, open bana

g/m2

Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

Totroots

Total root biomass (sum of surface root mass + below-ground root mass to 50 cm depth)

g/m2

Table 2, Sanford (1989)

LAI

Leaf area index (LAI measured in tall, low, and open bana, and mean of 3 types)

m2/m2

Table 1, Bongers et al. (1985); Table 2, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflittfall

Annual leaf litterfall

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

woodlittfall

Annual small wood litterfall

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

flofrtlittfall

Annual flower + fruit litterfall

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

Totlittfall

Total annual litterfall

g/m2/year

Table 1, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

root_production

Annual fine root production in litter + superficial soil layers (in ingrowth cylinders to 10 cm depth), low bana

g/m2/year

Table 9, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

leaves-N

Nitrogen concentration in leaf litter

percent

Table 3, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaves-N

Nitrogen concentration in leaves

percent

Table 7, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflittfall-N

Nitrogen concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) from 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

percent

Table 9, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaves-P

Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter

ppm

Table 3, Cuevas & Medina (1986)

leaves-P

Phosphorus concentration in leaves

ppm

Table 7, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

leaflittfall-P

Phosphorus concentration in freshly fallen leaf litter; values are averages of ten collection periods (every 3 weeks) from 15 baskets per collection (Cuevas, 1983)

ppm

Table 9, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

fineroots-N

Nitrogen concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

percent

Table 2, Cuevas & Medina (1988); Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

fineroots-P

Phosphorus concentration in fine roots grown in vermiculite-filled cylinders inserted in upper 10 cm of soil

ppm

Table 2, Cuevas & Medina (1988); Table 8, Medina & Cuevas (1989)

litter_decomp_k

Litter decomposition constant (range), low bana

1/year

Table 10, Cuevas & Medina (1988)

Sample NPP Data Record <scr3_npp_r1.txt> (Bana)

Site; Treatmt; Year; Month; Day; parameter; amount; units; Reference/ comments

scr; bana; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; basal_area; 13.0; m2/ha; Veillon pers. comm. (05/05/1978) in Klinge and Herrera (1983)

scr; bana; 1975; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 8500; g/m2; Klinge and Herrera (1978), Jordan (1989) p. 137
scr; bana; 1978; 03; -999.9; AGbiomass; 18200; g/m2; Bongers et al. (1985); Medina and Cuevas (1989), tall bana
scr; bana; 1978; 03; -999.9; AGbiomass; 4000; g/m2; Bongers et al.(1985); Medina and Cuevas (1989), low bana
scr; bana; 1978; 03; -999.9; AGbiomass; 600; g/m2; Bongers et al. (1985); Medina and Cuevas (1989), open bana ...

Climate Data. Climate data are provided in two ASCII files (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values.

Sample Climate Data Record <scr1_cli.txt>

Site;Temp;Parm; Jan; Feb; Mar; Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep; Oct; Nov; Dec; Year
scr ;mean;prec; 263.0; 234.0; 249.0; 364.0; 408.0; 408.0; 340.0; 311.0; 244.0; 249.0; 254.0; 239.0; 3563.0
scr ;mean;tavg; 26.6; 26.9; 26.7; 25.9; 25.4; 25.6; 24.9; 25.9; 26.6; 26.9; 26.9; 25.4; 26.1
scr ;1975;prc1; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 403.4; 235.0; 449.0; 251.5; 134.3; 276.1; -999.9
scr ;1975;prc2; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 402.6; 198.1; 461.3; 236.0; 134.8; 302.2; -999 …

Where,
Parameter:
  mean = mean based on years 1950-1958, 1970-1978
  prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
  prc1 = precipitation for month or year (mm) measured at oxisol site
  prc1 = precipitation for month or year (mm) measured at spodosol site
  tavg = mean average temperature for month or year (C)

Sample Climate Data Record <scr2_cli.txt>

Site;Temp;Parm; Jan; Feb; Mar; Apr; May; Jun; Jul; Aug; Sep; Oct; Nov; Dec; Year
scr ;5158;prec; 222.3; 229.1; 205.9; 395.0; 380.5; 390.0; 329.5; 327.6; 249.3; 256.8; 313.5; 218.7; 3518.1
scr ;6892;prec; 222.1; 187.9; 261.7; 308.1; 391.7; 403.5; 366.1; 316.5; 263.8; 245.6; 214.2; 235.2; 3416.4
scr ;7091;tmin; 22.4; 22.5; 22.3; 22.5; 22.4; 22.1; 21.7; 21.9; 21.9; 22.1; 22.3; 22.3; 22.2
scr ;7091;tmax; 32.8; 32.9; 33.0; 32.2; 31.4; 30.7; 30.8; 31.9; 32.6; 32.7; 32.5; 32.6; 32.2
scr ;7091;tavg; 26.4; 26.3; 26.0; 26.0; 25.4; 25.2; 24.9; 25.4; 25.9; 26.3; 26.2; 26.3; 25.9 …

Where,
Parameter:
  prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
  tmax = mean maximum temperature for month or year (C)
  tmin = mean minimum temperature for month or year (C)
  tavg = mean average temperature for month or year (C)

N.B. precipitation data for 1951-58 are from a different weather station located at 1.90 N 67.07 W and elevation 65 m

 

3. Data Application and Derivation:

The accumulation of biomass, or NPP, is the net gain of carbon by photosynthesis that remains after plant respiration. While there are many fates for this carbon, this data set accounts for a minimum estimate of NPP at each of three sites, mainly based on above-ground growth or litterfall, and below-ground root production. These are considered the major components of NPP.

Much of the research at San Carlos was conducted in order to fill gaps in ecological knowledge available to support forest management. To address these deficiencies, research projects were organized by the Center of Ecology at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), with the participation of the Institute of Ecology of the University of Georgia (U.S.A.) and the Max-Planck Institute of Limnology (Germany), to study forest composition and structure, and nutrient cycling and conservation in Amazonian forests. Additional research was carried out under the auspices of an international UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) project.

The tropical forest biomass dynamics data for the San Carlos site are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.

 

4. Quality Assessment:

Comparisons of biomass estimations for the forests at San Carlos should take into account the fact that the methods of determining biomass are not the same in all cases. In mixed forests, estimations were based on regressions developed from felled trees in a size range class (Jordan and Uhl, 1978), while in caatinga and bana forests estimations were based on clear felling and weighing of plots of 100 m2 or less (Klinge and Herrera, 1983; Bongers et al., 1985).

The above- and below-ground biomass values for San Carlos caatinga and oxisol forests are compared by Jordan (1989) and Klinge & Herrera (1983) with the biomass estimates for other tropical evergreen forests. The relatively low above-ground biomass and the relatively high below-ground biomass of the San Carlos forests suggest that both the caatinga and oxisol forests are under greater stress than many other tropical forests. Lower biomass accumulation in these forests is probably related to the frequent alternation of flooded and dry periods in the Amazon caatinga, while nutrients seem to be the most important factor in the mixed forest (Medina and Cuevas, 1989).

The above- and below-ground biomass values for San Carlos tall caatinga and bana are compared to data for a seasonal evergreen rainforest and a campina at Manaus, a cloud forest in Venezuela, and the tierra firme forest at San Carlos (Klinge and Herrera, 1978). These four forests are richer in above-ground biomass on average than the Amazon caatinga and have relative root amounts below 20%. This value can be considered normal for tropical forests. The relative amount of root biomass in the Amazon caatinga ranges from 22-33% to as high as 45% in the intergrades between caatinga and bana. The bana has a strikingly higher root percentage which may reach over 60% (62% in Klinge and Herrera, 1978).

At the time of these studies, data for the phytomass of other tropical rainforests supported by spodosols was available only for a heath forest in Cambodia (Hozumi et al., 1969) where both above- and below-ground phytomass was lower than that measured at the Tall Amazon Caatinga site.

Sources of Error

Above-ground biomass data for Tierra Firma site from Jordan and Uhl (1978) were overestimated because of drying difficulties and later revised in Uhl and Jordan (1984). Correct values appear in this archived data set.

 

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Tierra Firme (Oxisol) Forest

Above-ground Biomass and Production

Above-ground biomass estimates in Jordan and Uhl (1978) were overestimated because of drying difficulties. That report gave a species-weighted wood density of 0.96. Since then, a corrected wood density value of 0.71 was calculated and the earlier estimates were revised (Uhl and Jordan, 1984; Jordan, 1989). The correct values appear in this data set along with the overestimates, for comparison.

Below-ground Biomass and Production

Nutrients in Plant Biomass

Litter Decomposition (Jordan, 1989; Cuevas and Medina, 1988; and Medina and Cuevas, 1989). Adult leaves from three dominant species (Caryocar glabrum, Aspidosperma megalocarpum and Lieania heteromorpha) were collected and dried without petioles at the field station in a ventilated oven at 60 C during 3-4 days. Around 10 g of leaves of each species were placed in 20 x 20 cm plastic bags with 4 mm2 mesh (same mesh as the root cylinders), and individually tagged. The mesh size was chosen to allow fine roots characteristic of the root mat and the upper soil layer to enter the bags. Initial chemical composition was measured on all species. Groups of bags for each of the species were exposed to one of three treatments: (1) left undisturbed on top of the intact soil (root mat + litter) to allow root penetration and attachment, (2) placed on top of the intact soil and lifted weekly in order to prevent root penetration, and (3) put on a 1 m2 wire basket with 1 cm2 mesh elevated 15 cm from the soil surface. There were three replicates per species, per treatment, and per collection. The bags were randomly placed in areas approximately 30 x 30 m. Replicates were collected at 14, 32, 71, 132, 242, and 482 days. Bags and their contents were oven-dried at 60 C. Leaves and roots were separated and weighed. Decomposition was analyzed following an exponential model. See Cuevas and Medina (1988) for details.

Tall Amazon Caatinga

Above-ground Biomass, Production, and Nutrients

Below-ground Biomass, Production, and Nutrient Content

Litter Decomposition (Jordan, 1989; Cuevas and Medina, 1988; and Medina and Cuevas, 1989). Methods same as for Tierra Firme site except vegetation was different. From the Tall Amazon Caatinga forest, the following species were selected: Micrandra sprucei, Manilkara sp. and Eperua leucantha. These species are representative of the dominants in each of the three ecosystems in terms of litter input to the forest floor (Cuevas and Medina, 1986).

Bana

Above-ground Biomass, Production, and Nutrient Content

Below-ground Biomass and Production

Litter Decomposition (Jordan, 1989; Cuevas and Medina, 1988; and Medina and Cuevas, 1989). Methods same as for Tierra Firme site except vegetation was different. From the Bana forest the following species were selected: Rodognaphalopsis discolor, Remijia involucrata and Macairea rufescens. These species are representative of the dominants in the ecosystem in terms of litter input to the forest floor (Cuevas and Medina, 1986).

Climate

The climate data in this data set are available from a government weather station in the village of San Carlos. Measurements in this data set cover several time periods (1950-1958, 1970-1978, 1975-1981, and 1950-1991).

Figure 4. Cutting an experimental plot at the San Carlos de Rio Negro tropical forest site, Venezuela. (Experiment to determine productivity and nutrient dynamics during slash-and-burn agriculture on an Oxisol. Photograph taken September 1976; reproduced by kind permission of Prof. C.F. Jordan, University of Georgia, USA). (SCR1-1.jpg)

 

Figure 5. Burning an experimental plot at the San Carlos de Rio Negro tropical forest site, Venezuela. (Experiment to determine productivity and nutrient dynamics during slash-and-burn agriculture on an Oxisol. Photograph taken December 1976; reproduced by kind permission of Prof. C.F. Jordan, University of Georgia, USA). (SCR4-1.jpg)

 

Figure 6. Profile of top 40 cm of soil on an Oxisol hill sub-site at the San Carlos de Rio Negro tropical forest site, Venezuela. (Lateritic concretions are visible mixed in with the sand. Note mat of fine roots and humus on soil surface and concentration of larger roots directly above. Photograph reproduced by kind permission of Prof. C.F. Jordan, University of Georgia, USA). (SCR5-1.jpg)

 

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

 

7. References:

Bongers, F., D. Engelen, and H. Klinge. 1985. Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the Bana woodland. Plant Ecology, 63(1): 13-34.

Brunig, E. F. 1980. Structure and function of a tropical rainforest in the Amazon MAB-ecosystem project at San Carlos de Rio Negro. 5. In: J. 1. Furtado (ed.) Proc. Vth lnternat. Syrup. Trop. Ecol., Kuala Lumpur 1979 1:33 45.

Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1986. Nutrient dynamics within amazonian forests. I. Nutrient flux in fine litter fall and efficiency of nutrient utilisation. Oecologia 68: 466-472.

Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1988. Nutrient dynamics within amazonian forests. II. Fine root growth, nutrient availability and leaf litter decomposition. Oecologia 76: 222-235.

Jordan, C. F., and C. Uhl. 1978. Biomass of a "tierra firme" forest of the Amazon basin. Oecologia Plantarum 13: 387-400.

Jordan, C. F., ed. 1989. An Amazonian Rain Forest: structure and function of a nutrient-stressed ecosystem and the impact of slash-and-burn agriculture. UNESCO-MAB/Parthenon, Carnforth, UK. 176 pp.

Jordan, C. F., and G. Escalante. 1980. Root productivity in an Amazonian rain forest. Ecology 61: 14-18.

Jordan, C. F., and R. Herrera. 1981. Tropical rain forests: are nutrients really critical? The American Naturalist 117(2): 167-180.

Jordan, C. F., and J. R. Kline. 1977. Transpiration of trees in a tropical rainforest. J. appl. Ecol. 14: 853 860.

Jordan, C.F., W. Caskey, G. Escalante, R. Herrera, F. Montagnini, R. Todd, and C. Uhl. 1982. The nitrogen cycle in a "Tierra Firme" rainforest in the Amazon territory of Venezuela. Plant and Soil, 67: 325-332.

Herrera, R. 1979. Nutrient distribution and cycling in an Amazonian Caatinga forest on spodosols in southern Venezuela. Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, 241 pp.

Klinge, H., and R. Herrera. 1978. Biomass studies in amazon caatinga forest in southern Venezuela. I. Standing crop of composite root mass in selected stands. Tropical Ecology 19: 93-110.

Klinge, H., and R. Herrera. 1983. Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the tall Amazon Caatinga forest. Vegetatio 53: 65-84.

Medina, E., and E. Cuevas. 1989. Patterns of nutrient accumulation and release in Amazonian forests of the upper Rio Negro basin. In: Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. (J. Proctor, ed.) British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 9: Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp. 217-240.

Medina, E., M. Sobrado, and R. Herrera. 1978. Significance of leaf orientation for leaf temperature in an amazonian sclerophyll vegetation. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 15(2): 131-140.

Medina, E., Klinge, H., Jordan, C. & Herrera, R. 1980. Soil respiration in Amazonian rainforest in the Rio Negro Basin. Flora 170: 240 250.

Olson, R. J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge , Tennessee , U.S.A.

Putz, F. E. 1983. Liana biomass and leaf area of a "Tierra Firme" forest in the Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica 15(3): 185-189.

Saldarriaga, J.G. 1985. Forest succession inthe upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela. PhD Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, U.S.A.

Sandford, Jr., R.L. 1985. Root ecology of mature and successional Amazon forests. PhD Thesis. University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.

Sanford, Jr., R. L. 1989. Root systems in three adjacent, old growth Amazon forests and associated transition zones. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(3): 268-279.

Stark, N., and M. Spratt. 1977. Root biomass and nutrient storage in rain forest oxisols near San Carlos de Rio Negro. Tropical Ecology 18: 1-9.

Uhl, C., and C. F. Jordan. 1984. Succession and nutrient dynamics following forest cutting and burning in Amazonia. Ecology 65: 1476-1490.

Additional Sources of Information:

Alvarez-Sánchez, J. 1991. Productividad primaria neta en una selva tropical húmeda. Boletin de la Sociedad Botánica de México 51: 3-12.

Clark, D. A., S. Brown, D. W. Kicklighter, J. Q. Chambers, J. R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E. A. Holland. 2001a. Net primary production in tropical forests: an evaluation and synthesis of existing field data. Ecological Applications, 11(2): 371-384.

Clark, D.A., S. Brown, D.W. Kicklighter, J.Q. Chambers, J.R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and E.A. Holland. 2001b. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/616

Hozumi, K., K, Yoda and S. Kokawa. 1969. Production ecology of tropical rain forests in southwestern Cambodia. I. Plant biomass. Nature and Life in SE Asia.

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2012a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617

Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2012b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615

Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, B.J. Peterson, A.L. Grace, B. Moore III, and C.J. Vörösmarty. 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model. Ecological Applications 1:399-429.

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R J. Olson. 2002. Terrestrial net primary productivity - A brief history and a new worldwide database. Environ. Rev. 10(2): 91-109. doi:10.1139/a02-002

Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2012. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653

8. Data Set Revisions

Revision Summary:

The temporal coverage of several parameters in the data files for the three sub-sites (scr1_npp.txt, scr2_npp.txt, and scr3_npp.txt) were updated to replace missing values or uncertainties with information found in the primary literature. Additional lines of data were added to the data files, and additional primary sources were added to the References columns.

All other NPP values in the data file are not affected.

 

Data File Changes:

Several data collection dates have been revised, and some data values and references have been added. A duplicate line of data (leaflitterfall-N) for the Tierra Firme site was removed from scr1_npp.txt. For the Tall Amazon Caatinga site, above-ground biomass data for leaves, standing dead wood, bole litter, branch litter, twig litter, and leaf litter from Klinge and Herrera (1983) were added to scr2_npp.txt. In addition, fine litterfall accumulation (Medina et al., 1980), raw humus buildup to depths of 1-12 cm (Klinge and Herrrera, 1978), and leaflitter-N and leaflitter-P (Cuevas and Medina, 1986) values for the Tall Amazon Caatinga forest were added to scr2_npp.txt. LAI, leaf litter, wood litter, total litter, and standing dead wood biomass values for tall, low, and open Bana forests from Bongers et al. (1985) were added to scr3_npp.txt. Total root data for each sub-site from Sanford (1989) have been added.

No other data values have been revised. The data values in the revised data file (scr1_npp_r1.txt, scr2_npp_r1.txt, and scr3_npp_r1.txt) are correct.
 

Cited References:

Bongers, F., D. Engelen, and H. Klinge. 1985. Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the Bana woodland. Plant Ecology, 63(1): 13-34.

Cuevas, E., and E. Medina. 1986. Nutrient dynamics within amazonian forests. I. Nutrient flux in fine litter fall and efficiency of nutrient utilisation. Oecologia 68: 466-472.

Klinge, H., and R. Herrera. 1978. Biomass studies in amazon caatinga forest in southern Venezuela. I. Standing crop of composite root mass in selected stands. Tropical Ecology 19: 93-110.

Klinge, H., and R. Herrera. 1983. Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the tall Amazon Caatinga forest. Vegetatio 53: 65-84.

Medina, E., Klinge, H., Jordan, C. & Herrera, R. 1980. Soil respiration in Amazonian rainforest in the Rio Negro Basin. Flora 170: 240 250.

Sanford, Jr., R. L. 1989. Root systems in three adjacent, old growth Amazon forests and associated transition zones. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(3): 268-279.

Data User Action: If you downloaded this data set from the ORNL DAAC online archive before 10/15/2013 then you should download it again.

Original Citation: Jordan, C.F., E. Cuevas, and E. Medina. 1999. NPP Tropical Forest: San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela, 1975-1984. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.