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NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

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Revision Date: May 2, 2013

Summary:

This data set contains standardized gridded observation data, terrestrial biospheric model output, and inverse model simulations that were compiled but not used in the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Synthesis activities, thus the supplemental designation. The data set provides six (6) observation data packages (9 variables - MODIS LAI, MODIS FPAR, MODIS NDVI, MODIS EVI, FIA forest biomass, forest area, GPP Anomaly, NEE Anomaly, Reco Anomaly; 8 data files), output results from three terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) (14 variables; 214 files), and simulations from one inverse model (IM) (one variable; 1 file).

To produce this data set, the NACP Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) original data files were resampled to 1-degree spatial resolution for North American region (except for FIA Forest Biomass which was resampled to 0.5-degree resolution), interpolated into monthly or yearly temporal resolution, and reformatted into Climate and Forecast (CF) convention compatible netCDF format.

This data set is related to the original data submissions and two additional regional processed data sets (i.e., gridded 1-deg observation data and biosphere and inverse model outputs; and national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and model outputs aggregated by GHG inventory zones (see Related Data Products below). Detailed descriptions of observation data, TBMs, and IMs can be found in Regional-Description_of_Observations_and_Models.pdf.

MAST-DC was a component of the NACP (www.nacarbon.org) designed to support NACP by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC was to provide data management support to NACP investigators and agencies performing modeling and synthesis activities.


Data and Documentation Access:

Get Data: http//:daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1158

Companion Documentation for this Data Set:

Model Characteristics Overview and References: NACP_Model_Characteristics.pdf

Related Data Products:


Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Wei, Y., W.M. Post, R.B. Cook, P.E. Thornton, A.R. Jacobson, D.N. Huntzinger, F.M. Hoffman, G.G. Moisen, A.E. Schuh, C.R. Schwalm, and N. Viovy. 2013. NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1158

 

Table of Contents:

 

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: North American Carbon Program (NACP)

The NACP (Denning et al., 2005; Wofsy and Harriss, 2002) is a multidisciplinary research program to obtain scientific understanding of North America's carbon sources and sinks and of changes in carbon stocks needed to meet societal concerns and to provide tools for decision makers. Successful execution of the NACP has required an unprecedented level of coordination among observational, experimental, and modeling efforts regarding terrestrial, oceanic, atmospheric, and human components. The program has relied upon a rich and diverse array of existing observational networks, monitoring sites, and experimental field studies in North America and its adjacent oceans. It is supported by a number of different federal agencies through a variety of intramural and extramural funding mechanisms and award instruments.

Recently, NACP and MAST-DC organized several synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare biosphere model outputs and observation data at local to continental scales for the time period of 2000 through 2005. The synthesis activities have included three component studies, each conducted on different spatial scales and producing numerous data products: (1) site-level analyses that examined process-based model estimates and observations at over 30 AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada tower sites across North America; (2) a regional, mid-continent intensive study centered in the agricultural regions of the United States and focused on comparing inventory-based estimates of net carbon exchange with those from atmospheric inversions; and (3) a regional and continental synthesis evaluating model estimates against each other and available inventory-based estimates across North America. A number of other NACP syntheses were conducted, including ones focusing on non-CO2 greenhouse gases, the impact of disturbance on carbon exchange, and coastal carbon dynamics. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is the archive for the NACP synthesis data products.

This data set contains part of the third NACP synthesis product described above: regional analyses. It provides the supplemental gridded observation measurements and TBM and IM output data that were processed by MAST-DC but not used in the NACP Regional Interim Synthesis activities. The data set includes six (6) OM data granules (MODIS LAI, MODIS FPAR, MODIS NDVI, MODIS EVI, FIA Forest Biomass/Area, and Flux Anomaly), three (3) TBM data granules, and one IM data granule (Table 1). To produce this data set, the originally-submitted data were resampled to 1-degree spatial resolution for North American region (except for FIA Forest Biomass which was resampled to 0.5-degree resolution), interpolated into monthly or yearly temporal resolution, and reformatted into Climate and Forecast (CF) convention compatible netCDF format (Table 2).

This data set is related to two other processed regional data sets (i.e., gridded 1-degree observation data and biosphere and inverse model outputs used in the NACP Regional Synthesis activities; and national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and model outputs aggregated by GHG inventory zones) and the originally-submitted observation data and model outputs (see Related Data Products above). Detailed descriptions of observation data and models can be found in a separate document: Regional-Description_of_Observations_and_Models.pdf.



Table 1. Contributors

Last Name First Name Organization Email Role
WeiYaxing ORNL weiy@ornl.gov MAST-DC
PostWilfred M. University of Tennessee wmp@ornl.gov MAST-DC
CookRobert B. ORNL cookrb@ornl.gov MAST-DC
ThorntonPeter E. ORNL thorntonpe@ornl.gov MAST-DC, CLM-CN
JacobsonAndy NOAA andy.jacobson@noaa.gov Synthesis Lead, CarbonTracker
HuntzingerDeborah N. Northern Arizona University deborah.huntzinger@nau.edu Synthesis Lead
HoffmanForrest ORNL forrest@climatemodeling.org CLM-CASA
MoisenGretchen G. USDA Forest Service gmoisen@fs.fed.us U.S. Forest Biomass
SchuhAndrew Colorado State University aschuh@atmos.colostate.edul CSU no.2
SchwalmChristopher Northern Arizona University Christopher.Schwalm@nau.edu
Flux Anomaly
ViovyNicolas LSCE viovy@lsce.ipsl.fr
ORCHIDEE

Table 2. List of Observation Data and Models in the Supplemental Gridded Analysis

 

OBSERVATION MEASUREMENTS
Observation Data Short Name
MODIS MOD15A2GFS Leaf Area Index (LAI) LAI (MODIS for NACP, gap-filled, smoothed)
MODIS MOD15A2GFS Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) fPAR (MODIS for NACP, gap-filled, smoothed)
MODIS MOD09A1G_NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) NDVI (MODIS for NACP, gap-filled, smoothed)
MODIS MOD09A1G_EVI Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) EVI (MODIS for NACP, gap-filled, smoothed)
Conterminous U.S. Forest Biomass FIA Forest Biomass
Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity and Respiration Anomalies Flux Anomaly
TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE MODELS
Prognostic Models Short Name
Community Land Model with CASA (i01.54, i01.54_q15, i01.55) CLM-CASA (i01.54, i01.54_q15, i01.55)
Community Land Model with Carbon&Nitrogen (i01.56) CLM-CN (i01.56)
Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems model (v2.1)  ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
INVERSE MODELS
Inversion Models Short Name
CSU no. 2 (MLEF-PCTM) model CSU-no2

Table 3. Data Packages Summary

Data Set Sub Category Variables Files File Formats
Supplemental Gridded Data Observations (OM) 9 (LAI, fPAR, NDVI, EVI, Forest Biomass, Forest Area, GPP Anomaly, NEE Anomaly, Reco Anomaly) 8netCDF
Forward Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) Outputs 14 214netCDF
Inverse Model (IM) Outputs 1 (NEE)1 netCDF

2. Data Description:

This data set contains a total of 223 data files (8 OM data files, 214 TBM output data files, and 1 IM output data file). The data have been resampled by MAST-DC to a standard 1-degree spatial resolution for North American region (except for FIA Forest Biomass which was resampled to 0.5-degree resolution for the conterminous United States), interpolated into monthly or yearly temporal resolution, converted to a standard measurement unit (generally, kg C/m2/month or year), and reformatted into CF convention compatible netCDF format.

2.1. Spatial Coverage

Site: North America

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
North America -170 -50 84 10

2.2. Spatial Resolution

1 degree x 1 degree (except FIA Forest Biomass which is half degree resolution)

2.3. Spatial Coordinate Reference System

Sphere-based Geographic Lat/Lon
In CF-compatible netCDF files, it’s defined as:
char crs;
crs:grid_mapping_name = "latitude_longitude";
crs:semi_major_axis = 6370997.0f;
crs:inverse_flattening = 0.0f;

2.4. Temporal Coverage

Varies (range: 1990-2008). See Tables 4-6.

2.5. Temporal Resolution

Monthly or one time

2.6. Time Variable:

Units: “days since 1990-01-01 UTC”

Calendar: “noleap”

2.7. Data File Information

All of the data files are CF convention 1.0 compatible netCDF v3 formatted. Spatial resolution for all files is 1 degree x 1 degree (except FIA Forest Biomass which is half degree resolution). Spatial extent for all files is North America (except for FIA Forest Biomass which covers the conterminous United States only). Temporal resolution is monthly (except FIA Forest Biomass which is one time). Temporal extent varies as noted in Tables 3-5. Missing values are designated by the value -9999.0.

Table 4. Observation Measurements (OM) Data Files

FILE NAMES TEMPORAL EXTENT UNITS VARIABLE
COMPRESSED FILE NAMES * UNCOMPRESSED DATA FILE NAMES
OM_MODIS_LAI_Supplemental.zip OM_MODIS_LAI_1d.nc 2000-2005 dimensionless ratio (m^2/m^2) Leaf area index (MODIS LAI)
OM_MODIS_fPAR_Supplemental.zip OM_MODIS_fPAR_1d.nc 2000-2005 Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (MODIS fPAR)
OM_MODIS_NDVI_Supplemental.zip OM_MODIS_NDVI_1d.nc 2000-2005 index range: 0-1 Normalized difference vegetation index (MODIS NDVI)
OM_MODIS_EVI_Supplemental.zipOM_MODIS_EVI_1d.nc 2000-2005 Enhanced vegetation index (MODIS EVI)
OM_FIA_Biomass_Supplemental.zipOM_FIA_Biomass_hd.nc ~2000 kg C/m^2_of_forestForest biomass (half degree resolution)
m^2Forest area (half degree resolution)
OM_Flux-Anomaly_Supplemental.zip FLUX_GPP_Anomaly_onedeg_v1.0.nc 1990-2008 kg C/m^2/mo Gross primary production anomaly (GPP Anomaly)
FLUX_NEE_Anomaly_onedeg_v1.0.nc Net ecosystem exchange anomaly (NEE Anomaly)
FLUX_Reco_Anomaly_onedeg_v1.0.nc Ecosystem respiration anomaly (Reco Anomaly)

 

Table 5. Terrestrial Biospheric Model (TBM) Output Data Files

FILE NAMES TEMPORAL EXTENT UNITS VARIABLE
COMPRESSED FILE NAMES * UNCOMPRESSED DATA FILE NAMES
TBM_CLM-CASA_Supplemental.zipTBM_CLM-CASA_CWDC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Coarse woody debris carbon (CWDC)
TBM_CLM-CASA_CWDC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_CWDC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_FROOTC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Fine root carbon (FROOTC)
TBM_CLM-CASA_FROOTC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_FROOTC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_GPP_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo GPP
TBM_CLM-CASA_GPP_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_GPP_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_HR_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo Heterotrophic respiration (HR)
TBM_CLM-CASA_HR_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_HR_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_landfrac_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 Range: 0-1 Land fraction
TBM_CLM-CASA_landfrac_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_landfrac_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_LEAFC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Leaf carbon (LEAFC)
TBM_CLM-CASA_LEAFC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_LEAFC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_LITTERC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Litter carbon
TBM_CLM-CASA_LITTERC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_LITTERC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEE_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo NEE
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEE_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEE_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEP_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo NEP
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEP_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NEP_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NPP_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo NPP
TBM_CLM-CASA_NPP_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_NPP_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_SOILC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Total soil organic matter carbon
TBM_CLM-CASA_SOILC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_SOILC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_TLAI_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 dimensionless ratio (m^2/m^2) Total projected leaf area index
TBM_CLM-CASA_TLAI_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_TLAI_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_VegC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Vegetation carbon (derived from LEAFC+WOODC+FROOTC)
TBM_CLM-CASA_VegC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_VegC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_WOODC_1d_i01.54casa.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Wood carbon (WOODC)
TBM_CLM-CASA_WOODC_1d_i01.54casa_q15.nc
TBM_CLM-CASA_WOODC_1d_i01.55casa.nc
TBM_CLM-CN_Supplemental.zip TBM_CLM-CN_CWDC_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Coarse woody debris carbon (CWDC)
TBM_CLM-CN_FROOTC_1d_i01.56cn.nc Fine root carbon (FROOTC)
TBM_CLM-CN_GPP_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo GPP
TBM_CLM-CN_HR_1d_i01.56cn.nc Heterotrophic respiration (HR)
TBM_CLM-CN_landfrac_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 Range: 0-1 Land fraction
TBM_CLM-CN_LEAFC_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Leaf carbon (LEAFC)
TBM_CLM-CN_LITTERC_1d_i01.56cn.nc Litter carbon
TBM_CLM-CN_NEE_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2/mo NEE
TBM_CLM-CN_NEP_1d_i01.56cn.nc NEP
TBM_CLM-CN_NPP_1d_i01.56cn.nc NPP
TBM_CLM-CN_SOILC_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Total soil organic matter carbon
TBM_CLM-CN_TLAI_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 dimensionless ratio (m^2/m^2) Total projected leaf area index
TBM_CLM-CN_TOTVEGC_1d_i01.56cn.nc 1990-2004 kg C/m^2 Total vegetation carbon (derived from LEAFC+WOODC+FROOTC)
TBM_CLM-CN_WOODC_1d_i01.56cn.nc Wood carbon (WOODC)
TBM_ORCHIDEE_Supplemental.zip TBM_ORCHIDEE_GPP_1d_v2.1.nc 1991-2008 kg C/m^2/mo GPP
TBM_ORCHIDEE_NEE_1d_v2.1.nc NEE
TBM_ORCHIDEE_NEP_1d_v2.1.nc NEP
TBM_ORCHIDEE_NPP_1d_v2.1.nc NPP
TBM_ORCHIDEE_NPPCrop_1d_v2.1.nc Net primary production crop (NPPCrop)
TBM_ORCHIDEE_Rh_1d_v2.1.nc Heterotrophic respiration (Rh)

Notes:  GPP = Gross Primary Production. NEE = Net Ecosystem Exchange. NEP = Net Ecosystem Production. NPP = Net Primary Production.

Table 6. Inverse Model (IM) Output Data Files

FILE NAMES TEMPORAL EXTENT UNITS VARIABLE
COMPRESSED FILE NAMES * UNCOMPRESSED DATA FILE NAMES
IM_CSU-no2_Supplemental.zip IM_CSU-no2_NEE_1d.nc 2004 kg C/m^2/month NEE

 

Notes: NEE = Net Ecosystem Exchange.

2.8. Observation Data and Model Output Variables

Table 7. List of Observation Data and Model Output Variables

Short Name Units Long Name Temporal Resolution Observation/Models
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
GPP kg C m-2 month-1 gross primary production monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN, ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
GPP Anomaly kg C m-2 month-1 gross primary production anomaly monthly Flux  anomaly
Net Primary Productivity  (NPP)
NPP kg C m-2 month-1  net primary production monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN, ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
NPPCrop kg C m-2 month-1 net primary production crop monthly ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
Net Ecosystem Exchange  (NEE)
NEE kg C m-2 month-1  net ecosystem exchange monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN, ORCHIDEE (v2.1), CSU-no2
NEE Anomaly kg C m-2 month-1 net ecosystem exchange anomaly monthly Flux Anomaly
Net Ecosystem Production
NEP kg C m-2 month-1  net ecosystem production monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CM
Biomass
FIA Forest Biomass kg C m-2 month-1 conterminous U.S. forest biomass one time FIA Forest Biomass
Total Respiration
Reco Anomaly kg C m-2 month-1 ecosystem respiration anomaly monthly Flux Anomaly
Heterotrophic Respiration
Rh kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly ORCHIDEE (v2.1)
HR kg C m-2 month-1 heterotrophic respiration monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Total Soil Carbon: Total soil and litter carbon content vertically integrated over the entire soil column
SOILC kg C m-2 total soil organic matter C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Leaf Area Index
LAI (-) leaf area index monthly DLEM
TLAI (-) total projected leaf area index monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Coarse Woody Debris Carbon
CWDC kg C m-2 coarse woody debris C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Wood Carbon
WOODC kg C m-2 wood C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Fine Root Carbon
FROOTC kg C m-2 fine root C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Land Fraction
landfrac (-) land fraction monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Forest Land Area
Forest area m-2 conterminous U.S. forest area one time FIA Forest Biomass
Leaf Carbon
LEAFC kg C m-2 leaf C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Litter Carbon
LITTERC kg C m-2 litter C monthly CLM-CASA, CLM-CN
Vegetation Carbon
VegC kg C m-2 vegetation C monthly CLM-CASA
TOTVEGC kg C m-2 total vegetation carbon monthly CLM-CN
Enhanced Vegetation Index
EVI   enhanced vegetation index monthly MODIS EVI
Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation
fPAR   fraction of photosynthetically active radiation monthly MODIS fPAR
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NDVI   normalized difference vegetation index monthly MODIS NDVI

2.9. Companion File Information

Table 8. Companion Files

FILE NAME DESCRIPTION
Regional-Description_of_Observations_and_Models.pdf Overview of observation measurement data and terrestrial biosphere and inverse models, including descriptions, sources, contacts, and a comprehensive reference list
NACP_Model_Characteristics.pdf Overview of process descriptions in participating TBMs and boundary conditions and driver data used in participating TBMs with a comprehensive reference list
NACP_Model_Metadata_Survey_Results.pdf Metadata for TBMs Intercomparison: Site Model Data Comparison and Regional Model Data Comparison: Survey Results

 

3. Data Application and Derivation:

This data product contributes to a multidisciplinary research program to obtain scientific understanding of North America's carbon sources and sinks and of changes in carbon stocks needed to meet societal concerns and to provide tools for decision makers. The data were generated by MAST-DC as part of a NACP regional and continental synthesis to evaluate and inter-compare models and observation measurements across North America. Although this work was not used in the NACP regional synthesis activities, the results can be used to compare the model outputs to different observational data products.

4. Quality Assessment:

This data set provides supplemental observation measurements and model simulation outputs that were compiled but not used in the NACP Regional Synthesis activities. The supplemental observation measurements and model simulation outputs were not used in the regional synthesis for one or more of the following reasons: (1) certain variables were not considered in the regional synthesis; (2) multiple versions of model outputs were provided; (3) the spatial extent of model output did not match the NACP regional synthesis study area, or (4) the spatial resolution did not match other standardized gridded data.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Original model simulation results and observation measurement data were resampled by MAST-DC to a standard 1-degree spatial resolution for North American region (except for FIA Forest Biomass which was resampled to 0.5-degree resolution), interpolated into monthly or yearly temporal resolution, converted to a standard measurement unit (generally, kg C/m2/month or year), and reformatted into CF convention compatible netCDF format.

Information about the specific data processing steps taken by MAST-DC are available by contacting the Data Center as indicated below.

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive:

Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Denning, A.S., et al. 2005. Science implementation strategy for the North American Carbon Program: A Report of the NACP Implementation Strategy Group of the U.S. Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group. U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, Washington, DC. 68 pp.

Wofsy, S.C., and R.C. Harriss. 2002. The North American Carbon Program (NACP). Report of the NACP Committee of the U.S. Interagency Carbon Cycle Science Program. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC. 56 pp.

Additional Sources of Information:

Please see the Reference section in the Regional-Description_of_Observations_and_Models.pdf document for publications related to the observation measurements, TBMs, and IMs used in this study.