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LBA-ECO TG-08 Soil Gas Flux after Forest and Pasture Fertilization, Rondonia, Brazil
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Revision date: July 12, 2012

Summary:

This data set provides nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and measurements of soil moisture, in response to nitrogen and phosphorus soil fertilization treatments. The research was conducted in a mature moist tropical forest and an 11-year pasture at Nova Vida in Rondonia, in the Brazilian Amazon, in 1998 and 1999. There is one comma-delimited ASCII data file with this data set.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Steudler, P.A., Garcia-Montiel, D.C., Piccolo, M.C., Neill, C., Melillo, J.M., Feigl, B.J., and C.C. Cerri. 2012. LBA-ECO TG-08 Soil Gas Flux after Forest and Pasture Fertilization, Rondonia, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1105

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in July of 2012. Users who download the data between July 2012 and June 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA website [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes

Team ID: TG-08 (Melillo / Cerri)

The investigators were Steudler, Paul A.; Garcia-Montiel, Diana Cecilia; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia; Neill, Christopher; Melillo, Jerry M.; Feigl, Brigitte J. and Cerri, Carlos C. You may contact Steudler, Paul A. (steudler@mbl.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: TG08_Soil_Gas_Fertilization

This data set provides nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, N and P pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and measurements of soil moisture, in response to nitrogen and phosphorus soil fertilization treatments. The research was conducted in a mature moist tropical forest and an 11-year pasture at Nova Vida in Rondonia, in the Brazilian Amazon, in 1998 and 1999.

2. Data Characteristics:

Data are available in one comma separated ASCII file: TG08_Fertilization_fluxes.csv

The file is organized as follows:

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1State RONDONIAState in which study was done: RONDONIA
2Location NOVAVIDALocation of the study: all data were collected at Fazenda Nova Vida
3YearYYYYYear in which measurements were made: 1998 or 1999
4Month2, 3, or 8 Month in which measurements were made where 2=February, 3=March, or 8=August
5Day  Day of the month on which measurements were made
6Chronosequence  Chronosequence id
7Landuse  Type of landuse: either pasture or forest
8Yr_formed  Year in which the pasture area was converted from forest into pasture
9Days_since_fertDays since fertilizer treatment was applied; negative values indicate sampling done prior to treatment
10Number_fertilizations  Number of fertilization events either 1 or 3. Fertilizer was applied one time prior to the short-term or intermediate term (180 day) measurements; two additional fertilizations were applied in August and November prior to the 395 day measurements
11Block  Experimental block identification
12Plot  Experimental plot identification
13Treatment  Control=unfertilized; NH4=fertilized with NH4Cl at 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1; NO3=fertilized with NaNO3 at 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1; PO4=fertilized with Na2HPO4 at 40 kg P ha-1 yr-1
14Sampling_depth cmSoil depth from which samples were collected: 000-005 represents 0-5 cm depth while 005-010 represents 5-10 cm
15Soil_water_content percentSoil water content calculated as (soil fresh weight- soil dry weight)/ soil dry weight
16Bulk_densityg per cm3Values are average soil bulk density for appropriate landuse, chronosequence, and soil depth from previous study (Neill et al. 1995) in grams per cubic centimeter
17Particle_densityg per cm3Values for the appropriate pasture age and land use from Steudler et al. 1996 are applied to this study in grams per cubic centimeter
18WFPSpercentWater filled pore space calculated as Soil water content *(bulk density/total porosity %) where total porosity %= [1-(bulk density /particle density)]*100
19N_minug (N03-+NH4)-N gm dry soil-1 day-1Nitrogen mineralization rate reported as the change in micrograms of inorganic N (ammonium + nitrate) per gram dry weight of soil per day
20Nitrificationug NO3-N gm dry soil-1day-1Nitrogen nitrification rate reported as the change in micrograms of nitrogen in the form of nitrate per gram dry weight of soil per day
21Soil_NH4_concug NH4-N per gm dry soilSoil ammonium concentration measured after extraction with 2M KCl
22Soil_NO3_concug NO3-N gm dry soil-1Soil nitrate concentration measured after extraction with 2M KCl
23Soil_PO4_concug PO4-P gm dry soil-1Soil phosphate concentration measured after extraction with anion exchange resin
24NO_fluxug NO-N m-2 hr-1Flux of nitric oxide measured as micrograms of N in the form of nitric oxide per meter squared of soil per hour. Positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere and negative values a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil
25CO2_fluxmg CO2-C m-2 hr-1Flux of carbon dioxide measured as milligrams of carbon dioxide per meter squared of soil per hour. Positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere and negative values a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil
26N2O_fluxug NO2-N m-2 hr-1Flux of nitrous oxide measured as micrograms of N in the form of nitrous oxide per meter squared of soil per hour. Positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere and negative values a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil
27NO_N2O_fluxug NO-N + N2O-N m-2 hr-1N-oxide flux calculated as the sum of NO and N2O fluxes
 
Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

State,Location,Year,Month,Day,Chronosequence,Landuse,Yr_formed,Days_since_fert,Number_fertilizations,Block,Plot,Treatment,
Sampling_depth,Soil_water,Bulk_density,Particle_density,WFPS,N_min,Nitrification,Soil_NH4_Conc,Soil_NO3_conc,
Soil_PO4_conc,NO_flux,CO2_flux,N2O_flux,NO_N2O_flux

RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1998,2,18,PVA1,FOREST,0,-1,1,1,23,CONTROL,
000-005,15.7685,1.1950, 2.6326,34.51,0.01,-0.06,0.47,0.47,
5.30,37.93,352.72,13.44,51.38
RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1998,2,20,PVA1,FOREST,0,-1,1,2,27,CONTROL,
000-005,16.0612,1.1950, 2.6326,35.15,1.18,1.23,0.75,0.75,
7.33,27.90,505.86,86.71,114.62
...
RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1998,8,14,PVA1,PASTURE,1987,180,1,3,17,NO3,
000-005,10.3448,1.3267,2.4853,29.44,0,0.05,2.78,2.78,
-9999,4.64,67.39,6.27,10.92
RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1998,8,15,PVA1,PASTURE,1987,180,1,1,4,NO3+PO4,
000-005,14.1153,1.3267,2.4853,40.17,-0.01,0.03,4.57,4.57,
-9999,1.16,120.24,-4.22,-3.06
...
RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1999,3,9,PVA1,PASTURE,1987,395,3,2,12,PO4,
005-010,18.1641,1.4017,2.5928,55.42,-1.07,-0.1,6.38,6.38,
-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999
RONDONIA,NOVAVIDA,1999,3,10,PVA1,PASTURE,1987,395,3,3,18,PO4,
005-010,18.303,1.4017,2.5928,55.84,0.12,-0.2,1.26,1.26,
-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Rondonia - Fazenda Nova Vida (Rondonia)  -62.81100 -62.81100-10.15600 -10.15600World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Trace gas fluxes from tropical forests are important components of the global carbon and nitrogen budgets. The relative importance of the land-use change and soil nutrient dynamics on emissions in the seasonal and annual budgets of these gases is poorly understood. These data improve our understanding of the effects of land-use change and soil nutrient availability on the dynamics of soil-atmosphere gas exchange of NO, N2O, and CO2.

4. Quality Assessment:

A 1.032 ppmv NO standard in O2-free N2 (Scott- Marrin, Riverside, California) was diluted with NO/NO2-free air to produce a number of NO calibration standards, usually 49.2 ppbv. Ambient air was passed sequentially through scrubbers containing drierite and ascarite to produce NO/NO2-free air (less than 0.06 ppbv NO). The analyzer was calibrated before and after each daily field sampling and varied by less than ±10%between calibrations.

A certified standard of 826 ppmv CO2 in air from Scott Specialty Gases was used to calibrate the IRGA. The analyzer was calibrated before and after each daily field sampling and varied by less than ±1% between calibrations.

A Scott certified standard of 0.985 ppmv N2O in N2 was used for calibration. Prior calibrations with multiple standards showed that the detector response was linear from 0.310 ppmv (ambient) to at least 1.00 ppmv.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site description:

This study was conducted at Fazenda Nova Vida, located at km 472 of highway BR-364 in central Rondonia. Climate of the area is characteristic of humid tropical forest, with an annual precipitation of 2,270 mm distributed seasonally with a dry season extending from June through September. Mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures are 25.6 and 18.8 degrees C, respectively, with a seasonal variation of approximately 4 degrees C (Bastos and Diniz 1982).

Sites utilized included a forest and an eleven year old pasture.

Experimental design:

Three blocks per site (forest or pasture) were established and within each block six treatments were randomly assigned to 3 by 3 m plots for a total of three replicates by treatment, or 18 plots per site.

The six fertilization treatments were ammonium, nitrate, ammonium plus phosphate, nitrate plus phosphate, phosphate, and control.

Fertilizer was applied in three equal amounts spaced throughout the year (March, August, and November 1998). At each application fertilizer was mixed with 150 g of acid-washed dry sand so it could be distributed evenly in the plots.

Measurement Frequency:

Measurements were conducted 2 or 3 days before and 1, 7, and 14, 180 (6 months) and 395 days (13 months) after fertilization to examine the short, intermediate, and long-term responses.

Fertilizer was applied dry to one block in the forest and pasture and the next rain event was allowed to wash the fertilizer into the soil. Measurements were taken 18 to 24 hours after the rain ceased. The other two blocks were fertilized and measured sequentially in the same manner over the next 7 days. The short-term measurements were made during the wet season, and the intermediate-term measurements at 6 months after fertilization during the dry season. Final long-term measurements were made 13 months (and 2 fertilization events) after the original measurements.

Gas fluxes and soil parameters were measured in the forest between 0900 and 1100 (Local time which is GMT -4) and in the pasture between 1200 and 1500 (Local time).

Gas flux measurements:

Soil fluxes of NO, N2O, and CO2 were measured simultaneously using a recirculating chamber design similar to the systems developed by Davidson et al. (1991), Sundquist et al. (1992) and Verchot et al. (1999). We used a modified two-piece chamber design (Bowden et al., 1990) where the lower portion of the PVC chamber (anchor) was inserted into the soil several days in advance of the first measurement and left in place for the duration of the experiment to allow repeated sampling at the same locations. One anchor was located in the central area of each plot. This effectively left a 0.5-m buffer zone along the plot edges to avoid any edge effects. During each flux measurement the chamber top (8.38 L or 5.94 L) was placed on the anchor and the changes in headspace-gas concentrations were measured over a 15- to 20-min incubation time. The chamber top was also equipped with a luer lock sampling port for collecting headspace-gas samples for N2O analysis.

We used a Unisearch Associates LMA-4 NO2 analyzer to measure NO concentrations and a LICOR model 6252 infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to measure CO2 concentrations. Our design used the LICOR pumping system to circulate air at 1 L min_1 through 0.25-inch Teflon lines connected to the chamber top. The internal NO analyzer pump subsampled this airflow at about 400 ml per min and returned the air to circulating sample stream. A Campbell data logger was used to record the outputs from the NO and CO2 analyzers at 5-s intervals. Incubations were initiated by collecting ambient air concentration data for at least 1 min prior to placing the chamber top on the anchor to ensure initial conditions were stable and representative. The Unisearch NO2 analyzer determines NO concentrations using a Luminol chemiluminescent technique with a CrO3 converter to oxidize NO to NO2. We modified the analyzer to increase the efficiency of water removal from the analyzer sample air stream by increasing the pressure differential across the stock Nafion dryer and by connecting an inline silica gel drying tube to the outer shell of the drier. This modification resulted in stable converter efficiencies for at least 50 hours of use under 25 to 30 degrees C temperature and approximately 90% relative humidity conditions. We also added a 0.25-inch Teflon line to return the exhaust from the analyzer air pump back to the circulating sample air stream.

For NO flux calculation we used data collected 2 min after chamber closure. This procedure allowed deposition of ambient NO2 and O3 to the soil surface (Davidson et al., 1991). When we measured a very rapid increase in NO concentration, such as in the NH4+ containing fertilized plots, the deposition period was reduced to about 1 min.

CO2 emissions were calculated using the steepest portion of the concentration data against incubation time from the first 2.5-4 min after the chamber was closed.

N2O sampling and analysis:

Headspace-gas samples were collected using 10-ml Becton Dickinson syringes equipped with stopcocks for determination of N2O concentrations at the beginning and at 2 or 3 times during the 15-min chamber incubation. Nitrous oxide concentrations were determined using electron capture gas chromatography with a detector temperature of 310 degrees C (Bowden et al., 1990). Gas samples were analyzed on site within 12 hours of collection. Nitrous oxide fluxes were calculated using the linear change in N2O concentration against incubation time.

Soil nutrient concentrations:

Three soil cores, 2.5 cm in diameter, were collected from 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths in each plot. These samples were used for determinations of gravimetric soil moisture, inorganic N and P pools, and net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in each plot. Ammonium and NO3 pools were measured by extraction with 2 N KCl. Net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were measured with 7 day aerobic laboratory incubation (Neill et al., 1995). Soil P pools were determined only in the 0-5 cm of soil depth by the resin extractable P method used in the first step of the sequential P fractionation procedure described by Tiessen and Moir (1993). Soil moisture content was converted to percent water-filled pore space (WFPS) using soil porosity for these sites (Steudler et al., 1996).

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Bastos T.X. and Diniz T.D.de A.S. 1982. Avaliacao de clima do Estado de Rondonia para desenvolvimento agricola. EMBRAPA-CPATU, Belem, Brazil, Boletim de Pesquisa 44.

Bowden, R.D., P.A. Steudler, J.M. Melillo, and J.D. Aber. 1990. Annual nitrous oxide fluxes from temperate forest soils in the northeastern United States. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 13,997-14,005.

Davidson, E. A. 1991. Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems, in Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrogen Oxides, and Halomethanes, edited by J.E. Rogers and W.B. Whitman, pp. 219-235. Am. Soc. for Microbiol., Washington D.C.

Feigl B.J., Steudler P.A. and Cerri C.C. 1995. Effects of pasture introduction on soil CO2 emissions during the dry season in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. Biogeochemistry 31: 1-14.

Garcia-Montiel D.C., Neill C., Melillo J., Thomas S., Steudler P.A. and Cerri C.C. 2000. Soil phosphorus transformations following forest clearing for pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64: 1792-1804.

Garcia-Montiel D.C., Steudler P.A., Piccolo M.C., Melillo J., Neill C. and Cerri C.C. 2001. Controls on soil nitrogen oxide emissions from forest and pastures in the Amazon. Global Biochem. Cycles 15:1021-1030.

Melillo J., Steudler P.A., Feigl B.J., Neill C., Garcia-Montiel D.C., Piccolo M.C. et al. 2001. Nitrous oxide emissions from forest and pastures of various ages in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Geophys. Res. 24: 34,179-34,188.

Moraes J.F.L., Volkoff B., Cerri C.C. and Bernoux M. 1995. Soil properties under Amazon forest and changes due to pasture installation in Rondonia, Brazil. Geoderma 70: 63-81. Murphy, J. and J.P. Riley, 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. chim. Acta 27:31-36.

Neill, C., M.C. Piccolo, P.A. Steudler, J. M. Melillo, B.J. Feigle, and C.C. Cerii. 1995. Nitrogen dynamics in soils of forests and active pastures in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27: 1167-1175.

Neill C., Melillo J.M., Steudler P.A., Cerri C.C., Moraes J.F.L., Piccolo M.C. et al. 1997. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following forest clearing for pasture in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Ecol. Applic. 7: 1216 to 1225.

Steudler, P.A., J.M. Melillo, B.R. Feigle, C. Neill, M.C. Piccolo, and C.C. Cerri. 1996. Consequence of forest-to-pasture conversion on CH4 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. J. Geophys. Res. 101: 18.547-18.554.

Steudler, P.A., Garcia-Montiel, D.C., Piccolo, M.C., Neill, C., Melillo, J.M., Feigl, B.J., and C.C. Cerri. 2002. Trace gas responses of tropical forest and pasture soils to N and P fertilization. Global Biochem. Cycles Vol 16, No.2, 10.1029/2001GB001394.

Sundquist, E. T., A. B. Shortlidge, and G. C. Winston. 1992. Diurnal variations in soil CO2 fluxes measured by a non-invasive chamber technique at Sleepers River, Vermont, Eos Trans. AGU, 73:186.

Tiessen, H., and J.O. Moir. 1993. Characterization of available P by sequential extraction, In Soil sampling and methods of analyses, in Canadian Society of Soil Science, edited by M.R. Carter, pp. 5-76. Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla.

Verchot, L. V., E. A. Davidson, J. H. Cattanio, I. L. Ackerman, H. E. Erickson, and M. Keller. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia, Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 13: 31-46.