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PRE-LBA ANGLO-BRAZILIAN AMAZONIAN CLIMATE OBSERVATION STUDY (ABRACOS) DATA
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Summary

The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled information from five of the study topics considered by the project in five zipped files containing ASCII text data.

The objectives of theABRACOS were to monitor Amazonian climate and improve the understanding of the consequences of deforestation, and to provide data for the calibration and validation of GCMs and GCM sub-models of Amazonian forest and post- deforestation pasture (Shuttleworth et al, 1991).

Three areas where instrumented, each with different soils, dry season intensities and deforestation densities (Gash et al,1996). In each area an automatic weather station and soil moisture measurement equipment were installed: in a primary forest site and in nearby cattle pasture, for monitoring climate and soil status throughout the year. Additional intensive periods of study (or Missions), of varying duration, were operated at these sites: for calibration purposes, to understand the physical processes relevant to each site, and for detailed comparisons between sites.

These data were collected under the ABRACOS project and made available by the UK Institute of Hydrology and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (Brazil). ABRACOS is a collaboration between the Agencia Brasileira de Cooperacao and the UK Overseas Development Administration.

The processed, quality controlled and integrated data in the documented Pre-LBA Data sets were originally published as a set of three CD_ROMs (Marengo and Victoria, 1998) but are now archived individually.

Data descriptions for each of the study topics are provided below.

Pre-LBA Data Set Collection Initiative

The Pre-LBA data set collection was dedicated to providing information to the LBA research community about existing data that have been collected in Amazonia during the 20 years prior to 1998. The main goal of this activity was to compile and document existing data sets in a consistent manner and make them available prior to the beginning of the LBA experiment.

The data sets compiled included satellite imagery, micrometeorological observations, near surface and upper-air atmospheric conditions, surface biophysical and hydrological measurements obtained from the 1970s to the 1990s in a number of field experiments. Data were collected for several intensive field campaigns, during the rainy and dry seasons, and other periods that vary from short intensive field campaigns to several years worth of observations, measured sometimes with a time resolution of 5 minutes and 1 hour.

Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Tomasella J., C.A. Nobre, J. Gash, W.J. Shuttleworth, J.M. Roberts, O. Cabral, G. Fisch. 2008. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/899.

The original CD-ROM citation is as follows:

Marengo, J.A., and R.L. Victoria. 1998. Pre-LBA Data Sets Initiative, 3 vols. [Pre-Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Data Sets Initiative, 3 vols.]. CD-ROM. Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudios Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (CPTEC/INPE) [Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Study, National Institute for Space Research], Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Pre-LBA Data Set Collection Metadata

Project: ABRACOS > Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study

Keywords

Micrometeorology and Evaporation Datasets from Five Observation Sites in Brazil 

AERODYNAMIC CONDUCTANCE
BULK SURFACE CONDUCTANCE
INTEGRATED STABILITY CORRECTION
 

Plant Physiology Data

POROMETRY
 

Soil Moisture Data

SOIL MOISTURE
NEUTRON PROBES
SOIL TEXTURE


Climate Data from Seven Observation Sites

Quality

Particular problems were experienced with the rain gauges which lead to a poor record of rainfall at some of the sites. Periods of longer than 24 hours for which there is no rainfall record are listed.
 

Data_Resolution


Temporal_Resolution: 30 min.


The data set covers the period 1991/01/01 to 1996/12/31.

Spatial_Coverage

Southernmost_Latitude: 18S
Northernmost_Latitude: 5N
Westernmost_Longitude: 75W
Easternmost_Longitude: 46W
 

Location: BRAZIL

Originating_Center: CPTEC, INPE, ODA, IH
 

Data_Center

Data_Center_Name: INPE/CPTEC > Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos
Data_Center_URL: http://www.cptec.inpe.br/abracos
 

Data_Center_Contact

First_Name: C.
Middle_Name: A.
Last_Name: NOBRE
Phone: +55 12 561 2822
FAX: +55 12 561 2835
Email: nobre@cptec.inpe.br
 

Address

CPTEC-INPE
Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 40
Caixa Postal 01
12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP
Brazil

Technical_Contact

Last_name: Tomasella
First_name: Javier
Email: javier@cptec.inpe.br
Phone: +55 12 561 2822
FAX: +55 12 561 2835

Address: CPTEC-INPE
Rodovia Presidente Dutra, Km 40
C. P.01 - Zip code 12630-000
City: Cachoeira Paulista
State_or_Province: Sao Paulo
Country: Brazil
 

Data Description

This data set gives quality controlled information from five of the study topics considered by the project:
  • Micrometeorology

  • Climate

  • Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor

  • Plant Physiology

  • Soil Moisture

Micrometeorology and Evaporation Data from Five Observation Sites

NS Fazenda Nossa Senhora, nearJi-Parana, Rondonia
BS Fazenda Boa Sorte, Near Maraba, Para
RJ Reserva Jaru, near Ji-Parana, Rondonia
RV Reserva Vale, near Maraba, Para

(Summary was adapted from the ABRACOS Home Page: http://www.cptec.inpe.br/abracos/micromet.html)

Detailed descriptions of the ABRACOS weather stations and micrometeorology data are available from companion file, micromet.pdf.  (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/lba/physical_climate/ABRACOS/comp/micromet.pdf)

Data files have been compiled and compressed in a single file, MICROMET_EVAP.zip.

HEADER FOR MICROMETEOROLOGY DATA FILES

Data File Column Parameter Description
Column 1 julian day number
Column 2 Hour (local)
Column 3 Total incoming short-ware (W/m^2)
Column 4 Reflected short-ware (W/m^2)
Column 5 Net radiation (W/m^2)
Column 6 Soil heat flux (W/m^2)
Colunm 7 Air temperature (oC)
Column 8 Specific humidity (g/kg)
Column 9 Wind speed (m/s)
Column 10 Wind direction (degrees arc, clock-wise from North)
Column 11 Friction velocity (m/s)
Column 12 Stability parameter, z/L, where L is Monin-Obukhov length
Column 13 Integrated stability correction parameter for sensible heat flux
Column 14 Integrated stability correction parameter for momentum flux
Column 15 Aerodynamic conductance for heat fluxes (mm/s)
Column 16 Bulk surface conductance (mm/s)
Column 17 Latent Heat Flux (W/m^2)
Column 18 Sensible Heat Flux (W/m^2)
Column 19 EITHER Pasture: soil moisture in the root zone (m3/m^3)
Column 20 OR Forest: change in biomass heat storage (W/m^2)
Column 21 Rainfall. (mm)
Column 22 Soil temperature at 10cm (some pasture sites only) (oC)
Column 23 Soil temperature at 20cm (some pasture sites only) (oC)
Column 24 Soil temperature at 40cm (some pasture sites only) (oC)

Climate Data from Seven Observation Sites


AB-C[sitecode].[year][A or B]

A and B correspond the first and second half of the year.

Site Codes:

FD Fazenda Dimona Manaus
NS Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida Ji-Parana
BS Fazenda Boa Sorte Maraba
RD Reserva Ducke Manaus
RJ Reserva Jaru Ji-Parana
RV Reserva Vale do Rio Doce Maraba
MS Urban climate Manaus
 

(Summary was adapted from the ABRACOS Home Page: http://www.cptec.inpe.br/abracos/climate.html)

Detailed descriptions of the ABRACOS weather stations and data are available from the companion file, climate.pdf.  (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/lba/physical_climate/ABRACOS/comp/climate.pdf)

Data files have been compiled and compressed in a single file, CLIMATE.zip.

HEADER FOR CLIMATE DATA FILES

Data File Column Parameter Description
Column 1 Site Code
Column 2 Year
Column 3 Day number
Column 4 Time GMT
Column 5 Incoming solar radiation (direct + diffuse)(W /m^2)
Column 6 Reflected solar radiation (W /m^2)
Column 7 Net all-wave radiation (W /m^2)
Column 8 Wet bulb temperature (Degrees C)
Column 9 Air temperature (Degrees C)
Column 10 Wind speed (m/s)
Column 11 Wind directio (Degrees from North)
Column 12 Soil heat flux (W/m^2)
Column 13 Rainfall (mm)

Forest Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Flux Data

http://yabae.cptec.inpe.br/abracos/carb_flux.html)

http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/lba/physical_climate/ABRACOS/comp/carb_flux.pdf)

HEADER FOR CARBON DATA FILES

Data File Column Parameter Description

Column 1

Year

Column 2

Day number

Column 3

Local Time (hours)

Column 4

Local Time (minutes)

Column 5

N.B. Local Time = GMT-4 hours. The time stated is the time at the END of each half-hour period

Column 6

Sensible Heat Flux (W/m2)

Column 7

Evaporation (mmol/m2/s)

Column 8

N.B. These H and E fluxes have been compared with those of the coincident micrometeorology system (Wright et al 1996) and used in deriving the agreed fluxes which are contained in FORSTM3.DAT and FORSTM45.DAT(FORST.EXE).

Column 9

Therefore, the fluxes given here should only be considered as raw output from this system, and only the FORST' files should be used as the best estimate of latent and sensible heat flux from this site.

Column 10

CO2 turbulent flux (mmol/m2/s)

Column 11

Friction velocity (m/s)

Column 12

Standard deviation of u-component of wind velocity

Column 13

Standard deviation of v-component of wind velocity

Column 14

Standard deviation of w-component of wind velocity

Column 15

Mean value of u (m/s) u positive is wind GOING IN the direction 224 degrees

Column 16

Mean value of v (m/s) v positive is wind GOING IN the direction 314 degrees

Column 17

Mean value of w (m/s) w positive is wind GOING UPWARDS

Column 18

Mean virtual temperature from sonic anemometer (K)

Column 19

Mean CO2 concentration (parts per million)

Column 20

Mean H2O concentration (parts per thousand)

Column 21

Mean tube lag on CO2 measurements (in units of 1/20.8 secs)

Column 22

Mean tube lag on H2O measurements (in units of 1/20.8 secs)

Column 23

The following 4 columns appear in AB-ROND93.DAT only. Mean within-canopy CO2 concentration

Column 24

Mean within-canopy CO2 storage flux (positive = flux OUT of canopy)

Column 25

Mean above-canopy wind speed

Column 26

Mean Monin-Obukhov length, L

Plant Physiology Data

Self explanatory tabulation of pasture physical properties including height, leaf, and stem area index, leaf stem and dead material dry biomass.

These files contain leaf physiology data from the Ji-Parana and Manaus pasture (NS and FD) and Ji Parana forest (RJ).

PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) - 20 RD or 17 RJ 6-character columns in which ten minute PAR is given as an integer in micro-mols m-2 s-1.

TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY AND WIND SPEED (TDU) - Temperature and humidity deficit measured using aspirated psychrometers (IH, Wallingford UK) and wind speed using type A100 anemometers (Vector instruments, Rhyl, UK).

http://www.cptec.inpe.br/abracos/physio.html)

Additional information about the ABRACOS plant physiology datasets including dataset format is available from the companion file, physio.pdf.  (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/lba/physical_climate/ABRACOS/comp/physio.pdf)

Data files have been compiled and compressed in a single file, PHYSIOLOGY.zip.

HEADER FOR PHYSIOLOGY DATA FILES

Data File Column Parameter Description
   

Column 1

Vegetation type.

Column 2

Additional information relating to the sampled leaves, including 'SUN','SHADE','OLD' (leaves),'NEW' (leaves). '#' indicates no information.

Column 3

for Pasture Number of plots sampled for Forest Number of leaves sampled.

Column 4

Decimal local time (hours).

Column 5

Height from the ground (m).

Column 6

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in micro-mols m-2 s-1.

Column 7

Air temperature near the leaf (Ta) in degrees C.

Column 8

Leaf temperature (Tl) in degrees C.

Column 9

Stomatal conductance (gs) in millimols m-2 s-2.

Column 10

Net photosynthesis (pn) in micromols m-2 s-1.

Column 11

Concentration of intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) in micromols m-2 s-1.

Column 12

Leaf evaporation

Column 13-19

Standard deviations of the mean values appearing in columns 6 - 12.

Column 20

Decimal local time (hours)for the leaf water potential measurement that was closest in time to the current data line.

Column 21

Leaf water potential in MPa.

Column 22

Standard deviation of leaf water potential.

Soil Moisture Data

These data sets consist of soil moisture readings measured at six sites in Brazil. Readings were taken close to each automatic weather station (AWS) except at Manaus Forest where data was recorded in primary forest close to the pasture site.

(Summary was adapted from the ABRACOS Home Page: http://www.cptec.inpe.br/abracos/soil.html)

Additional information about the ABRACOS soil moisture data is available in the companion file, soil.pdf.  (http://daac.ornl.gov/daacdata/lba/physical_climate/ABRACOS/comp/soil.pdf)

Data files have been compiled and compressed in a single file, SOIL_PHYSICS.zip.

Data file format information from the companion file, soil.pdf.
  • The first three columns of each file give the year, day number, and time (decimal hour) of measurement.
  • Thereafter, the remaining columns contain the mean soil moisture, at various depths, in units of moisture volume fraction (m3/m3). The means are calculated as the linear average of all access tubes at each site, with the exception of Reserva Jaru (see notes).

10 20 40 60 80 100 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

1991 237 9.6 0.057 0.132 0.215 0.256 0.279 0.271 0.263 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.269 0.248 0.216 0.198 0.19

1991 244 9.9 0.056 0.13 0.211 0.258 0.276 0.268 0.261 0.252 0.245 0.27 0.263 0.246 0.214 0.196 0.191

1991 259 9.3 0.059 0.128 0.216 0.252 0.274 0.269 0.26 0.25 0.244 0.264 0.263 0.244 0.214 0.194 0.189

1991 267 17.9 0.136 0.207 0.231 0.263 0.279 0.272 0.261 0.249 0.246 0.265 0.263 0.24 0.213 0.191 0.19

...

References

Gash, J.H.C., Nobre, C.A., Roberts, J.M. and Victoria, R.L. (Eds), 1996. Amazonian Deforestation and Climate. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Shuttleworth, W.J., Gash, J.H.C., Roberts, J.M., Nobre, C.A., Molion ,L.C.B. and Ribeiro, N.M.G., 1991. Post-deforestation Amazonian climate: Anglo-Brazilian research to improve prediction. J. Hydrol. 129: 71-86.

Micrometeorology and Evaporation from Five Observation Sites

Arya, S.P., 1988. Introduction to micrometeorology. Academic Press (London). pp307.

Brutsaert, W. 1984. Evaporation nito the atmosphere. D. Riedel Publ. Co., Dortrcht.

Moore, C.J. and Fisch, G., 1986. Estimating heat storage in Amazonian tropical forests. Agric. For. Meteorol., 38: 147-169.

Wright, I.R., Gash, J.H.C., da Rocha, H.R.,Shuttleworth, W.J., Nobre, C.A., Maitelli, G.T., Zamparoni, C.A.G.P. and Carvalho, P.R.A., 1992. Dry season micrometeorology of central Amazonian ranchland. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 118: 1083-1099.

Wright, I.R., Manzi, A.O. and da Rocha, H.R., 1995. Surface conductance of Amazonian pasture: model application and calibration for canopy climate. Agric. For. Meteorol., 75: 51-70.

Wright, I.R., Gash, J.H.C.G. and da Rocha, H.R., 1996b. Modelling surface conductance for Amazonian pasture and forest. In Amazon Deforestation and Climate (Eds. J.H.C. Gash, C.A. Nobre, J.M. Roberts and R.L. Victoria), In Press. John Wiley, Chichester. pp 437-458.

Wright, I.R., Nobre, C.A., Tomasella, J, da Rocha, H.R., Roberts, J.M., Vertamatti, E., Culf, A.D., Alval , R.C.S., Hodnett, M.G. and Ubarana, V., 1996b. Towards a GCM surface parameterisation for Amazonia. In Amazon Deforestation and Climate (Eds. J.H.C. Gash, C.A. Nobre, J.M. Roberts and R.L. Victoria), In Press. John Wiley, Chichester. pp 473-504.

Yang, Z.L., Dickinson, R.E. and Shuttleworth, W.J., 1996. Treatment of Soil, Vegetation and Snow in Land-surface Models: A Test of the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme with the HAPEX-MOBILHY, ABRACOS and Russian Data, invited to a BAHC Special Issue of Journal of Hydrology. (in revision)

Climate Data from Seven Observation Sites

Bastable, H.G., Shuttleworth, W.J., Dallarosa, R.L.G., Fisch, G. and Nobre C.A. 1993. Observations of climate, albedo and surface radiation over cleared and undisturbed Amazonian forest. Int. J. Climatol. 13,783-796.

Hodnett, M.G., da Silva, L.P., da Rocha, H.R. and Cruz Senna, R.C., 1995. Seasonal soil water storage changes beneath central Amazonian rainforest and pasture. J. Hydrol., 170, 233-254. aitelli, G.T. and Wright, I.R., 1996. On the climate of a river-side city in the Amazon Basin: urban-rural differences in temperature and humidity. In 'Amazon Deforestation and Climate' (Eds. J.H.C.Gash, C.A.Nobre, J.M.Roberts and R.L.Victoria). John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp 193-206.

McWilliam, A-L.C., Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R., Leitao, M.V.B.R., de Costa, A.C.L. Maitelli, G.T. and Zamparoni, C.A.G.P., 1993. Leaf area index and above-ground biomass of terra firme rain forest and adjacent clearings in Amazonia. Functional Ecol., 7: 310-317.

McWilliam, A-L.C., Cabral, O.M.R., Gomes, B.M., Esteves, J.L., Roberts, J.M., 1996. Forest and pasture leaf-gas exchange in south-west Amazonia. In 'Amazon Deforestation and Climate' (Eds. J.H.C.Gash, C.A.Nobre, J.M.Roberts and R.L.Victoria). John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp265-286.

Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R. & de Aguiar, L.F. 1990. Stomatal and boundary layer conductances measured in a terra firme rain forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 27, 336-353.

Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R., da Costa, J.P., McWilliam, A-L.C. and Sa, T.D.A, 1996. An overview of the leaf area index and physiological measurements during ABRACOS. In 'Amazon Deforestation and Climate' (Eds. J.H.C.Gash, C.A.Nobre, J.M.Roberts and R.L.Victoria). John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp287-306.

Sa, T.D.A., Costa, P.C. and Roberts, J.M., 1996. Forest and pasture conductances in southern Par , Amazonia. In 'Amazon Deforestation and Climate' (Eds. J.H.C.Gash, C.A.Nobre, J.M.Roberts and R.L.Victoria). John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp 241-264.

Salomo, R. de P., 1991. Uso de parcelas permanentes para estudos da vegetaco da floresta tropical umida. 1. Municipio de Maraba, Para. Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, ser. Bot., 7: 543-604.

Shuttleworth, W.J., J.H.C. Gash, C.R. Lloyd, J.M. Roberts, A. de O. Marques, G. Fisch, P. de Silva, M.N.G. Ribeiro, L.C.B. Molion, L.D. de Abreu Sa, C.A. Nobre, O.M.R. Cabral, S.R. Patel and J.C. de Moraes, 1984: Observations of radiation exchange above and below Amazonian forest. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110,1163-1169.

Wright, I.R., Gash, J.H.C., da Rocha H.R., Shuttleworth, W.J., Nobre, C.A., Maitelli, G.T., Zamparoni, C.A.G.P. & Carvalho, P.R.A. 1992. Dry season micrometeorology of central Amazonian ranchland. Quart. J. Roy. Meterol. Soc. 118, 1083-1099.
 

Forest Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Flux

Grace, J., Lloyd, J., McIntyre, J., Miranda, A.C., Meir, P., Miranda, H.S., Moncrieff, J., Massheder, J., Wright, I.R. and Gash, J.H.C., 1995. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapour over an undisturbed tropical rain forest in south-west Amazonia. Global Climate Change, 1: 1-12.

Moncrieff, J.B., Massheder, J.M., Verhoeh, A., Elbers, J., Heusinkveld, B., Scott, S., de Bruin, H., Kabat, P. and Jarvis, P.G., 1995. A system to measure surface fluxes of energy momentum and carbon dioxide. J. Hydrol. In Press.

Wright, I.R., Gash, J.H.C.G., da Rocha, H.R. and Roberts, J.M., 1995. Modelling surface conductance for Amazonian pasture and forest. In Amazon Deforestation and Climate (Eds. J.H.C. Gash, C.A. Nobre, J.M. Roberts and R.L. Victoria), John Wiley,Chichester. pp 437-458.
 

Plant Physiology

McWilliam, A-L.C., Roberts, J.M., Cabral, O.M.R., Leitao, M.V.B.R., de Costa, A.C.L. Maitelli, G.T. and Zamparoni, C.A.G.P., 1993. Leaf area index and above-ground biomass of terra firme rain forest and adjacent clearings in Amazonia. Functional Ecol., 7: 310-317.

McWilliam, A-L.C., Cabral, O.M.R., Gomes, B.M., Esteves, J.L., Roberts, J.M., 1996. Forest and pasture leaf-gas exchange in south-west Amazonia. In 'Amazon Deforestation and Climate' (Eds. J.H.C.Gash, C.A.Nobre, J.M.Roberts and R.L.Victoria). John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp 265-286.
 

Soil Moisture

Hodnett, M.G., da Silva, L.P., da Rocha, H.R.and Cruz Senna, R.C., 1995. Seasonal soil water storage changes beneath central Amazonian rainforest and pasture. J. Hydrol., 170, 233-254.
 

Data Access:

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Contact for Data Center Access Information:

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