Skip to main content
ORNL DAAC HomeNASA Home

DAAC Home > Get Data > Field Campaigns > Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA-ECO) > Data Set Documentation
LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil
Get Data
Revision date: September 24, 2012

Summary:

This data set provides fine litterfall mass and nutrient concentrations from samples collected at chronosequences established at Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao Poco, Para, Brazil. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were determined for litterfall samples from the Sao Francisco do Para, and N, P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are reported for samples from the Capitao Poco. In addition, carbon (C), N, delta C13, and delta N15 values were determined for leaves from the dominant species of the forests at Sao Francisco do Para; soil physical and chemical characteristics were determined for a subset of the chronosequence plots at the two study sites; and soil trace gas fluxes were determined from the Sao Francisco do Para site.

All samples were collected between March 2001-February 2005. Trace gas fluxes were measured 10 times between October 2000 and June 2002 with 5 sample periods in dry season and 5 in wet season months. There are five comma-delimited data files with this data set.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Davidson, E.A., C.J.R. de Carvalho, A.M. Figueira, F.Y. Ishida, J.P.H.B. Ometto, G.B. Nardoto, R.T. Saba, S.N. Hayashi, E.C. Leal, I.C.G. Vieira and L.A. Martinelli. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1129

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in September of 2012. Users who download the data between September 2012 and August 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA website [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics

Team ID: ND-30 (Davidson / Carvalho / Figueiredo / Vieira)

The investigators were Carvalho, Claudio Jose Reis de; Davidson, Eric A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Vieira, Ima ; Almeida, Arlete  Araujo, Thereza Cristina; Asner, Gregory Paul; Costa, Fabiola Fernandes; Ishida, Francoise; Leal, Eliane Constantinov; Leao, Luciene Mota de; Leite, Tania de Sousa; Markewitz, Daniel ; Oliveira, Patricia Chaves de; Pacheco, Nilza Araujo; Rosa, Maria Beatriz Silva da; Sa, Tatiana Deane De Abreu; Saba, Renata Tuma; Schuler, Marysol A. E.; Silva, Marilia ; Silva, Patricio de Souza; Souza, Cleo Marcelo Araujo ; Stone, Thomas A. and Vasconcelos, Livia Gabrig Turbay Rangel. You may contact Davidson, Eric A (edavidson@whrc.org).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: ND30_Litter_Para

This data set provides fine litterfall mass and nutrient concentrations from samples collected at chronosequences established at Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao Poco, Para, Brazil. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were determined for litterfall samples from the Sao Francisco do Para, and N, P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are reported for samples from the Capitao Poco. In addition, carbon (C), N, delta C13, and delta N15 values were determined for leaves from the dominant species of the forests at Sao Francisco do Para; soil physical and chemical characteristics were determined for a subset of the chronosequence plots at the two study sites; and soil trace gas fluxes were determined from the Sao Francisco do Para site.

All samples were collected between March 2001-February 2005 . Trace gas fluxes were measured 10 times between October 2000 and June 2002 with 5 sample periods in dry season and 5 in wet season months.

2. Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in five ASCII comma separated files:

File #1: Litterfall_Sao_Francisco_do_Para_2001-2002.csv
File #2: Litterfall_Capitao_Poco_2004_2005.csv
File #3: Foliar_CN_ and _isotopes_Sao_Francisco.csv
File #4: Soil_Physical_Characteristics.csv
File #5: Sao_Francisco_Trace_gas_flux.csv


File #1: Litterfall_Sao_Francisco_do_Para_2001-2002.csv

Collections were made from March 2001-April 2002.

Column Heading Units/format Description
1YearYYYYYear in which the samples were collected: 2001 or 2002
2Month Month in which the samples were collected
3Forest AgeyearsForest age at the sampling site at the time of collection: mature refers to forest that was never converted to pasture.
4Mean_dry_masskg/haMean dry mass of fine litterfall collected; reported in kilograms per hectare. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
5SD_dry_masskg/haStandard deviation of the mean dry mass of fine litterfall collected; reported in kilograms per hectare. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
6Mean_Ng N/kg dry wtMean nitrogen concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
7SD_Ng N/kg dry wtStandard deviation of the mean nitrogen concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
8Mean_Pg P/kg dry wtMean phosphorus concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
9SD_Pg P/kg dry wtStandard deviation of the mean phosphorus concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean was derived from 6 samples in each month and the 6 samples are listed below the mean for each month; the mean is the first listed value for each month for each variable
 
missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Year,Month,Forest Age,Mean_dry_mass,SD_dry_mass,Mean_N,SD_N,Mean_P,SD_P
2001,3,Mature,509,155,12.17,0.38,0.411,0.073
2001,3,3,197,134,8.33,0.50,0.665,0.287
2001,3,6,274,122,10.29,0.62,0.517,0.127
...
2001,4,40,492,168,12.30,0.34,0.371,0.057
2001,4,70,685,319,11.93,0.36,0.400,0.379
2001,5,Mature,861,271,7.57,0.33,0.207,0.081
...
2001,7,20,784,450,10.12,0.95,0.268,0.107
2001,7,40,802,289,9.78,0.21,0.228,0.027
2001,7,70,1058,430,11.34,0.63,0.216,0.042

File #2: Litterfall_Capitao_Poco_2004_2005.csv

Collections were made from February 2004-January 2005.

Column Heading Units/format Description
1Month Month of the year in which the sample was collected
2Year Year in which the sample was collected: 2004 or 2005
3Forest_ageyearsForest age at the time of collection reported in years: Mature indicates forests that were never converted to pasture
4Collector Identification of sample collector
5Dry_massMg ha-1Total dry mass of litter collected reported in megagrams per hectare
6Ng N/kg litterNitrogen concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of litter
7Pg P/kg litterPhosphorus concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram of litter
8Kg K/kg litterPotassium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of potassium per kilogram of litter
9Cag kg-1Calcium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of calcium per kilogram of litter
10Mgg Mg/kg litterMagnesium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of magnesium per kilogram of litter

Example data records:

Month,Year,Forest_age,Collector,Dry_mass ,N,P,K,Ca,Mg
2,2004,6,1,0.438,11.383,0.360,0.375,3.457,1.889
2,2004,6,2,0.356,11.959,0.199,0.225,3.036,1.729
2,2004,6,3,0.183,8.218,0.377,0.200,3.152,1.207
...
2,2004,10,4,0.376,10.558,0.343,0.200,2.901,1.119
2,2004,10,5,0.469,11.181,0.276,0.199,2.696,1.313
2,2004,10,6,0.449,9.789,0.232,0.300,3.864,1.078
...
2,2004,20,4,0.271,9.486,0.205,0.325,3.297,0.934
2,2004,20,5,0.166,11.247,0.348,0.578,3.288,1.258
2,2004,20,6,0.271,13.417,0.448,0.631,3.107,0.801

File #3: Foliar_CN_ and _isotopes_Sao_Francisco.csv

Column Heading Units/format Description
1Family Identification of the tree sampled to scientific family
2Species Identification of the tree sampled to scientific name in the format Genus species
3Forest_age yearsAge of the forest at the time of sampling
4delta_13Cper milIsotopic ratio of 13C/12C in leaf tissue referenced to PDB
5Foliar_C_concpercentFoliar carbon concentration reported in percent by weight
6delta_15Nper milIsotopic ratio of 15N/14N in leaf tissue referenced to atmospheric N
7Foliar_N_concpercentFoliar nitrogen concentration reported in percent by weight

Example data records:

Family,Species,Forest_age,delta_13C,Foliar_C_conc,delta_15N,Foliar_N_conc
Annonaceae,Guatteria poeppigiana ,6,-33.63,45.97,-1.62,1.64
Annonaceae,Rollinia exsucca ,6,-30.61,46.41,-2.34,1.66
Annonaceae,Rollinia exsucca ,6,-29.38,45.06,-4.02,1.62
...
Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-29.87,49.24,2.07,2.23
Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-28.93,49.34,0.00,2.25
Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-28.08,49.55,2.58,2.46
...
Mimosaceae,Abarema jupunba var. jupunba ,6,-28.09,49.04,0.70,2.16
Mimosaceae,Abarema jupunba var. jupunba ,6,-31.47,47.99,-0.21,2.13
Mimosaceae,Inga flageliformis ,6,-29.53,48.82,0.21,2.00

File #4: Soil_Physical_Characteristics.csv

Column Heading Units/format Description
1SiteChronosequence location
2Forest_ageyearsAge of forest at the time of sampling
3Bulk_densityg/cm-3Mean bulk density for the top 10 cm of soil reported in grams per cubic centimeter
4SE_BDg/ cm-3Standard error of the mean bulk density for the top 10 cm of soil reported in grams per cubic centimeter
5Clayg/kgMean concentration of soil particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram
6SE_Clayg/kgStandard error of the mean concentration of soil particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram
7Sandg/kgMean concentration of soil particles in the sand texture class reported in grams per kilogram
88SE_Sandg/kgStandard error of the mean concentration of sand particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram
9pH_H2O Mean pH of the soil ( 0-10 cm depth) measured in a 1: 2.5 slurry with water
110SE_pH Standard error of the mean pH of the soil ( 0-10 cm depth) measured in a 1: 2.5 slurry with water
11Cg C/kgMean soil carbon concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil
12SE_Cg C/kgStandard error of the mean soil carbon concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil
13Ng N/kgMean soil nitrogen concentration reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of soil
14SE_Ng N/kgStandard error of the mean soil nitrogen concentration reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of soil
115P_Melichmg P/kgMean plant available soil phosphorus concentration based on a a elich I dilute double acid extraction
116SE_P_Melmg P/kgStandard error of the mean plant available soil phosphorus concentration based on a a elich I dilute double acid extraction
117P_totalmg P/kgMean total soil phosphorus concentration based on a sulfuric acid/ hydrogen peroxide digestion,
118SE_P_totmg P/kgStandard error of the mean total soil phosphorus concentration based on a sulfuric acid/ hydrogen peroxide digestion
missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

SSite,Forest_age,Bulk_density,SE_BD,Clay,SE_Clay,Sand,SE_Sand,pH_H2O,SE_pH,
C,SE_C,N,SE_N,P_Melich,SE_P_Mel,P_total,SE_P_tot
Sao Francisco do Para,3,1.35,0.03,65,17,898,27,5.3,0.2,
10.5,0.4,0.74,0.03,1.2, 0.2,33,3
Sao Francisco do Para,6,1.37,0.03,85,17,785,28,5.1,0.2,
11.9,0.6,0.7,0.1,2, 0.3,47,8
Sao Francisco do Para,10,1.3,0.04,60,18,873,31,5.3,0.2,
9.5,0.5,0.73,0.05,1.3, 0.1,32,3
...
Sao Francisco do Para,Mature,1.25,0.03,100,0,755,25,4.4,0.4,
14.7,1.4,1.11,0.04, 2,0.1,62,2
Capitao Poco,3,-9999,-9999,149,10,799,20,5.4,0.1,
13.5,1.4,0.85,0.15,4.2,0.7,87,2
Capitao Poco,10,-9999,-9999,100,13,819,12,5.1,0.1,
11.6,0.1,0.8,0,6.5,1.5,67,6

File #5: Sao_Francisco_Trace_gas_flux.csv

Column Heading Units/format Description
1YearYYYYYear in which samples were measured
2Month Month in which samples were collected
3Season Season in which samples were collected either wet or dry
4Class Forest Class: sites were classifed as young; intermediate; advanced or mature based on the age of the forest. Samples were also measured in a pepper plantation identified here
5AgeyearsForest age in years at the time of sampling ; age recorded only for the regrowth forests
6Site For each age there were two sites identified here as a and b
7Plot Plot identifiication within the site
8Chamber Chamber identification
9Flux_N2Ong N/cm2/hFlux of nitrous oxide reported in nanograms of nitrogen per centimeter squared per hour (ng N/cm2/h)
10Flux_CH4mg CH4/m2/dFlux of methane reported in milligrams of methane per meter squared per day (mg CH4/m2/d)
11Flux_CO2g C/m2/hFlux of carbon dioxide reported in grams of carbon per meter squared per hour ( g C/m2/h)
12Flux_NOng N/cm2/hFlux of nitric oxide reported in nanograms of nitrogen per centimeter squared per hour (ng N/cm2/h)
missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Year,Month,Season,Class,Age,Site,Plot,Chamber,Flux_N2O,Flux_CH4,Flux_CO2,Flux_NO
2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,1,-0.61,-1.4,0.1,0.24
2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,2,-0.59,-1.87,0.08,0.19
2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,3,-0.4,-1.98,0.11,0.24
...
2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,2,1,-0.39,-1.11,0.07,0.17
...
2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,1,3,0.09,-0.99,0.09,0.09
2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,2,1,-0.21,-1.26,0.09,0.03
2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,2,2,-0.08,-2.18,0.06,0.06

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Para Eastern (Belem) - Sao Francisco do Para (Para Eastern (Belem)) -47.78333 -47.78333 -1.26667 -15.93280World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Brasilia - Reserva Ecologica do Roncador IBGE (Brasilia) -47.36667 -47.36667 -2.2 -2.2World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

These data were used to examine patterns in N cycling over the course of secondary succession and their implications for nutrient limitation of successional forests in the tropics.

4. Quality Assessment:

Lab analyses were all done according to standard protocols with calibration curves and standards included in every run.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site description:

Two forest-age chronosequences, including stands ranging in age from 3 to 70 yr and remnant mature forests, were established in the Brazilian state of Para, in eastern Amazonia, southeast of the city of Belem. A set of seven indicators of N-cycling rates was obtained for the chronosequence in our main study site in the municipality of Sao Francisco do Para. To provide replication, a second chronosequence was established in the municipality of Capitao Poco.

Mean annual precipitation is 2,200 mm for Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao Poco. The dominant soils are Typic Hapludults. Human settlement in this region expanded during the era of rubber extraction in the late nineteenth century. Government programs for distributing rural lands for agricultural development, mostly by small landholders, increased forest clearing in the mid-twentieth century. Many farms have now undergone nine or more cycles of slash-and-burn agriculture.

Sample Collections:

Collections (0.25 m2 per collection) of fine litterfall were made monthly for a year in each plot at both chronosequences.

Fresh foliar samples were collected in the 6-, 20- and 40-yr-old successional forests and the mature forest plots.

At Sao Francisco do Para, fully expanded leaves were collected for the dominant species at each site, according to the species importance values indices.

Soil emissions of N2O were measured at Sao Francisco do Para using syringe sampling of static chambers and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (Verchot et al 1999). Three chamber fluxes were measured per date in each of the twenty-six plots at Sao Francisco do Para, with five dates in each of the dry and wet seasons.

Analytical Methods:

Finely ground litter and foliar samples were analyzed for C and N concentrations using a Carlo-Erba CHN analyser, for C and N stable isotope ratios using a Delta Plus ThermoQuest-Finnigan mass spectrometer, and for P by acid digestion followed by colorimetric spectrophotometry.

Foliar C, N and isotope anlayses were done at CENA in Piracicaba using their standard methods (for more details see Ometto et al. 2006).

Soil nutrient analyses and foliar analyses other than C, N and stable isotopes were all done at EMBRAPA Belem using their standard protocols (Silva 1999).

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Ometto, J.P.H.B., Ehleringer, J.R., Domingues, T.F., Berry, J.A., Ishida, F.Y., Mazzi, E., Higuchi, N., Flanagan, L.B., Nardoto, G.B., and Martinelli, L.A. 2006. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of vegetation in tropical forests of the Amazon Basin, Brazil, Biogeochemistry, 79, 251-274.

Silva, F.C. d. 1999. Manual de analises quimicas de solos,plantas e fertilizantes.

EMBRAPA Communicacao para Transferencia de Technologia. Brasilia, Brasil. Vieira, I.C.G. et al. 2003. Classifying successional forests using Landsat spectral properties and ecological characteristics in eastern Amazonia. Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 470-481.

Verchot, L.V. et al. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13,31-46.

Related Publications