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LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil
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Summary:

Revision Date: February 27, 2009

The results of the analysis of soil chemical parameters, texture, and color are reported for 185 georeferenced soil profile sample points over four forested headwater catchments near Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Novaes Filho et al., 2007a and Novaes Filho et al., 2007b). Samples were collected from an approximately 20 x 20-m grid over each watershed from 2004/05/01 to 2004/08/18. By sampling each location at depths of 0-20 and 40-60 cm it was possible to distinguish and map the principle soil classes found in the study area to the 2nd category level of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (Cooper et al., 2005) associated with the topographic relief. 

The data set contains one comma separated ASCII data file with spatially referenced soil nutrient and organic carbon data from 0-20 cm (A layer, topsoil) and 40-60 cm (B layer, subsoil) depths for the Juruena watersheds study area.

A satisfactory relationship between the redness index of the diagnostic horizons and the soil class colors was also found. In spite of the apparent homogeneity of the visible landscape characteristics such as slope, soil color, and vegetation, the carbon and soil clay attributes were found to vary greatly. This variability over small distances demonstrates that extrapolation of soil characteristics and soil carbon stocks to larger areas could produce erroneous results if the spatial variability of the soil attributes is not taken into consideration.

site

Figure 1. Soil sample locations (plotted by ORNL DAAC) are depicted with watershed delimitation and streams overlain on a 2002 IKONOS panchromatic image of the forested study location (courtesy of EOS-Webster). Watersheds are identified as B1, B2, B3, and B4 from right to left.

 

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Novaes Filho, J.P., E.C. Selva ,E.G. Couto, J. Lehmann, M.S. Johnson, and S.J. Riha. 2009. LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/914

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in March of 2009. Users who download the data between March 2009 and February 2014 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site[http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics

Team ID: ND-11 (Lehmann/Passos/Couto)

The investigators were Novaes Filho Joao Paulo; Johnson, Mark Stephen; Couto, Eduardo Guimaraes and Lehmann, Johannes. You may contact Novaes Filho, Joao Paulo (jpnovaes@terra.com.br).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID:  ND11_Soil_Spatial_Variability

The results of the analysis of soil chemical parameters, texture, and color are reported for 185 georeferenced soil profile sample points over four forested headwater catchments near Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Novaes Filho, et al., 2007a and Novaes Filho, et al., 2007b). Samples were collected from an approximately 20 x 20-m grid over each watershed from 2004/05/01 to 2004/08/18. By sampling each location at depths of 0-20 and 40-60 cm it was possible to distinguish and map the principle soil classes found in the study area to the 2nd category level of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (Cooper et al., 2005) associated with the topographic relief. 

The data set contains one comma separated ASCII data file with spatially referenced soil nutrient and organic carbon data from 0-20 cm (A layer, topsoil) and 40-60 cm (B layer, subsoil) depths for the Juruena watersheds study area.

A satisfactory relationship between the redness index of the diagnostic horizons and the soil class colors was also found. In spite of the apparent homogeneity of the visible landscape characteristics such as slope, soil color, and vegetation, the carbon and soil clay attributes were found to vary greatly. This variability over small distances demonstrates that extrapolation of soil characteristics and soil carbon stocks to larger areas could produce erroneous results if the spatial variability of the soil attributes is not taken into consideration.

Data set contains spatially referenced soil nutrient and carbon data for 0-20 cm and 40-60 cm depths for Juruena watersheds study area.

Related Data Sets:

LBA-ECO ND-11 Coarse Particulate Organic Carbon Watershed Exports, Jurena: 2003-2004

LBA-ECO ND-11 Stream Carbon and Nutrients, Mato Grosso, Brazil: 2003-2006

2. Data Characteristics:

One comma-delimited ASCII file is provided. Values of -9999 in the ASCII file indicate missing values.

Juruena_basins_soils.csv

COLUMN COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
1 UTMX sample location, latitude coordinate for Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone 21S (easting)
2 UTMY sample location, longitude coordinate for UTM zone 21S (northing)
3 pH_H2O_0_20 soil pH in water, 1: 2.5 w/v slurry, 0-20 cm depth
4 pH_CaCl2_0_20 soil pH in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution, 1;2.5 w/v slurry, 0-20 cm depth
5 P_0_20 soil phosphorus (mg/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
6 K_0_20 soil potassium (mg/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
7 Ca_0_20 soil calcium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
8 Mg_0_20 soil magnesium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
9 Al_0_20 soil aluminum (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
10 H_0_20 soil hydronium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
11 Clay_pct_0_20 soil clay content (%), 0-20 cm depth
12 Silt_pct_0_20 soil silt content (%), 0-20 cm depth
13 Sand_pct_0_20 soil sand content (%), 0-20 cm depth
14 SumCat_0_20 sum of base cations (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
15 CEC_0_20 cation exchange capacity (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth
16 Sat_Bas_0_20 base saturation of cation exchange capacity (%), 0-20 cm depth
17 Al_Sat_0_20 aluminum saturation (%), 0-20 cm depth
18 C_Tot_0_20 soil total carbon (g/kg), 0-20 cm depth
19 Color_0_20 soil color, Munsell color notation, 0-20 cm depth
20 pH_H2O_40_60 soil pH in water, 1: 2.5 w/v slurry, 40-60 cm depth
21 pH_CaCl2_40_60 soil pH in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution, 1;2.5 w/v slurry, 40-60 cm depth
22 P_40_60 soil phosphorus (mg/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
23 K_40_60 soil potassium (mg/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
24 Ca_plus_Mg_40_60 sum of soil calcium and magnesium (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
25 Al_40_60 soil aluminum (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
26 H_40_60 soil hydronium (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
27 Clay_pct_40_60 soil clay content (%), 40-60 cm depth
28 Silt_pct_40_60 soil silt content (%), 40-60 cm depth
29 Sand_pct_40_60 soil sand content (%), 40-60 cm depth
30 SumCat_40_60 sum of base cations (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
31 CEC_40_60 cation exchange capacity (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth
32 Sat_Bas_40_60 base saturation of cation exchange capacity (%), 40-60 cm depth
33 Al_Sat_40_60 aluminum saturation (%), 40-60 cm depth
34 C_Tot_40_60 soil total carbon (g/kg), 40-60 cm depth
35 Color_40_60 soil color, Munsell color notation, 40-60 cm depth

Example Data Records:

UTMX,UTMY,pH_H2O_0_20,pH_CaCl2_0_20,P_0_20,K_0_20,Ca_0_20,Mg_0_20,Al_0_20,H_0_20,Clay_pct_0_20,
Silt_pct_0_20,Sand_pct_0_20,SumCat_0_20,CEC_0_20,Sat_Bas_0_20,Al_Sat_0_20,C_Tot_0_20,Color_0_20,
pH_H2O_40_60,pH_CaCl2_40_60,P_40_60,K_40_60,Ca_plus_Mg_40_60,Al_40_60,H_40_60,Clay_pct_40_60,Silt_pct_40_60,
Sand_pct_40_60,SumCat_40_60,CEC_40_60,Sat_Bas_40_60,Al_Sat_40_60,C_Tot_40_60,Color_40_60,,,,,,

339525,8841537,4.5,4.0,1.1,38,0.6,0.3,0.8,2.9,18.2,
6.1,75.7,1.0,4.7,21.2,44.5,8.92,5YR 4/6,
4.4,4.1,0.3,4,0.3,0.4,2.3,33.3,0.9, 65.7,0.3,3.0,10.3,56.3,5.72,"2,5YR 4/6",,,,,,

339510,8841550,4.2,3.7,0.6,52,0.3,0.2,1.3,2.4,27.5,
2.1,70.4,0.6,4.3,14.6,66.7,8.62,5YR 4/6,
4.2,3.9,0.4,10,0.3,0.4,2.7,30.2,1.0, 68.9,0.3,3.4,9.6,55.1,6.10,"2,5YR 4/6",,,,,,

339142,8841453,4.9,4.3,1.7,142,1.1,1.0,0.1,4.2,50.5,
18.6,30.9,2.5,6.8,36.4,4.8,14.81,5YR 5/6,
4.9,4.3,0.5,24,0.6,0.3,1.3,46.1,13.2, 40.8,0.7,2.2,29.6,31.2,7.39,5YR 6/6,,,,,,
Blank lines added to improve readability.

Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Mato Grosso - Juruena ( Mato Grosso) -58.470796 -58.466252 -10.475392 -10.478216 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Data set contains results from field study of spatial variability of soil properties.

4. Quality Assessment:

No known problems with data.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Soil samples collected using dutch auger and analyzed using EMBRAPA standard methods (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) for analysis of soil chemical and physical properties (Silva et al., 1998).  The units of cmolc (centimoles of charge) and dm3 (cubic decimeters) are common in Brazilian soil analyses employing EMBRAPA standards.

Soil texture was determined using the pipette method with 16 hours of slow shaking (30 rpm) and dispersion of organic matter with NaOH and sodium hexametaphosphate.

Soil color was determined on fresh, moist soils in the field using a Munsell color chart.

Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and aluminum were all determined on dry soils extracted with 1 M KCl.  Aluminum concentrations were measured via titration with NaOH. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined by titration with EDTA (provides a value for the concentration of Ca + Mg). Concentration of exchangeable Ca alone was determined by titrating the 1M KCl extract with 0.0125M EDTA after addition of  calcon carbonic acid. Exchangeable Mg concentrations are then determined as the difference between Ca + Mg and Ca concentrations.

Available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and sodium were all extracted from air dry soils using a Melich I extraction solution (0.05 M HCl + 0.0125 M H2SO4).  The ratio of soil to extraction solution was 1:10 w/v.  Phosphorus in the extractant solution was measured on a spectrophotometer using the ascorbic acid- molybdate blue reaction.  Potassium and sodium were measured by flame photometry (atomic absorbtion).

Potential acidity, the sum of aluminum and hydrogen ion concentrations extracted with 0.5M calcium acetate solution was measured by titration with 0.025M NaOH phenolphthalein as an indicator.

The analysis of carbon was done using the combustion method at high temperatures (Eltra oven at 1350 degrees C) and an elemental analyzer (Multi NC 3000) in which all forms of carbon in the soil are converted to CO2 followed by measurement of the CO2 (total carbon), following the method described by the Soil Survey Staff (1996).

Equations for calculated values:

Total exchangeable bases (S) = (Ca2+) + ( Mg2+) + ( K+) + (Na+)

Cation exchange capacity (T) = S  + (H+) + (Al3+)

Base saturation (V) = 100*(S/T)

Exchangeable Al saturation (m) = 100*( (Al3+)/(S + Al3+))

6. Data Access:

This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Cooper M, Mendes LMS, Silva WLC, Sparovek G. 2005. A national soil profile database for Brazil available to international scientists. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 649-652. The database is available for free download at http://www.esalq.usp.br/gerd/ (verified 04 Feb   2008). 

Novaes Filho J.P., Couto E.G., de Oliveira V.A., Johnson M.S., Lehmann J., Riha J. (2007a). Spatial variability of soil physical attributes used in soil classification of microbasins in southern Amazonia. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo (Brazilian Journal of Soil Science), 31, 91-100.doi:10.1590/S0100-06832007000100010.

Novaes filho J.P., Selva E.C., Couto, E.G., Lehmann, J., Johnson, M.S., Riha S.J. (2007b) Spatial distribution of soil carbon under primary forest cover in Southern amazonia. Revista Arvore (Tree Journal), 31, 83-92.

Silva, F.C. da, P.A. da Eira, W. De Oliveira Barreto, D. Vidal Perez and C.A. Silva. 1998. Analises químicas para avaliacao da fertilidade do solo: Metodos usados na Embrapa Solos. Doc. No. 3

Soil Survey Staff. 1996. Soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations, Report 42 (Version 3.0). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. 693 p.