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LBA-ECO ND-07 Trace Gas Fluxes Under Multiple Land Uses, Brazil: 1999-2004
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Revision date: August 18, 2011

Summary:

This data set reports on soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide (CO2, CO, N2O, NO) under various natural and manipulated land use conditions. The studies were conducted near Brasilia, Brazil in pastures and agricultural areas under a variety of management regimes and in more natural areas of cerrado (20-50% canopy cover) and campo sujo (open, grass-dominated), which were either burned every 2 years or protected from fire. Results provide data and relationships needed for regional trace gas models. There are nine comma-separated ASCII data files with this data set.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Pinto, A.S., K. Kisselle, M.M.C. Bustamante, R.A. Burke, M. Molina, R.G. Zepp. 2011. LBA-ECO ND-07 Trace Gas Fluxes Under Multiple Land Uses, Brazil: 1999-2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1016

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in August of 2011. Users who download the data between August 2011 and July 2016 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Nutrient Dynamics

Team ID: ND-07 (Zepp / Bustamante)

The investigators were Zepp, Richard G.; Bustamante, Mercedes M.C.; Burke, Roger A.; Kisselle, Keith; Molina, Marirosa; and Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira. You may contact Bustamante, Dr. Mercedes (mercedes@unb.br) and Zepp, Dr. Richard G. (zepp.richard@epa.gov).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: ND07_Trace_Gas_Land_Use

This data set focuses on the effects of management and land use change on the soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide. The studies were conducted near Brasilia in pastures and agricultural areas under a variety of management regimes as well as in more 'natural' areas of cerrado (20-50% canopy cover) and campo sujo (open, grass-dominated), which were either burned every 2 years or protected from fire. To provide data and relationships needed for regional trace gas models, we measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace carbon and nitrogen gases (CO2, CO, N2O, NO) under various natural and manipulated conditions.

Related Data sets

2. Data Characteristics:

Data are provided in nine comma-delimited ASCII files.

Multi-site Data File:

File 1: ND07_Daily_Precip_and_T_air.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Yearyyyy Year of measurement
2Monthmm Month of measurement
3Daydd Day of measurement
4T_air_EMBRAPA_CPAC_meandegrees C Mean daily temperature in degrees Celsius at the EMBRAPA CPAC site
5Ppt_EMBRAPA_CPACmm Total rainfall accumulation over 24 hours of sampling period in millimeters (mm) at the EMBRAPA CPAC site
6T_air_IBGE_meandegrees C Mean daily temperature in degrees Celsius at the IBGE site
7Ppt_IBGEmm Total rainfall accumulation over 24 hours of sampling period in millimeters (mm) at the IBGE site
8Ppt_Dom_Boscomm Total rainfall accumulation over 24 hours of sampling period in millimeters (mm) at the Dom Bosco site
Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Year,Month,Day, T_air_EMBRAPA_CPAC_mean,Ppt_EMBRAPA_CPAC,T_air_IBGE_mean,Ppt_IBGE,Ppt_Dom_Bosco
1999,9,1,-9999,-9999,22.2,-9999,-9999
1999,9,2,-9999,-9999,22.8,-9999,-9999
...
2000,1,1,-9999,-9999,20.9,16.6,-9999
2000,1,2,-9999,-9999,21.2,8.8,-9999
...

Experimental Treatment Data Files:

Fertilization

File 2: ND07_Dois_J1_Farm_Fertilization_CO2_NO_N2O_fluxes.csv

Values are either the means of in situ measurement results from multiple flux chambers or the means of results of gas and soil samples collected from multiple chambers and analyzed in the laboratory.

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Site_name  Name of farm sampled. All samples in this file were collected at Dois J1 Farm
2Site_type  Type of farm where the fertilization experiment was conducted: Experimental Plantation
3Crop_type  Land cover (type of crop) at the sampling site: Non-irrigated Maize
4Dateyyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)
5Fertilizerkg N ha-1 Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied per Maize growing season
6Chamber_location  Chamber location within the crop field, either Crop rows or Between crop rows
7CO2_flux_meanmicromol CO2 m-2 s-1 Flux of carbon dioxide across the soil surface in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
8NO_N_flux_meanng NO-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitric oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of NO per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
9N2O_N_flux_meanng N2O-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitrous oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of N2O per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
10WFPS_mean% Water filled pore space in the soil reported as a percent of total soil volume
11T_chamber_meandegrees C Air temperature inside the chamber measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
12T_soil_2_5cm_meandegrees C Soil temperature at 2.5 cm depth measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
13T_soil_5cm_meandegrees C Soil temperature at 5.0 cm depth measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
14Soil_NO3_meanmg kg-1 soil Available soil nitrate extracted with 1N KCl solution and reported in mg N as nitrate per kg soil
15Soil_NH4_meanmg kg-1 soil Available soil ammonium extracted with 1N KCl solution and reported in mg N as ammonium per kg soil
16Microbial_biomass_C_meanmg kg-1 soil Soil microbial biomass measured as the difference in extractable soil C before and after chloroform fumigation
Missing data are represented by -9999
Note: Coordinates for the Dois J1 Farm were not provided

Example data records:

Site_name,Site_type,Crop_type,Date,Fertilizer,Chamber_location,CO2_flux_mean,NO_N_flux_mean,
N2O_N_flux_mean,WFPS_mean,T_chamber_mean,T_soil_2_5cm_mean,T_soil_5cm_mean,Soil_NO3_mean,
Soil_NH4_mean,Microbial_biomass_C_mean
Dois J1 Farm,Experimental plantation,Non-irrigated Maize,2004/11/10,0,Crop rows,0.48,1.17,
-9999,41.89,33.1,28.8,25.8,195.5,
28.14,53.76
Dois J1 Farm,Experimental plantation,Non-irrigated Maize,2004/11/10,0,Crop rows,0.96,0.47,
-9999,49.2,34.3,26.7,25.3,276.2,
16.34,67.96
...
Dois J1 Farm,Experimental plantation,Non-irrigated Maize,2005/04/29,120,Crop rows,0.52,0.3,
-18.61,29.99,31.6,25.3,24.7,215.6,
2.93,63.44
Dois J1 Farm,Experimental plantation,Non-irrigated Maize,2005/04/29,120,Crop rows,0.44,0.33,
-17.69,40.43,30.5,26,24.3,158.3,
2.96,55.95
...

Water Addition Experiments

File 3: ND07_IBGE_Water_addition_CO2_N2O_NO_fluxes.csv

ColumnHeading Units/format Description
1Date yyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)
2Exp_Day   Day in the experimental timeline: Day 0 indicates the initial treatment day; 0-pre indicates day 0 prior to water additions and 0-post is day 0 after water additions all other days are days since initial treatment
3Treatment   Treatment applied: Control = no water additions; 2 cm = 2 cm of water applied; 18 cm = 18 cm of water applied
4Chamber_num   Chamber identification number: 1-3
5CO2_flux micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1Flux of carbon dioxide across the soil surface in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
6T_soil degrees C Soil temperature measured at 10 cm depth
7T_air degrees C Air temperature reported in degrees Celsius
8Moist_soil % Soil moisture determined after heating the soil at 110 degrees C for 48 hours
9N2O_N_flux ng N2O-N cm-2 h-1Flux of nitrous oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of N2O per centimeter squared per hour Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
10T_chamb_N2O degrees CMean temperature (degrees C) in the chamber during the sampling for N2O (average of initial and final temperatures)
11NO_N_flux ng NO-N cm-2 h-1Flux of nitric oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of NO per centimeter squared per hour Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
12T_chamb_NO degrees C Mean temperature (degrees C) in the chamber during the sampling for NO (average of initial and final temperatures)
Missing data are represented by -9999.

Example data records:

Date,Exp_day,Treatment,Chamber_num,CO2_flux,T_soil,T_air,Moist_soil,N2O_N_flux,
T_chamb_N2O,NO_N_flux,T_chamb_NO
2000/07/10,0-pre,Control,1,1.19,20.6,30.3,26.09,0.17,
24.9,0.29,30.9
2000/07/10,0-pre,Control,2,1.7,20.6,29.5,26.09,0.41,
26.75,0.06,31.4
...
2000/07/10,0-pre,2cm,1,1.87,19.8,27,9,23.79,-9999,
-9999,0.01,32.4
2000/07/10,0-pre,2cm,2,1.41,19.9,29,7,23.57,-9999,
-9999,0.01,35.5
...
2000/07/15,5,18cm,2,2.29,21.6,26.9,19.94,0.15,
30,0.36,27.9
2000/07/15,5,18cm,3,1.88,21.8,32.2,28.42,-0.47,
30,0.19,34.65
...


Fire Experiments

File 4: ND07_IBGE_Fire_CO_fluxes_2000.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Sample_ID Sample identification number
2Dateyyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)
3Treatment  Treatment codes are as follows: CSC = control for campo sujo at IBGE (not burned for 8 yrs); CSQ = campo sujo plot burned biennially since 1992 with last burn during 9/2000; CC = control for cerrado stricto senso at IBGE (not burned since 1974); CSQ = stricto senso cerrado plot burned biennially since 1992 with last burn during 9/2000
4Chamber_num Chamber identification number
5Chamber_type Chambertop describes the material used. All dark chambers were kimax
6Light_conditions  Light fluxes were measured in transparent pyrex chambers; dark fluxes were measured in opaque kimax chambers
7CO_flux10^9 molecules cm-2 s-1 Flux of carbon monoxide measured in 10^9 molecules per centimeter squared per second (10^9 molecules cm^-2 s^-1)
8T_soildegrees C Soil temperature in degrees Celsius at 10 cm depth measured at the time of the flux measurement
9T_airdegrees CAir temperature in degrees Celsius outside the chamber measured at the timeof the flux measurement
10Moist_soil%Soil moisture at 10 cm depth in percent measured at the time of the flux measurement
11T_chamberdegrees C Air temperature in degrees Celsius measured in the chamber measured at the time of the flux measurement
12UVA_initW cm-2 Ultraviolet A radiation, including the wavelengths of 315- 390 nanometers at the start of the flux measurement measured in Watts per centimeter squared (W cm^-2) with a IL 1700 readiometer with a SED 033 UVA probe
13UVB_initW cm-2 Ultraviolet B radiation, including the wavelengths of 280- 315 nanometers at the start of the flux measurement measured in Watts per centimeter squared (W cm^-2) with a IL 1700 radiometer using a SED 240 probe
14Full_initW cm-2Total radiation, including the wavelengths of 200- 4200 nanometers at the start of the flux measurement measured in Watts per centimeter squared (W cm^-2) usig an IL 1700 radiometer and an SED 623 probe
15UVB_integW cm-2Ultraviolet B radiation in the chamber integrated over the duration of the sampling period, reported in Watts per centimeter squared
Missing data are represented by -9999. Data measured but deemed unreliable and thus not reported are indicated as -6666.

Example data records:

Sample_ID,Date,Treatment,Chamber_num,Chamber_type,Light_conditions,CO_flux,
T_soil,T_air,Moist_soil,T_chamber,UVA_init,UVB_init,Full_init,UVB_integ
218,1999/09/08,CSQ,4,Kimax,Dark,8.54E+10,
27.8,33.6,33.5,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,
217,1999/09/08,CSQ,3,Pyrex,Light,5.20E+10,
27.8,33.6,33.5,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999
...
18,2000/09/24,CC,6,Kimax,Dark,4.69E+11,
20.8,38,36.6,47.1,2.61E-03,1.77E-05,7.66E-02,1.97E-02
17,2000/09/24,CC,5,Kimax,Dark,2.57E+10,
20.8,38,36.6,40,2.61E-03,1.77E-05,7.66E-02,1.97E-02
...

File 5: ND07_IBGE_Fire_CO2_NO_fluxes_2000.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Site_name  Sample site: IBGE Brasilia
2Station_ID  Station identification code: Treatment code (column 3) concatenated with Chamber number (column 4)
3Treatment  Treatment codes are as follows: CSC = control for campo sujo at IBGE (not burned for 8 yrs); CSQ = campo sujo plot burned biennially since 1992 with last burn during 9/2000; CC = control for cerrado stricto senso at IBGE (not burned since 1974); CSQ = stricto senso cerrado plot burned biennially since 1992 with last burn during 9/2000
4Chamber_num  Chamber number: 1-6
5Dateyyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)
6CO2_fluxmicromol CO2 m-2 s-1 Flux of carbon dioxide across the soil surface in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
7T_chamb_CO2 degrees C Air temperature inside the chamber measured during the measurement of CO2 gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
8T_air_CO2degrees C Air temperature outside the chamber measured during the measurement of CO2 gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
9T_soil_CO2degrees C Soil temperature at 10 cm depth measured during the measurement of CO2 gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
10NO_N_fluxng NO-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitric oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of NO per centimeter squared per hour Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
11T_chamber_NOdegrees C Air temperature inside the chamber measured during the measurement of NO gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
12T_air_NO degrees C Air temperature outside the chamber measured during the measurement of NO gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
13T_soil_NO degrees C Soil temperature at 10 cm depth measured during the measurement of NO gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
Missing data are represented by -9999. Data measured but deemed unreliable and thus not reported are indicated as -6666.

Example data records:

Site_name,Station_ID,Treatment,Chamber_num,Date,CO2_flux,T_chamb_CO2,
T_air_CO2,T_soil_CO2,NO_N_flux,T_chamb_NO,T_air_NO,T_soil_NO
IBGE,CC1,CC,1,2000/04/04,4.7,-9999,
22,23,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999
IBGE,CC2,CC,2,2000/04/04,4.5,-9999,
22,23,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999
...
IBGE,CC5,CC,5,2000/10/19,2.5,40,
36.2,19.8,1.09,40,36.2,19.8
IBGE,CC6,CC,6,2000/10/19,2.9,40.3,
36.2,19.8,0.31,40.3,36.2,19.8
...


Land Cover Types

File 6: ND07_Crops_CO2_NO_N2O_fluxes.csv

Values are either the means of in situ measurement results from multiple flux chambers or the means of results of gas and soil samples collected from multiple chambers and analyzed in the laboratory.

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Site_name  Farm or experimental station at which the samples were collected
2Land_use  Description of the management of the sampling area with dominant crop
3Vegetation  Information about the land cover including land use (crop type, pasture or cerrado) as well as location within the land cover (between or within crop rows)
4Dateyyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)
5Phase  Sample collection timing with respect to major events within the growing season/management regime
6CO2_flux_meanmicromol CO2 m-2 s-1 Flux of carbon dioxide across the soil surface in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
7NO_N_flux_meanng NO-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitric oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of NO per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
8N2O_N_flux_meanng N2O-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitrous oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of N2O per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
9WFPS_mean% Water filled pore space in the soil reported as a percent of total soil volume
10T_chamber_meandegrees C Air temperature inside the chamber measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
11T_soil_2_5cm_meandegrees C Soil temperature at 2.5 cm depth measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
12T_soil_5cm_meandegrees C Soil temperature at 5.0 cm depth measured during the measurement of gas flux and reported in degrees Celsius
13Soil_NO3_meanmg kg-1 soil Available soil nitrate extracted with 1N KCl solution and reported in mg N as nitrate per kg soil
14Soil_NH4_meanmg kg-1 soil Available soil ammonium extracted with 1N KCl solution and reported in mg N as ammonium per kg soil
15Microbial_biomass_C_meanmg kg-1 soil Soil microbial biomass measured as the difference in extractable soil C before and after chloroform fumigation
Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Site_name,Land_use,Vegetation,Date,Phase,CO2_flux_mean,NO_N_flux_mean,
N2O_N_flux_mean,WFPS_mean,T_chamber_mean,T_soil_2_5cm_mean, T_soil_5cm_mean,Soil_NO3_mean,Soil_NH4_mean,
Microbial_biomass_C_mean
Pamplona Farm,Non-irrigated cotton under Brachiaria straw,Cotton,2004/11/23,Before planting,0.41,0.8,
-9999,33.86,33.7,27.6,25.6,40.13,18.61,
289.58
Pamplona Farm,Non-irrigated cotton under Brachiaria straw,Cotton,2004/11/23,Before planting,0.38,0.86,
-9999,36.34,32.6,27.1,25.7,72.79,21.73,
240.68
...
Pamplona Farm,Non-irrigated cotton under Brachiaria straw,Cotton (crop rows),2004/12/23,After first fertilization,1.95,1.74,
-9999, 41.97,23.6,23.3,23.6,707.14,7.03,
98.89
Pamplona Farm,Non-irrigated cotton under Brachiaria straw,Cotton (crop rows),2004/12/23,After first fertilization,2.56,0.32,
0.69,46.54,23.4,23.7,23.4,320.89,12.17,
240.36
...

File 7: ND07_Pastures_CO2_NO_N2O_fluxes_1999-2002.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/format Description
1Site_name  Name of study site: EMBRAPA Pasture or Rio de Janeiro
2Site_type  Site type: Pasture or Mixed species pasture
3Vegetation  Dominant vegetation species
4Notes  Information from the field notes on pasture management
5Irrigation  Irrigation status, where 1 = irrigated site and 2=sites without irrigation
6Yearyyyy Year in which the sampling was done (yyyy)
7Monthmm Month in which the sampling was done with 1=January and 12=December
8Base_num  Identification number for chamber base at the EMBRAPA site: 1 - 8
9CO2_flux micromol CO2 m-2 s-1 Flux of carbon dioxide across the soil surface in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
10N2O_N_fluxng N2O-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitrous oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of N2O per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
11NO_N_fluxng NO-N cm-2 h-1 Flux of nitric oxide across the soil surface in nanograms of nitrogen in the form of NO per centimeter squared per hour. Positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil
12T_Airdegrees C Air temperature in degrees Celsius
13T_Soil_2_5degrees C Soil temperature at 2.5 cm depth in degrees Celsius
14T_Soil_5 degrees CSoil temperature at 5 cm depth in degrees Celsius
15T_Soil_10degrees C Soil temperature at 10 cm depth in degrees Celsius
16GWCpercent Gravimetric water content
Missing data are represented by -9999

Example data records:

Site_name,Site_type,Vegetation,Notes,Irrigation,Year,Month,Base_num,CO2_flux,
N2O_N_flux,NO_N_flux,T_Air,T_Soil_2_5,T_Soil_5,T_Soil_10, GWC
EMBRAPA Pasture,Pasture,Brachiaria brizantha,-9999,0,1999,10,1,4.16,
4.31,-9999,26.8,-9999,20.2,-9999,-9999
EMBRAPA Pasture,Pasture,Brachiaria brizantha,-9999,0,1999,10,2,5.23,
-1.56,-9999,28.3,-9999,19.1,-9999,-9999
...
Rio de Janeiro,Pasture,Brachiaria brizantha,fertilized pasture without water addition,0,2001,10,1,10.34,
-0.08,0.02,26.2,27.3,27.1,26.3,-9999
Rio de Janeiro,Pasture,Brachiaria brizantha,fertilized pasture without water addition,0,2001,10,2,10.29,
2.61,0,25.8,23.9,23.9,23.6,-9999
...
Rio de Janeiro,Mixed species pasture,Brachiaria brizantha+ Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirao,without water addition,0,2002,1,8,5.95,
0.97,0,31,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999
Rio de Janeiro,Mixed species pasture,Brachiaria brizantha+ Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirao,without water addition,0,2002,2,1,-9999,
-0.86,0.11,-6999,29.6,27.8,26.4,-9999
...


File 8: ND07_Soil_moisture_EMBRAPA.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1YearyyyyYear sampled
2MonthmmMonth sampled with 1=January and 12=December
3GWCpercentGravimetric water content (%) from 0-5 cm deep soil samples

Example data records:

Year,Month,GWC
2000,2,39.7
2000,2,36.9
2000,2,39.4
...
2000,8,12.5
2000,8,14.3
2000,8,12.6
...

File 9:  ND07_Soil_moisture_Fazenda_Rio_de_Janeiro.csv

ColumnHeadingUnits/formatDescription
1YearyyyyYear sampled
2MonthmmMonth sampled where 1=January and 12=December
3Plot Plot identification number
4Vegetation Description of the dominant vegetation
5GWCpercentGravimetric water content from 0-5 cm deep soil samples, expressed as percent (%)
6WFPSpercentWater-filled pore space calculated from the gravimetric water content, expressed as percent (%)

Example data records:

Year,Month,Plot,Vegetation,GWC,WFPS
2001,11,1,Fertilized Brachiaria,34.9,76.5
2001,11,1,Fertilized Brachiaria,28.8,64.5
...
2001,11,2,Mixed species,35.3,87.3
2001,11,2,Mixed species,37.3,92.1
...
2002,4,3,Traditional pasture (Brachiaria),32.7,67.6
2002,4,3,Traditional pasture (Brachiaria),31,64
...
2001,11,4,Young pasture (2 yr old Brachiaria),33.7,75.3
2001,11,4,Young pasture (2 yr old Brachiaria),34.9,78.2
...

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Brasilia - Reserva Ecologica do Roncador IBGE (Brasilia) -47.85060 -47.85060 -15.93280 -15.93280World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Brasilia - Fazenda Dom Bosco (Brasilia) -47.50000 -47.50000 -16.30000 -16.30000World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Brasilia - Fazenda Rio de Janeiro (Brasilia) -47.70000 -47.70000 -15.23333 -15.23333World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Brasilia - Pamplona (Brasilia) -47.25056 -47.25056-16.25056 -16.25056World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Brasilia - EMBRAPA CPAC (Brasilia) -47.74356 -47.74356 -15.61042 -15.61042World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Calculation of NO Fluxes: Fluxes were calculated from the rate of increase of NO concentration using the linear portion of the accumulation curve.

Calculation of N2O Fluxes: Fluxes were calculated from the rate of increase of N2O concentration determined by linear regression based on four samples.

Calculation of CO Fluxes: For each chamber experiment, the concentration of CO within the chamber was plotted as a function of time after sealing the chamber top over the base. Concentration versus time plots were initially plotted to determine the curve shape. Flux measurements that exhibited increasing concentrations over time were analyzed by performing linear regression on the linear portions of the curve (slope is proportional to CO exchange rate). Many of the positive curves appeared to plateau. This is likely due to the fact that although the production of CO is not dependent on concentration of CO, the consumption of CO increases with increasing CO concentration [Conrad and Seiler, 1985]. So as the CO accumulates in the chamber, the consumption of CO increases. This is an artifact of using the static chamber method since natural CO emissions are typically not contained and not concentrated. To minimize the error in computed fluxes that can result from this effect, we sometimes used only the early time points (0, 10 and 15 minutes) to calculate the CO flux. Sanhueza et al. [1994] also used only the initial points of a particular run to calculate CO fluxes. For measurements in which CO concentrations decreased with time (negative flux), flux values were calculated by multiplying the initial rate (slope x initial CO concentration) by the volume:surface area ratio of the chamber. To better compare CO uptake by the soils in the opaque chamber studies, we computed deposition velocities. The deposition velocity is defined as the ratio of the uptake rate divided by the CO concentration.

4. Quality Assessment:

Detection limits for N2O were 0.6 ng N2O cm-2 h-1 as defined by Verchot et al (1999) using similar methods.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study Sites

All study sites are located near the city of Brasilia. The climate in the region is tropical (Koppen Aw, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification). The mean annual precipitation is about 1500 mm with two well-defined seasons: dry season (May to September) and wet season (October to April), during which 90 percent of the annual precipitation occurs.

Experimental Treatments:

Gas Flux Measurements/Collection in the Field:

Gas Flux Measurements/Laboratory Analyses:

Other Field Measurements:

Laboratory Analyses:

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Conrad, R., and W. Seiler. 1985. Influence of temperature, moisture, and organic carbon on the flux of H2, and CO between soil and atmosphere: Field studies in subtropical regions, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5699-5709.doi:10.1029/JD090iD03p05699

Jenkinson, D. S., and D. S. Powlson. 1976. The effects of biocidal treatments on metabolism in soil. V. A method for measuring soilbiomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 8: 209-213. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(76)90005-5

Kisselle, K.W., R.G. Zepp, R.A. Burke, A.D. Pinto, M.M.C. Bustamante, S. Opsahl, R.F. Varella, and L.T. Viana. (2002). Seasonal soil fluxes of carbon monoxide in burned and unburned Brazilian savannas. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, Vol. 107, No. D20, pp. art-8051.

Linn, D. M., and J. W. Doran, 1984: Effects of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and nontilled soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 48, 1267-1272. doi:10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800060013x

Matson, P.A., P.M. Vitousek, G.P. Livingston and N.A. Swanberg. 1990. Sources of variation in nitrous oxide from Amazonian ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 16789-16798. doi:10.1029/JD095iD10p16789

Meier M. 1991. Nitratbestimmung in Boden-proben (N-min-Method), Laborpraxis 4:244-247.

Pinto, A.D., M.M.C. Bustamante, K. Kisselle, R. Burke, R. Zepp, L.T. Viana, R.F. Varella, and M. Molina. (2002). Soil emissions of N2O, NO, and CO2 in Brazilian Savannas: Effects of vegetation type, seasonality, and prescribed fires. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, Vol. 107, No. D20, p. 8089.

Sanhueza, E., L. Donoso, D. Scharffe, and P. J. Crutzen. 1994. Carbon monoxide fluxes from natural, managed or cultivated savannah grasslands, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16,421-16,427. doi:10.1029/93JD02918

Varella, R.F., M.M.C. Bustamante, A.S. Pinto, K.W. Kisselle, R.V. Santos, R.A. Burke, R.G. Zepp, and L.T. Viana. (2004). Soil fluxes of CO2, CO, NO, And N2O from an old pasture and from native Savanna in Brazil. Ecological Applications 14(4):S221.

Verchot, L.V., E.A. Davidson, J.H. Cattanio, I.L. Ackerman, H.E. Erickson and M. Keller. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13: 31-46. doi:10.1029/1998GB900019