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LBA-ECO LC-21 Soil Characteristics, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003
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Revision date: August 4, 2014

Summary:

This data set provides measurements for soil nutrients from areas that were selectively logged and from control areas in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil. Data are included for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), nitrogen (N), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), silicon (Si), carbon 13, nitrogen 15, and potassium (K) concentrations. In addition, data are included for Phosphorus fractionation which was performed on a subset of the soils, and soil bulk density measurements. The samples were from clay-dominated (oxisols) soils.

Samples were collected in March 2003 from four blocks logged in areas that result after selective logging: forest, tree-fall gaps, skids, roads, deck edges and deck centers.

There are two data files with this data set.

diagram of sampling areas

Figure 1. Diagram of a logging block. Image from Olander et al., 2005.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Asner, G.P., and  L.P. Olander. 2014. LBA-ECO LC-21 Soil Characteristics, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1236

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in August 2014. Users who download the data between August 2014 and September 2019 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Land Use and Land Cover

Team ID: LC-21 (Asner / Bustamante / Silva)

The investigators were Asner, Gregory Paul; Bustamante, Mercedes M.C.; Silva, Jose Natalino Macedo; Broadbent, Eben North; Carlson, Kim; Carvalho, Ana Paula Ferreira; Hare, Anna Quinn; Knapp, David E.; Oliveira, Paulo Jose Silva Costa; Prado, Zayra Azeredo; Silva, Jose Salomao Oliveira and Villagomez, April Marie. You may contact Asner, Gregory P. (gpa@stanford.edu) and Knapp, David E. (deknapp@stanford.edu)

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: LC21_Soil_Characteristics

This data set provides measurements for soil nutrients from areas that were selectively logged and from control areas in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil. Data are included for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), nitrogen (N), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), silicon (Si), carbon 13, nitrogen 15, and potassium (K) concentrations. In addition, data are included for Phosphorus fractionation which was performed on a subset of the soils, and soil bulk density measurements. The samples were from clay-dominated (oxisols) soils.

Samples were collected in March 2003 from four blocks logged in areas that result after selective logging: forest, tree-fall gaps, skids, roads, deck edges and deck centers.

Related data sets:

 LBA-ECO LC-13 GIS Coverages of Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil : 1996, 1998.

2. Data Characteristics:

There are two comma-delimited data files with this data set. The data are for soil nutrient analysis from areas that were selectively logged and from control areas in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil.

*The block and area descriptions were taken from the data set " LBA-ECO LC-13 GIS Coverages of Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 1996, 1998", available from the ORNL DAAC.  

File #1. LC21_all_soil_nutrients.csv

Column Column Heading Units/format Description
1 Block   Logging block
2 use   Area ID number: 0=control, 1=forest, 2=treefall, 3=skid trail, 4=road, 5= deck.
3 Damage   R=road, P=patio, F=forest, S=skid trail, T=treefall
4 Road   Road ID within each block
5 Patio   Landing ID along each road
6 Skid   Skid trail ID associated with each landing 
7 Treefall   Treefall gaps where the canopy falls and remains after being cut from the tree bole
8 Forest   Unlogged forest at least 10 m from any deck (patio), skid, road, or gap
9 Rep   Replicate samples in a Damage sampling area
10 pH   Soil pH in water
11 Ca ug/g Calcium concentration in soil
12 Mg ug/g Magnesium concentration in soil
13 K ug/g Potassuim concentration in  soil
14 P ug/g Phosphorus concentration in  soil
15 Fe ug/g Iron concentration in  soil
16 Al ug/g Aluminum concentration in  soil
17 Si ug/g Silicon concentration in  soil
18 C mg/g Carbon concentration in  soil
19 15N per mil Nitrogen 15 concentration in  soil
20 13C per mil Carbon 13 concentration in soil, with respect to Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard
21 C % Percent Carbon in soil
22 N % Percent Nitrogen in  soil
23 C_N   Ratio of Carbon-Nitrogen in soil
24 C mg/g Percent Carbon (from #20 ) as mg/g
25 N mg/g Percent Nitrogen (from #21) as mg/g
26 bulk density mg/m3 Soil bulk density

 

File 2. LC21_Logging_soil_P_fractions.csv

*Sample ID: B=block #, R=road number, P=patio #, F, S,T, and R=location paired to the number of sample.

Column Column Heading Units/format Description
1 Batch   Batch number
2 sample number   Sample number
3 sample id   *Sample ID. For example, B16 R2 P1 F3=block 16, road 2, patio 1, and forest 3.
4 Block   Logging block
5 Road   Road ID within each block
6 Patio Patio ID within each block
7 Skid   Skid trail ID within each block
8 Damage R=road, P=patio, F=forest, S=skid trail, T=treefall
9 use Area ID number: 0=control, 1=forest, 2=treefall, 3=skid trail, 4=road, 5=patio or deck
10 rep   Sample number within collection site
11 Resin extractable P ug kg-1 soil Resin strips (in KCl to flocculate soils) used to extract P
12 Bicarbonate extractable inorganic P ug kg-1 soil Bicarbonate (0.5M NaHCO3) to extract inorganic P
13 Bicarbonate extractable organic P ug kg-1 soil Bicarbonate (0.5M NaHCO3) to extract organic P
14 Sodium hydroxide extractable inorganic P ug kg-1 soil Sodium hydroxide (0.1M NaOH) to extract inorganic P
15 Sodium hydroxide extractable organic P ug kg-1 soil Sodium hydroxide (0.1M NaOH) to extract organic P
16 HCL extractable inorganic P ug kg-1 soil Hot concentrated acid (3.6M HCl) to extract inorganic P
17 HCL extractable organic P ug kg-1 soil Hot concentrated acid (3.6M HCl) to extract organic P
18 residual P  ug kg-1 soil Residual P
19 sum of P fractions ug kg-1 soil Sum of all fractions from #s 10-16 above
20 total P digest ug kg-1 soil An independent measure of total soil P determined using the peroxide/sulfuric digest on a replicate soil sample

The value -9999 represents values not provided with this data set

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Para Western - FLONA Tapajos (Para Western (Santarem)) -55.25 -54.83333 -2.75 -3.58333 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

These data were collected to demonstrate how soil characteristics differ after a selective logging event.

4. Quality Assessment:

These data were reviewed and found to be reasonable and accurate.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site description

The selective logging site is located in the northern part of the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) in Pará, Brazil, about 50 km south of Santarém, on a plateau that runs along the east side of the Tapajós River.  The logging area is minimally transected by drainages. The soils are 70% clay dominated (ultisols and oxisols) and 30% sand dominated (ultisols; Silver et al. 2000). Mean annual temperature is 25 degrees C and rainfall averages 2,000 mm yr-1 with most inputs falling during the wet season from January through June (Nepstad et al. 2004).

 Selective logging was carried out in blocks of approximately 100 ha, and had four spatially explicit impacts:

 • logging roads;

 • logging decks, where logs are temporarily stacked for movement off site;

 • skids trails along which mechanical skidders pull logs from the forest to the decks;

 • tree-fall gaps, where the canopy falls and remains after being cut from the tree bole.

Sample Collections

In March 2003, four blocks logged between August and October 2002 were sampled. These blocks were located on clay-dominated (oxisols) soils. Samples were ramdomly selected from two logging decks for sampling from each block. Samples were collected along the roads leading to the decks every 10 m along a 40-m transect (n= 5), and in the decks every 5 m along a central transect (25-m × 25-m) with three additional samples taken in the center spaced at least 2 m apart (n=7). Out from the decks, one skid was sampled every 10 m along a 40-m transect (n=5). At the first tree crown found, five samples were taken in and around the fallen crown (n =5). In the matrix of unlogged forest at least 10 m from any deck, skid, road, or gap, three to five control samples were taken at 10-m intervals along transects (n=3 or 5) (Olander et al., 2005).

In March 2003, we sampled four blocks logged between August and October 2002. These blocks were located on clay-dominated (oxisols) soils.

We randomly selected two logging decks for sampling from each block. We sampled the roads leading to the decks every 10 m along a 40-m transect (n=5), and in the decks every 5 m along a central transect (25-m × 25-m) with three additional samples taken in the center spaced at least 2 m apart (n=7). Out from the decks, one skid was sampled every 10 m along a 40-m transect (n=5). At the first tree crown found, five samples were taken in and around the fallen crown (n=5). In the matrix of unlogged forest at least 10 m from any deck, skid, road, or gap, three to five samples were taken at 10-m intervals along transects (n= 3 or 5).

Soil Nutrient Analysis

Soil samples were dried at 70 degrees C for 10 days and subsamples were ground and sieved (2-mm) with charcoal and large roots removed. Total C, N, 13C, and 15N were measured on an elemental analyzer mass spectrometer (Delta Plus, Finnigan Mat, San Jose, CA, USA) at CENA (University of Sao Paulo). Exchangeable P, Ca, K, and Mg were measured on 5g subsamples of soil extracted with Mehlich III (Tran and Simard 1993) and analyzed on the ICP-AES (SpectroFMV-3). pH was measured in water. Two analytical replicates per sample were analyzed using reference material (2710 Montana Soil, NIST) for total soil nutrients.

Phosphorus fractionations

The P fractionations were conducted on a subset of samples using a modified Hedley fractionation (Tiessen and Moir 1993; Townsend et al. 2002). Three analytical replicates were used for each sample. The soils were subjected to the following series of extractions:

This same digest was used on a portion of the bicarbonate, hydroxide, and acid extractions, so that the organic P content could be determined from the total minus the inorganic.

All samples were analyzed using the Murphy–Riley method (Murphy and Riley 1962) using a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1203). An independent measure of total soil P was determined using the peroxide/sulfuric digest on a replicate soil sample. The sum of all fractions was compared to this independent measure to provide a measure of confidence in the fractionation scheme.

6. Data Access:

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Asner, G.P., M. Keller, R. Pereira, and J.C. Zweede. 2008. LBA-ECO LC-13 GIS Coverages of Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil : 1996, 1998. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/893.

Murphy, J., and J. Riley, 1962: A modified single solution for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chem. Acta, 27, 31–36.

Nepstad, D. C., P. A. Lefebvre, J. U. L. Silva, J. Tomasella, P. Schlesinger, L. A. Solorzano, P.Moutinho, and D. G. Ray, 2004: Amazon drought and its implications for forest flammability and tree growth: A basin-wide analysis. Global Change Biol., 10, 704–717.

Olander, Lydia P., Mercedes M. Bustamante, Gregory P. Asner, Everaldo Telles, Zayra Prado, and Plinio Camargo. Surface soil changes following selective logging in an Eastern Amazon forest. Earth Interactions, vol. 9(2005 ): No.4

Silver, W. L., J. Neff, M. McGroddy, E. Veldkamp, M. Keller, and R. Cosme, 2000: Effects of soil
texture on belowground carbon and nutrient storage in a lowland Amazonian forest ecosystem. Ecosystems, 3, 193–209.

Tiessen, H., and J. O. Moir, 1993: Characterization of available P by sequential extraction. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis, M. R. Carter, Ed., Lewis Publishers, 75–86.

Townsend, A. R., G. P. Asner, C. C. Cleveland, M. E. Lefer, and M. M. C. Bustamante, 2002: Unexpected changes in soil phosphorus dynamics along pasture chronosequences in the humid tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8067, doi:10.1029/2001JD000650.

Tran, T. S., and R. R. Simard. 1993. Mehlich III - Extractable elements. in M. R. Carter, editor. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton FL.