Skip to main content
ORNL DAAC HomeNASA Home

DAAC Home > Get Data > Field Campaigns > Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA-ECO) > Dataset Documentation
LBA-ECO LC-04 IBIS Model Simulations for the Amazon and Tocantins Basins: 1921-1998
Get Data
Revision date: December 12, 2012

Summary:

The provided data were generated by the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) terrestrial ecosystem model using data from the East Anglia Climate Research Unit climate record for the years 1921-1998. Data are included for the annual net ecosystem exchange of the surface, microbial respiration, root respiration, total soil respiration, soil moisture, leaf area index, drainage, and surface and subsurface runoff, for the entire Amazon and Tocantins basins.

The data files are provided in netCDF format and standard ESRI ARCGIS ARC/INFO ASCIIGRID format. The netCDF files consist of either annual or monthly means from 1921 to 1998. The ASCII files are available only for the annual mean files.

Figure 1. Amazon and Tocantins drainage basins with % of total area by country. Total area is 68.9 x 105 km2.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Botta, A., N. Ramankutty, and J.A. Foley. 2012. LBA-ECO LC-04 IBIS Model Simulations for the Amazon and Tocantins Basins: 1921-1998. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1139

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in December of 2012. Users who download the data between December 2012 and November 2017 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Related data sets:

Table of Contents:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Land Use and Land Cover

Team ID: LC-04 (Foley / Costa)

The investigators were Foley, Jonathan A.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Botta, Aurelie; Cardille, Jeffrey Alan; Coe, Michael T. and Lenters, John D. You may contact Botta, Aurelie (adbotta@facstaff.wisc.edu) and Diosana, Carmela (ccdiosana@facstaff.wisc.edu).

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: LC04_IBIS_Model

The provided data were generated by the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) terrestrial ecosystem model using data from the East Anglia Climate Research Unit climate record for the years 1921-1998. Data are included for the annual net ecosystem exchange of the surface, microbial respiration, root respiration, total soil respiration, soil moisture, leaf area index, drainage, and surface and subsurface runoff, for the entire Amazon and Tocantins basins.

2. Data Characteristics:

The data files are provided in  netCDF, and ASCII formats. The ASCII files are in standard ESRI ARCGIS ARC/INFO ASCIIGRID format.
- The spatial resolution is 0.5 x 0.5 degrees covering the domain 80W/45W, 6N/21S.
- Because CRU climate records are not reliable prior to 1930, we would advise only using results from years 1935-1995 (allowing for a 5-year characteristic time-scale of the deep soil).

net CDF Files:

The netCDF files consist of either annual or monthly means from 1921 to 1998 in consecutive order. The ASCII files are available only for the annual mean files.
- The time column in the netCDF files states whether the file is annual mean or monthly mean. This does not exist in the ASCII data files because it is not part of standard ESRI ASCIIGRID format.
- The column labeled "nb" is the number of time layers in the file. Therefore, for an annual file, nb=78 indicates 78 years of data from 1921-1998. For a monthly file, nb=936 (75 years x 12 months), starting in 1921 and ending in 1998.
- The outputs are stored in netCDF format (.nc) compressed using gzip.

ASCII Files:

The ASCII files are the annual average (one value per year derived from monthly means). For example, awc.asc is in centimeters per year (cm/yr) and is one value for year derived from a mean of 12 monthly values.

Annual mean ASCII files

File Name Units/format Description
aet.asc mm/yr Annual average evapo-transpiration, 78 years: 1921-1998
awc.asc cm Annual average plant available water content, derived from a mean of 12 monthly values,78 years: 1921-1998
co2mic.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total microbial respiration carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998
co2root.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total root respiration carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998
co2soi.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total soil respiration carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998
drainage.asc mm/yr Annual drainage (subsurface runoff), 78 years: 1921-1998
gpptot.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total gross primary productivity of carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998
irdown.asc W/m2 Annual average infrared radiation downward, 78 years: 1921-1998
irup.asc W/m2 Annual average infrared radiation upward, 78 years 1921-1998
lail.asc m2/m2 * Monthly average leaf area index for lower canopies, average for 12 months x 78 years: 1921-1998
laiu.asc m2/m2* Annual average leaf area index for upper canopies, average for 12 months x 78 years: 1921-1998
latent.asc W/m2 Monthly average latent heat flux, average for 12 months x 78 years: 1921-1998
neetot.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total net ecosystem exchange carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998
npptot.asc kg-C/m2 Annual total net primary productivity of carbon, 78 years: 1921-1998. Note: this is not the average for 12 months; it is the total for 12 months or 1 year
sens.asc W/m2 Annual average sensible heat flux
srunoff.asc mm/yr Annual surface runoff, 78 years, 1921-1998
trunoff.asc mm/yr Annual average total runoff (surface plus sub-surface), derived from a mean of 12 monthly values,  78 years: 1921-1998
tsoi.asc degrees C Annual average annual soil temperature
vwc.asc fraction Annual volumetric water content average derived from a mean of 12 monthly values
wisoi.asc fraction Annual soil ice average derived from a mean of 12 monthly values
wsoi.asc fraction Annual soil moisture derived from a mean of 12 monthly values
 
* LAI units were not specified but appear to be m2/m2 with a range of 0-8 for both upper and lower canopies

Example Data Records(aet.asc)

ncols 70
nrows 54
xllcorner -80.0000
yllcorner -21.0000
cellsize 0.500000
NODATA_value -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-
999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 3.332 3.589
4.071 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 3.223 3.592 3.821
4.751 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000
-999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000 -999.000

Annual netCDF files

File Name Units/format Description
aeta.nc mm/year aet: annual average evapo-transpiration
biomassa.nc kg-C/m2 biomass: annual biomass of carbon for each plant functional type
totbiou: annual biomass of carbon for upper canopy
totbio: annual biomass of carboy for lower canopy
co2fa.nc kg-C/m2 gpptot: annual total gross primary productivity of carbon
neetot: annual total net ecosystem exchange carbon
co2mic: annual total microbial respiration carbon
co2root: annual total root respiration carbon
co2soi: annual total soil respiration carbon
csoia.nc kg-C/m2 rootbio: annual total alive root biomass carbon
totalit: annual total above ground litter carbon
totrli: annual total below ground litter carbon
totcsoi: annual total soil carbon without litter
totcmic: annual total microbial carbon
fcovera.nc fraction fu: annual fractional cover of the upper canopy
fi: annual fractional cover of lower canopy
firea.nc fraction
kg-C/m2/yr
disturbf: annual burned fraction of the grid-cell
cdisturb: annual total carbon lost from fire
ira.nc W/m2 irup: annual average infrared radiation upward
irdown: annual average infrared radiation downward
latena.nc W/m2

latent: annual average latent heat flux

sensa.nc W/m2 sens: monthly average sensible heat flux
vegtypea.nc number vegtype0: annual vegetation type – ibis classification

Monthly mean netCDF files

File Name Units/format Description
aetam.nc mm/year aet: annual monthly average evapo-transpiration
co2fm.nc kg-C/m2 gpptot: annual monthly total gross primary productivity of carbon
neetot: annual monthly total net ecosystem exchange carbon
co2mic: annual monthly total microbial respiration carbon
co2root: annual monthly total root respiration carbon
co2soi: annual monthly total soil respiration carbon
gpptotm.nc kg-C/m2/month gpptot: monthly total gross primary productivity of carbon
irm.nc W/m2 irdown: monthly average infrared radiation downward
irup: monthly average infrared radiation upward
laim.nc m2/m2* laiu: monthly average leaf area index for upper canopies
lail: monthly average leaf area index for lower canopies
latentm.nc W/m2 latent: monthly average latent heat flux
npptotm.nc kg-C/m2/month npptot: monthly total net primary productivity of carbon
runoffm.nc mm/day turnoff: monthly average total runoff (surface plus sub-surface)
srunoff: monthly average surface runoff
drainage: monthly average drainage (sub-surface)
sensm.nc W/m2 sens: monthly average sensible heat flux
tsoim.nc degrees C dsoi: monthly average soil temperature
wsoim.nc fraction


cm
wsoi: monthly average soil moisture
sisoi: monthly average soil ice
vwc: monthly volumetric water content
awc: monthly average plant available water content
 
* LAI units were not specified but appear to be m2/m2 with a range of 0-8 for both upper and lower canopies.

Data Center Note: This data set was documented from http://www.sage.wisc.edu/download/LBA.lba.html/LBA-IBIS.zip. From this zip file distribution, the following files were found to be unreadable, and therefore are not included in this data set:

Compressed File Name/Expanded File Name Units/format Description
NPPA.GZ/npp.nc
npp
npptot
anpptot
kg-C/m2/yr npp: annual net primary productivity of carbon for each pft
npptot: annual total npp
anpptot: annual total above-ground npp
PLAIA.GZ/plai.nc
totlaiu
totlail
  totlaiu: annual leaf area index for upper canopy
totlail: annual leaf area index for lower canopy
RUNOFFA.GZ/runoff.nc
trunoff
srunoff
drainage
rratio
tratio
mm/yr trunoff: annual total runoff (surface plus sub-surface)
srunoff: annual surface runoff
drainage:annual drainage (subsurface runoff)
fraction rratio: annual average runoff/aet ratio
tratio: annual average transpiration/aet ratio
WSOIA.GZ/wsoi.nc
wsoi
wisoi
vwc
awc
fraction wsoi: annual average soil moisture
wisoi: annual average soil ice
vwc: annual average volumetric water content
cm awc: annual average plant available water content

Site boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)

Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Amazon Basin (Amazon Basin) -80 -45 6 -21 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

This data set can be used as input, development, and validation of similar models.

4. Quality Assessment:

The CRU05 data set before 1935 contains a gap in the data for the Amazon basin, so this study focused on data from 1935-1995 (allowing for a 5-year characteristic time-scale of the deep soil). The CRU05 data were analyzed by Botta, Ramankutty, and Foley (2002).

Because CRU climate records are not reliable prior to 1930, we would advise only using results from years 1935-1995 (allowing for a 5-year characteristic time-scale of the deep soil).

These data files are generated by numerical models, therefore their accuracy is dependent on the assumptions applied in these models.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

IBIS is a terrestrial biosphere model designed to simulate a variety of ecosystem processes:

For this study, long-term climate records for the Amazon basin were linked to IBIS in order to examine long-term variations in the basin-wide carbon balance.

The data provided were generated by IBIS (Foley et al. 1996, Kucharik et al. 2000) using data from the CRU05 climate record for the years 1921-1998 (New et al. 2000). However, the CRU05 data set before 1935 contains a gap in the data for the Amazon basin, so this study focused on data from 1935-1995.

Data were generated for the annual net ecosystem exchange of the surface, microbial respiration, root respiration, total soil respiration, soil moisture, leaf area index, drainage, surface and subsurface runoff, for the entire Amazon and Tocantins basins.

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

References

Botta, A., N. Ramankutty, and J.A. Foley. 2002. Long-term variations of climate and carbon fluxes over the Amazon basin. Geophysical Research Letters 29(9):Article-1319.

Foley, J.A., I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, S. Levis, D. Pollard, S. Sitch, and A. Haxeltine. 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10(4):603-628.

Kucharik, C.J., J.A. Foley, C. Delire, V.A. Fisher, M.T. Coe, J.D. Lenters, C. Young-Molling, N. Ramankutty, J.M. Norman, and S.T. Gower. 2000. Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14(3):795-825.

New, Mark, Mike Hulme, and Phil Jones. 2000. Representing Twentieth-Century Space-Time Climate Variability. Part II: Development of 1901-96 Monthly Grids of Terrestrial Surface Climate. Journal of Climate 13:2217-2238.