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LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric CO2 in the Amazon: 1999-2004
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Revision date: May 10, 2011

Summary:

This data set reports carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) collected at several forest and pasture sites and in the free troposphere over Amazonia. There are three comma-delimited ASCII files with this data set.

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotope signatures were measured at ten different forest and pasture canopy sites across the states of Amazonas, Para, and Rondonia within the Brazilian Amazon between March 1999 and March 2004. Both daytime and nighttime profile samples were collected.

Samples of CO2 in the troposphere were collected during aircraft flights over the Amazon/Tapajos Rivers, FLONA Tapajos, and pasture/agriculture areas during five days in May 2003 (wet season). Samples were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes of atmospheric CO2. Flights ranged from low altitudes to above the diurnal tropospheric boundary layer.

Measurements of carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are a powerful indicator of large-scale CO2 exchange on land across multiple spatial scales. Stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue and CO2 released by respiration (delta r) can be used as an estimate of changes in ecosystem isotopic discrimination that occur in response to seasonal and interannual changes in environmental conditions, and land-use change (forest-pasture conversion). Understanding of carbon dioxide stable isotope composition can play a central role in influencing our understanding of the extent to which terrestrial ecosystems are carbon sinks.

Data Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Ehleringer, J., L.A. Martinelli, C. Cook, T.F. Domingues, L. Flanagan, J. Berry, and J.P. Ometto. 2011. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric CO2 in the Amazon: 1999-2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1011

Implementation of the LBA Data and Publication Policy by Data Users:

The LBA Data and Publication Policy [http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/lba_data_policy.html] is in effect for a period of five (5) years from the date of archiving and should be followed by data users who have obtained LBA data sets from the ORNL DAAC. Users who download LBA data in the five years after data have been archived must contact the investigators who collected the data, per provisions 6 and 7 in the Policy.

This data set was archived in May of 2011. Users who download the data between May 2011 and April 2016 must comply with the LBA Data and Publication Policy.

Data users should use the Investigator contact information in this document to communicate with the data provider. Alternatively, the LBA Web Site [http://lba.inpa.gov.br/lba/] in Brazil will have current contact information.

Data users should use the Data Set Citation and other applicable references provided in this document to acknowledge use of the data.

Table of Contents:

1. Data Set Overview:

Project: LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon)

Activity: LBA-ECO

LBA Science Component: Carbon Dynamics

Team ID: CD-08 (Ehleringer / Martinelli))

The investigators were Cook, Craig; Domingues, Tomas Ferreira; Ehleringer, James; Flanagan, Lawrence; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Ometto, Jean Pierre H.B. and Berry, Joseph . You may contact Ehleringer, Jim (ehleringer@biology.utah.edu)

LBA Data Set Inventory ID: CD02_Atmosphere_CO2_Isotopes

This project measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotope signatures at ten different forest and pasture canopy sites across the states of Amazonas, Para, and Rondonia within the Brazilian Amazon between March 1999 and March 2004. Both daytime and nighttime profile samples were collected.

Samples of CO2 in the troposphere were collected during aircraft flights over the Amazon/Tapajos Rivers, FLONA Tapajos, and pasture/agriculture areas during five days in May 2003 (wet season). Samples were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes of atmospheric CO2. Flights ranged from low altitudes to above the diurnal tropospheric boundary layer.

Related data sets:

2. Data Characteristics:

The data on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotope signatures include collections between March 1999 and March 2004 made at ten different sites in the states of Amazonas, Para, and Rondonia within the Brazilian Amazon. Actual time and location for each data point are noted in the data files. Forest and pasture data are in separate comma-delimited ASCII files: CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Forest.csv and CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Pasture.csv

Carbon and oxygen isotopes of tropospheric CO2 were collected by aircraft during five days in May 2003 (wet season) on flights over the Amazon/Tapajos Rivers, FLONA Tapajos and pasture/agriculture areas. Flights ranged from low altitudes to above the diurnal tropospheric boundary layer.

Data are in one comma-delimited ASCII file: CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Troposphere.csv

File #1: CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Forest.csv

ColumnHeading Units/format Description
1 Region   Sampling region
2 Site   Sampling site
3 Longitude degrees Location in decimal degrees
4 Latitude degrees Location in decimal degrees
5 Ecosystem   Ecosystem vegetation type: Forest
6 Year YYYY Sampling year
7 Month MM Sampling month
8 Time HHMM Sampling time 24 hour clock (local time)
9 Height meters Sampling height in meters (m)
10CO2_conc ppm Atmospheric CO2 concentration, measured with Licor 6200 in the field or a Licor 6252 in the field
11Inverse_CO2_conc 1/ppm Calculated inverse of atmospheric CO2 concentration
12delta_13C parts per mil Isotopic ratio of 13C/12C in carbon dioxide referenced to PDB, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
13 delta_18O parts per mil Isotopic ratio of 18O/16O in carbon dioxide referenced to SMOW, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
Note: 9999 indicates missing data (note this value is used rather than the more common -9999 due to the large number of negative values for delta variables)
Sampling year, month, and time only are reported; no sampling day is provided.

Example data records:

Region,Site,Longitude,Latitude,Ecosystem,Year,Month,Time,Height, CO2_conc,Inverse_CO2_conc,delta_13C,delta_18O
Manaus,ZF2 km 14,-2.589,-60.1152,Forest,1999,3,721,0.3,467.5,0.00214,-13.1,39.8
Manaus,ZF2 km 14,-2.589,-60.1152,Forest,1999,3,721,5,445,0.00225,-12.1,40.7
...
Santarem,SECA Control,-2.857,-54.959,Forest,1999,3,1650,26,363.7,0.00275,-8.9,41.6
Santarem,SECA Control,-2.857,-54.959,Forest,1999,3,1703,16,360,0.00278, 8.8,41.6
...
Manaus,ZF2 km 14,-2.589,-60.1152,Forest,1999,5,614,0.5,585.3,0.00171,-15.3,34.9
Manaus,ZF2 km 14, 2.589,-60.1152,Forest,1999,5,603,5,538.4,0.00186,-14.8,35.4
...
Rondonia,Rebio,-10.0832,-61.9309,Forest,2000,9,1130,52, 71.6,0.00269,-8.5,40.1
Rondonia,Rebio,-10.0832,-61.9309,Forest,2000,9,1200,52,378.6,0.00264,-8.7,39.5
...
Santarem,SECA Dry,-2.857,-54.959,Forest,2004,3,2145,5,430.6,0.00232,-11.3,38.5
Santarem,SECA Dry,-2.857,-54.959,Forest,2004,3,2150, .2,498.2,0.00201,-13.8,36.4

File #2: CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Pasture.csv

ColumnHeading Units/format Description
1 Region   Sampling region
2 Site   Sampling site
3 Longitude degrees Location in decimal degrees
4 Latitude degrees Location in decimal degrees
5 Ecosystem   Ecosystem vegetation type: Pasture
6 Year YYYY Sampling year
7 Month MM Sampling month
8 Time HHMM Sampling time 24 hour clock (local time)
9 Height meters Sampling height in meters (m)
110CO2_conc ppm Atmospheric CO2 concentration, measured with Licor 6200 in the field or a Licor 6252 in the field
11Inverse_CO2_conc 1/ppm Calculated inverse of atmospheric CO2 concentration
12delta_13C parts per mil Isotopic ratio of 13C/12C in carbon dioxide referenced to PDB, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
13 delta_18O parts per mil Isotopic ratio of 18O/16O in carbon dioxide referenced to SMOW, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
Note: 9999 indicates missing data ( note this value is used rather than the more common -9999 due to the large number of negative values for delta variables)
Sampling year, month, and time only are reported; no sampling day is provided.

Example data records:


Region,Site,Longitude,Latitude,Ecosystem,Year,Month,Time,Height,CO2_conc,Inverse_CO2_conc,delta_13C,delta_18O
Manaus,ZF3,-2,-59,Pasture,1999,5,1200,0.27,469.6,0.00213,-12.1,36.6
Manaus,ZF3,-2,-59,Pasture,1999,5,1740,0.27,467.2,0.00214,-12,37.5
...
Rondonia, Rebio,-10.7618,-62.3572,Pasture,2000,2,1545,0.6, 52.8, 0.00283,-7.9,38.9
Rondonia, Rebio, 10.7618,-62.3572,Pasture,2000,2,1545, 0.2,375.3,0.00266,-8.3,38.2
...
Santarem, km 77,-3.0202,-54.959,Pasture,1999,5,1440,0.84,361.7,0.00276,-8.4,43
Santarem, km 77,-3.0202,-54.959,Pasture,1999,5,1440,0.27,391.5,0.00255,-8.4,43.2
...
Santarem, Mojui, -2.76667,-54.57917,Pasture,2002,6,2107, .02,746.8,0.00134,-16.3,38
Santarem, Mojui, -2.76667,-54.57917,Pasture,2002,6,2104,1,628.4,0.00159,-16.3,39.5
...

File #3: CD02_Stable_Isotope_Air_Troposphere.csv

ColumnHeading Units/format Description
1Row  Row number
2Flask_ID  Identification number for each air sample flask
3Local_timeHH:MM:SS Time (HH:MM:SS) of sampling in local time (GMT -4)
4Flight_time  Duration of flight in minutes
5DateYYYYMMDD Sample date (YYYYMMDD)
6GPS_dateYMMDD Date (YMMDD) recorded by GPS
7GPS_timeHHMMSS Time (HHMMSS) recorded by GPS unit in GMT time
9Latitude degreesSampling latitude in decimal degrees
9Longitude degrees Sampling longitude in decimal degrees
11Altitudemasl Sampling altitude in meters above sea level
11ThetaK Potential temperature calculated in degrees Kelvin
12Atm_presspa Atmospheric pressure measured in Pascals
13CO2_refppm Measured CO2 concentration in parts per million for the reference cell of the Licor IRGA
14CO2_sample ppm Measured CO2 concentration in parts per million for the sample cell of the Licor IRGA
15RH_outside% Relative humidity (%) measured outside the window of plane
16T_outside degrees CTemperature in degrees C measured outside the window of the plane
17CO2_calcppm Atmospheric CO2 concentration in parts per million calculated from Licor measurements =CO2_ref-CO2_sample+350.3
18Comment  Observation on the flight
19Flask_CO2ppm CO2 concentration in sample flasks, expressed as parts per million, measured independently in the lab
20Delta_13Cper milIsotopic ratio of 13C/12C in carbon dioxide per mil from flasks referenced to PDB, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
21Delta_18O per milIsotopic ratio of 18O/16O in carbon dioxide per mil from flasks referenced to SMOW, measured with continuous flow on Finigan Delta Plus at CENA
 
Missing data values are represented by 9999

Example data records:

Row,Flask_ID,Local_time,Flight_time,Date,GPS_date,GPS_time,Latitude,Longitude,Altitude,Theta,
Atm_press,CO2_ref,CO2_sample,RH_outside,T_outside,CO2_calc,Comment,Flask_CO2,Delta_13C,Delta_18O
1,N55,16:28:02,847,20030526,30526,202652,-2.32594,-54.9184,326,305.22,
97.17,387.69,357.77,73,28.6,380.22,Flight #1,380.14,-8.26,41.69
2,N62,16:33:40,1185,20030526,30526,203230,-2.18228,-54.919,299,305.41,
97.41,386.65,357.91,74.2,29,379.04,Flight #2,379.6,-8.26,41.5
3,N70,16:38:47,1492,20030526,30526,203737,-2.21994,-54.8018,327,305.63,
97.12,386.97,358.22,69.2,28.9,379.05,Flight #3,549.59,-13.11,38.85
4,N18,16:51:55,2280,20030526,30526,205045,-2.59789,-54.8356,318,304.59,
97.25,385.09,358.42,83.4,28,376.97,Flight #4,376.08,-8.13,41.89
...

Site boundaries:

(All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
Site (Region) Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude Geodetic Datum
Rondonia - Fazenda Nossa Senhora  Pasture -62.3572 -62.3572 -10.7618 -10.7618World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Amazonas (Manaus) - ZF2 km 34 (Amazonas (Manaus)) -60.20910 -60.00000 -2.50000 -2.60900 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.95900 -54.95900 -2.85700 -2.85700 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - km 67 Seca-Floresta Site
(Para Western (Santarem))
-55.00000 -55.00000 -2.75000 -2.75000 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - km 83 Logged Forest Tower Site (Para Western (Santarem)) -54.97070 -54.97070 -3.01700 -3.01700 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - km 77 Pasture Tower Site
(Para Western (Santarem))
-54.88850 -54.88850 -3.02020 -3.02020 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - Mojui
(Para Western (Santarem))
-54.57917 -54.57917 -2.76667 -2.76667 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Amazonas (Manaus) - ZF2 km 14 (Amazonas (Manaus)) -60.11520 -60.11520 -2.58900 -2.58900 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Amazonas (Manaus) - ZF3 Fazenda Dimona
(Amazonas (Manaus))
-59.00000 -59.00000 -2.00000 -2.00000 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Rondonia - Jaru Biological Reserve Tower A (Rondonia) -61.93090 -61.93090 -10.08320 -10.08320 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)
Para Western (Santarem) - km 117  Tower Site
(Para Western (Santarem))
-56.00000 -56.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS-84)

Time period:

Platform/Sensor/Parameters measured include:

3. Data Application and Derivation:

Measurements of carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 are a powerful indicator of large-scale CO2 exchange on land across multiple spatial scales. Stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue and CO2 released by respiration (delta r) can be used as an estimate of changes in ecosystem isotopic discrimination that occur in response to seasonal and interannual changes in environmental conditions, and land-use change (forest-pasture conversion). Understanding of carbon dioxide stable isotope composition can play a central role in influencing our understanding of the extent to which terrestrial ecosystems are carbon sinks.

4. Quality Assessment:

Standard samples were run along with the field samples for all analyses to check the calibration of the instruments. There are no known problems with the data.

5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

The data on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotope signatures include collections between March 1999 and March 2004 made at 10 different sites in the states of Amazonas, Para, and Rondonia within the Brazilian Amazon. Actual time and location for each data point are noted in the data files. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of atmospheric carbon dioxide collected during 5 days in May 2003 (wet season) on flights over the Amazon/Tapajos Rivers, FLONA Tapajos and pasture/agriculture areas. Flights ranged from low altitudes to over the diurnal tropospheric boundary layer.

Atmospheric sampling within the forest/pasture canopies:
At each site we collected samples of air at intervals during a 1-2 day period. Sample lines (Dekoron tubing, 6 mm outer diameter) were located at different heights in the canopy by attachment to a scaffold tower (forest) or wooden pole (pasture). A small filter was placed over the inlet to prevent the entry of insects. Air was pulled down through the tubing, through a desiccant tube containing magnesium perchlorate, and into glass flasks (100 ml, see Ehleringer and Cook, 1998) by a battery-operated pump (Capex V2X, Charles Austin, West Byfleet, Surrey, UK). Air was passed through the flasks for approximately 7-10 minutes before the high vacuum stopcocks on the flask were closed. The flask was then returned to the lab for stable isotope analyses and CO2 concentration measurement. Sampling times were chosen to obtain diurnal variation of concentrations and isotopes.

Tropospheric measurements:
Samples were collected during 5 days in May 2003 (wet season) on flights over the Amazon/Tapajos Rivers, FLONA Tapajos and pasture/agriculture areas. Flights ranged from low altitudes to over the diurnal tropospheric boundary layer. Samples were collected in a tube attached to the wing of the small plane. Duplicate samples were collected in sample flasks and analyzed for CO2 concentration, delta 13C and delta 18O of CO2 at CENA.

Sample analyses:
CO2 concentrations were measured with Licor 6200 in the field and Licor 6252 in the lab at CENA/USP in Piracicaba 13C/12C; 18O/16O - Measured with continuous flow on Finigan MAT Delta Plus (CENA/USP).

6. Data Access:

This data is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Data Archive Center:

Contact for Data Center Access Information:
E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952

7. References:

Ehleringer, J.R., and C.S. Cook. 1998. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration along an Oregon conifer transect: preliminary observations based upon small-flask sampling. Tree Physiol. 18:513-519.

Flanagan, L.B., D.S. Kubien, and J.R. Ehleringer, Spatial and temporal variation in the carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio of respired CO2 in a boreal forest ecosystem, Tellus, 51B, 367-384, 1999.

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