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SE-590 GROUND DATA: UNL (FIFE)
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SE-590 Ground Data: UNL (FIFE)

Summary:

The SE-590 Reflectance Factors and Radiances from UNL Data Set contains surface reflectance and viewing angle data that was collected at three sites within the FIFE study area via a SE590 mounted on a portable mast. All measurements were made on eleven days between July 15 and August 11, 1989. Measurements were typically coordinated with aircraft and/or satellite overpasses. On days when measurements were not made the bare soil was covered with a plastic mulch that allowed moisture to penetrate the surface but hindered the regrowth of the vegetation. Solar radiation data at or near the specific site should be used to screen possible times of variable cloud cover.

Canopy, illumination, and viewing geometry are critical in determining the amount of reflected radiation received at the sensor. The measurements were predominantly made in the solar principal plane since the greatest variation in observed reflected radiation is expected to occur in that plane due to extremes in sunlit and shaded portions of the canopy (Norman and Walthall 1985). Reflected radiation measurements were converted to radiances and reflectance factor. Reflected radiation from a field reference panel corrected for non-perfect reflectance and sun angle was used as an estimate of the ideal Lambertian standard surface (Walter-Shea and Biehl 1990).

Table of Contents:

  1. Data Set Overview
  2. Investigator(s)
  3. Theory of Measurements
  4. Equipment
  5. Data Acquisition Methods
  6. Observations
  7. Data Description
  8. Data Organization
  9. Data Manipulations
  10. Errors
  11. Notes
  12. Application of the Data Set
  13. Future Modifications and Plans
  14. Software
  15. Data Access
  16. Output Products and Availability
  17. References
  18. Glossary of Terms
  19. List of Acronyms
  20. Document Information

1. Data Set Overview:

Data Set Identification:

SE-590 Ground Data: UNL (FIFE).
(SE-590 Reflectance Factors and Radiances from UNL ).

Data Set Introduction:

The SE-590 Reflectance Factors and Radiances from UNL Data Set contains surface reflectance and viewing angle data that was collected at three sites within the FIFE study area.

Objective/Purpose:

  1. Characterize bi-directional reflectance factor distributions in the solar principal plane for a tall grass prairie.
  2. Estimate surface albedo from bi-directional reflectance factor and radiance data.
  3. Determine the variability of reflected and emitted fluxes in selected spectral wavebands as a function of topography, vegetative community and management practice.
  4. Determine the influence of plant water status on surface reflectance factors.
  5. Determine sun angle affects on radiation fluxes.

Summary of Parameters:

Surface reflectance and viewing angles.

Discussion:

The SE590 was mounted on a portable mast in order to achieve a spatial and temporal sampling at sites 906 (2133-BBS), 916 (4439-BBS), and 966 (2437-BBS). Measurements were periodically collected with the SE590 on the portable mast over a halon panel. Solar radiation data at or near the specific site should be used to screen possible times of variable cloud cover.

At sites 906 (2133-BBS) and 916 (4439-BBS), six (6) plots were identified. One of the 6 plots (plot number 999) was a bare soil plot prepared with a weed trimmer that removed the surface vegetation but left the root systems intact. On days when measurements were not made the bare soil was covered with a plastic mulch that allowed moisture to penetrate the surface but hindered the regrowth of the vegetation. The portable mast was always aligned in the solar principal plane at the above sites. Measurements were typically coordinated with aircraft and/or satellite overpasses.

At site 966 (2437-BBS), sixteen (16) plots were identified. One of these plots was a bare soil plot that was treated in the aforementioned manner. At this site the portable mast was aligned parallel to the aspect of each plot (i.e., north-south or east-west). Plot number 991 was bare measured in north-south plane, 992 was bare soil measured in east-west plane.

All measurements were made on eleven days between July 15 and August 11, 1989.

Related Data Sets:

FIS Data Base Table Name:

SE590_GROUND_UNL_DATA.

2. Investigator(s):

Investigator(s) Name and Title:

Blaine L. Blad, Professor and Head
Elizabeth A. Walter-Shea, Asst. Professor
University of Nebraska

Title of Investigation:

Measuring and Modeling Near-Surface Reflected and Emitted Radiation Fluxes at the FIFE Site.

Contact Information:

Contact 1:
Cynthia J. Hays
107 LWC
Lincoln, NE
68583-0728
(402)472-6701

Contact 2:
Mark A. Mesarch
Lincoln, NE
(402)472-5904
AGME012@129.93.200.1

Contact 3:
Elizabeth A. Walter-Shea
Lincoln, NE
(402)472-1553
AGME012@129.93.200.1

Requested Form of Acknowledgment.

The Leaf Area Index and PAR Determined from the UNL Light Bar Data were collected under the direction of B.L. Blad and E.A. Walter-Shea at the University of Nebraska. The dedicated efforts of C.J. Hays and M.A. Mesarch in the collection and preparation of these data is particularly appreciated.

3. Theory of Measurements:

Light radiation striking a vegetative canopy interacts with individual phytoelements (leaves, stems, branches) and the underlying substrate. The interaction depends on light quality, radiative form (direct or diffuse), illumination incidence angle, vegetative component optical properties and canopy architecture. Radiation is reflected, transmitted or absorbed. Researchers have shown that phytoelements and substrates are not perfect Lambertian reflectors, i.e., they do not reflect equally in all directions (Breece and Holmes 1971; Walter-Shea et al., 1989; Brakke et al., 1989; Irons et al., 1989). The amount of leaf area and leaf angle distribution will determine the amount of vegetation and substrate that is sunlit and shaded. The amount of vegetative and substrate and respective amounts of sunlit and shaded components in a scene will vary depending upon the angle at which it is viewed, i.e., the canopy is itself a non-Lambertian surface. Thus, canopy, illumination and viewing geometry are critical in determining the amount of reflected radiation received at the sensor. Our measurements were predominantly made in the solar principal plane since the greatest variation in observed reflected radiation is expected to occur in that plane due to extremes in sunlit and shaded portions of the canopy (Norman and Walthall 1985).

Reflected radiation measurements were converted to radiances and reflectance factor. The reflectance factor is the ratio of the target reflected radiant flux to an ideal radiant flux reflected by an ideal Lambertian standard surface irradiated in exactly the same way as the target. Reflected radiation from a field reference panel corrected for non-perfect reflectance and sun angle was used as an estimate of the ideal Lambertian standard surface (Walter-Shea and Biehl 1990).

4. Equipment:

Sensor/Instrument Description:

The Spectron Engineering SE590 is a portable battery operated spectroradiometer consisting of a CE500 data analyzer/logger controller, CE390 spectral detector head and an external battery charger/power supply. The CE500 is a self contained microprocessor-based controller which processes the signal from the head, amplifying and digitizing it with 12 bit resolution. For each spectral scan, the controller actuates the CE390 shutter, measures and stores the dark current, calculates optimum integration time, acquires the spectrum and automatically subtracts the noise for all 256 spectral elements. A series of scans can be taken and automatically averaged. The spectrum is stored in a double precision register which saves the entire 12-bit binary spectra until it is transmitted through the RS-232C port. The spectral detector head uses a defraction grating as the dispersive element; the spectrum is imaged onto a 256 element photodiode array. Each element integrates simultaneously acquiring the spectrum in a fraction of a second The interconnect cable from the spectral head to the controller couples the spectral signals to the controller, timing and control signals to the head. A shutter in the head, operated by the controller closes the light path for dark current measurements. For further information consult the SE590 operating manual. Serial Number 1571 was used.

Collection Environment:

Ground-based.

Source/Platform:

The SE590 was mounted 3.4 m above the soil surface on a portable, pointable mast which allowed the SE590 to view approximately the same surface area, regardless of the view zenith angle.

Source/Platform Mission Objectives:

Not applicable.

Key Variables:

Surface radiances and reflectance factors from 400 to 1000 nm at every 5 nm.

Principles of Operation:

The SE590 spectral detector head uses a defraction grating as the dispersive element; the spectrum is imaged onto a 256 element photodiode array. Each element integrates simultaneously acquiring the spectrum in a fraction of a second.

Sensor/Instrument Measurement Geometry:

The SE590 was mounted on a portable, pointable mast. The mast allowed the SE590 to view approximately the same surface area, regardless of the view zenith angle. The SE590 was located at 3.4 m above the soil surface with a 15 degree field-of-view and a spot size of approximately 0.75 m diameter at nadir.

Manufacturer of Sensor/Instrument:

Spectron Engineering, Inc.
255 Yuma Court
Denver, Colorado 80223
(303) 733-1060

Calibration:

A post-season radiance calibration was supplemented by daily stability checks during the IFC-5 using a 30 cm integrating sphere operated at two lamp intensities. The 30 cm integrating sphere was located in an environmental chamber at the Kansas State Evapotranspiration Laboratory that was kept at a near constant ambient temperature during the checks.

Temperature sensitivity data were obtained when the chamber was not being used for stability checks. No corrections were made for the temperature sensitivity (Blad et al., 1990). A post-season wavelength calibration was performed. The post-season radiance and wavelength calibrations were performed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

Specifications:

Each SE590 has a unique wavelength associated with each of its 252 bands. So that wavelength to wavelength comparisons could be made among SE-590s used at FIFE a cubic spline interpolation was applied to the 252 bands to standardize the wavelengths to every 5 nm from 400 to 1000 nm.

Tolerance:

Results from the temperature dependency data indicated that measurements at wavelength of 1000 nm may result in discrepancies of approximately 50 [Watts][m^-2] [sr^-1][um^-1] if the instrument temperature varies for 16 to 43.5 degree C (Blad et al., 1990).

Frequency of Calibration:

Daily stability checks were only performed during the IFC-5 period. A post-season wavelength and radiance calibration were performed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

Other Calibration Information:

Calibration coefficients used for data reduction (Kim 1990).

                 SE-590     Wavelength              SE-590     Wavelength
Band        (nm)                   Band        (nm)
------    -----------              ------    -----------
1.0        374.46                  51.0        504.70
2.0        377.00                  52.0        507.65
3.0        379.52                  53.0        510.61
4.0        382.01                  54.0        513.57
5.0        384.47                  55.0        516.53
6.0        386.92                  56.0        519.49
7.0        389.34                  57.0        522.46
8.0        391.75                  58.0        525.42
9.0        394.15                  59.0        528.39
10.0        396.53                  60.0        531.35
11.0        398.91                  61.0        534.31
12.0        401.28                  62.0        537.27
13.0        403.64                  63.0        540.22
14.0        406.00                  64.0        543.16
15.0        408.36                  65.0        546.10
16.0        410.72                  66.0        549.03
17.0        413.09                  67.0        551.96
18.0        415.47                  68.0        554.87
19.0        417.85                  69.0        557.78
20.0        420.25                  70.0        560.69
21.0        422.66                  71.0        563.59
22.0        425.08                  72.0        566.48
23.0        427.53                  73.0        569.37
24.0        429.99                  74.0        572.25
25.0        432.48                  75.0        575.13
26.0        435.00                  76.0        578.00
27.0        437.54                  77.0        580.87
28.0        440.12                  78.0        583.74
29.0        442.71                  79.0        586.60
30.0        445.34                  80.0        589.46
31.0        447.98                  81.0        592.32
32.0        450.66                  82.0        595.17
33.0        453.35                  83.0        598.03
34.0        456.07                  84.0        600.88
35.0        458.80                  85.0        603.73
36.0        461.56                  86.0        606.58
37.0        464.34                  87.0        609.43
38.0        467.13                  88.0        612.28
39.0        469.94                  89.0        615.13
40.0        472.77                  90.0        617.98
41.0        475.61                  91.0        620.83
42.0        478.47                  92.0        623.69
43.0        481.34                  93.0        626.54
44.0        484.23                  94.0        629.40
45.0        487.12                  95.0        632.26
46.0        490.03                  96.0        635.12
47.0        492.95                  97.0        637.99
48.0        495.87                  98.0        640.86
49.0        498.81                  99.0        643.73
50.0        501.75                  
                 SE-590    Wavelength             SE-590      Wavelength
Band        (nm)                 Band         (nm)
------   -----------             ------    -----------
100.0      646.61                 150.0      804.58
101.0      649.49                 151.0      807.73
102.0      652.37                 152.0      810.80
103.0      655.27                 153.0      813.78
104.0      658.16                 154.0      816.69
105.0      661.07                 155.0      819.53
106.0      663.98                 156.0      822.33
107.0      666.89                 157.0      825.08
108.0      669.82                 158.0      827.82
109.0      672.75                 159.0      830.54
110.0      675.68                 160.0      833.27
111.0      678.63                 161.0      836.01
112.0      681.59                 162.0      838.78
113.0      684.55                 163.0      841.60
114.0      687.52                 164.0      844.47
115.0      690.51                 165.0      847.40
116.0      693.50                 166.0      850.38
117.0      696.50                 167.0      853.40
118.0      699.51                 168.0      856.47
119.0      702.54                 169.0      859.58
120.0      705.57                 170.0      862.73
121.0      708.63                 171.0      865.91
122.0      711.69                 172.0      869.13
123.0      714.77                 173.0      872.37
124.0      717.87                 174.0      875.64
125.0      720.98                 175.0      878.93
126.0      724.12                 176.0      882.24
127.0      727.27                 177.0      885.56
128.0      730.44                 178.0      888.90
129.0      733.63                 179.0      892.24
130.0      736.85                 180.0      895.59
131.0      740.09                 181.0      898.94
132.0      743.35                 182.0      902.29
133.0      746.64                 183.0      905.64
134.0      749.96                 184.0      908.97
135.0      753.30                 185.0      912.30
136.0      756.67                 186.0      915.61
137.0      760.07                 187.0      918.91
138.0      763.50                 188.0      922.20
139.0      766.96                 189.0      925.48
140.0      770.44                 190.0      928.74
141.0      773.94                 191.0      932.00
142.0      777.44                 192.0      935.24
143.0      780.93                 193.0      938.48
144.0      784.42                 194.0      941.71
145.0      787.88                 195.0      944.94
146.0      791.31                 196.0      948.16
147.0      794.71                 197.0      951.37
148.0      798.06                 198.0      954.58
149.0      801.35                 199.0      957.79
                 SE-590    Wavelength             SE-590    Wavelength
Band        (nm)                 Band       (nm)
------   -----------             ------   -----------
200.0      960.99                 227.0     1049.86
201.0      964.20                 228.0     1053.36
202.0      967.40                 229.0     1056.87
203.0      970.61                 230.0     1060.41
204.0      973.81                 231.0     1063.98
205.0      977.02                 232.0     1067.57
206.0      980.23                 233.0     1071.18
207.0      983.44                 234.0     1074.83
208.0      986.66                 235.0     1078.50
209.0      989.89                 236.0     1082.20
210.0      993.12                 237.0     1085.93
211.0      996.36                 238.0     1089.69
212.0      999.60                 239.0     1093.48
213.0     1002.86                 240.0     1097.30
214.0     1006.12                 241.0     1101.16
215.0     1009.40                 242.0     1105.05
216.0     1012.69                 243.0     1108.98
217.0     1015.99                 244.0     1112.94
218.0     1019.30                 245.0     1116.93
219.0     1022.63                 246.0     1120.97
220.0     1025.97                 247.0     1125.04
221.0     1029.33                 248.0     1129.15
222.0     1032.70                 249.0     1133.31
223.0     1036.10                 250.0     1137.50
224.0     1039.51                 251.0     1141.73
225.0     1042.94                 252.0     1146.01
226.0     1046.39                 
            Wavelength       Gain               Wavelength      Gain
nm       mw/cm**2/sr/um              nm      mw/cm**2/sr/um
----------  --------------          ----------  --------------
400          263.633                 700         350.783
405          274.057                 705         351.602
410          282.613                 710         354.681
415          296.082                 715         358.079
420          303.871                 720         360.935
425          312.753                 725         364.852
430          324.930                 730         371.416
435          332.479                 735         368.823
440          339.977                 740         365.294
445          345.739                 745         360.659
450          354.622                 750         355.083
455          365.716                 755         349.410
460          374.271                 760         345.561
465          375.009                 765         340.358
470          378.029                 770         334.961
475          384.020                 775         331.620
480          390.908                 780         328.776
485          395.546                 785         326.009
490          398.697                 790         321.703
495          401.076                 795         318.355
500          404.482                 800         315.319
505          409.679                 805         309.614
510          413.277                 810         302.738
515          417.860                 815         294.983
520          419.434                 820         285.112
525          422.846                 825         275.076
530          424.758                 830         267.174
535          424.648                 835         259.284
540          427.125                 840         253.517
545          431.156                 845         247.698
550          427.081                 850         243.706
555          419.876                 855         241.022
560          416.169                 860         239.341
565          418.159                 865         238.080
570          420.895                 870         234.559
575          425.116                 875         229.539
580          430.024                 880         223.907
585          433.456                 885         217.964
590          435.884                 890         211.060
595          434.030                 895         203.281
600          428.958                 900         195.992
605          423.899                 905         188.603
610          421.058                 910         181.105
615          423.795                 915         173.707
620          428.056                 920         166.607
625          428.043                 925         158.849
630          424.601                 930         151.206
635          420.466                 935         146.534
640          413.988                 940         140.942
645          409.616                 945         134.797
650          406.709                 950         128.332
655          401.884                 955         122.288
660          393.546                 960         115.972
665          387.686                 965         110.053
670          379.607                 970         103.848
675          369.267                 975          97.878
680          359.933                 980          91.951
685          354.666                 985          85.684
690          352.157                 990          80.127
695          350.419                 995          74.694
1000          70.086

5. Data Acquisition Methods:

The SE590 was mounted on a pointable, portable mast at a height of 3.4 m above the soil surface. The mast allowed the sensor to view the same surface area regardless of the viewing direction. A reference panel was positioned at a height of approximately 1 m above the soil surface. This panel was located within easy access to the plots and was measured to estimate the incoming radiation needed for data reduction. A measurement of the reference panel was made at the beginning of the measurement period. The mast was then positioned within a plot and aligned in the solar principal plane at sites 906 (2133-ECA) and 916 (4439-ECV) or parallel to the aspect of the plot (i.e., north-south or east-west) at site 966 (2437-BBS). Measurements were made at nadir and 20, 35 and 50 degree view zenith angles either side of nadir in the azimuthal plant of interest. At site 966 (2437-BBS) an additional view zenith angle perpendicular to the slope of the plot was included. An average of four SE590 scans were recorded. View zenith angles were measured by an inclinometer mounted on the mast. The mast was moved from plot to plot. After 20 to 25 minutes another measurement of the reference panel was made and the above procedure was repeated ending with a measurement of the reference panel.

6. Observations:

Data Notes:

Not available.

Field Notes:

7. Data Description:

Spatial Characteristics:

The FIFE study area with areal extent of 15 km by 15 km, is located south of the Tuttle Reservoir and Kansas River, and about 10 km from Manhattan, Kansas, USA. The northwest corner of the area has UTM coordinates of 4,334,000 Northing and 705,000 Easting in UTM Zone 14.

Spatial Coverage:

All view-zenith angles were measured with respect to gravity not in relation to the slope of the plot.

Plots at sites 906 (2133-BBS) and 916 (4439-BBS) were located northeast of the Wind Aligned Blob (WAB) site (Sellers et al., 1989). A topography file containing the northing and easting of the plots at each site except for site 966 (2437-BBS), is available in the GRABBAG section of FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1 in the UNL directory, in file UNL_PLOT.T89. This file also includes slope, aspect, soil depth and vegetative height of the plots, for all sites.

Measurements were made at the following three locations within the FIFE study area:

      SITEGRID  STN  NORTHING  EASTING  LATITUDE   LONGITUDE  ELEV  SLOPE  ASPECT
--------  ---  --------  -------  --------   ---------  ----  -----  ------
2133-BBS  906  4329726   711604   39 05 34   -96 33 12   443    1     TOP
2437-BBS  966  4329150   712375   39 05 15   -96 32 41 
4439-BBS  916  4325193   712773   39 03 06   -96 32 28   443    2      N

Spatial Coverage Map:

Not available.

Spatial Resolution:

The footprint (surface area viewed by the SE590 at a height of 3.4 meters from the soil surface) had a diameter of 0.75 m at nadir and changed with view zenith angle. The plot size was approximately 3 m x 3 m.

Projection:

Not available.

Grid Description:

Not available.

Temporal Characteristics:

Temporal Coverage:

Measurements on all the plots at sites 906 (2133-BBS) and 916 (4439-BBS) required 30 minutes or less and were coordinated with aircraft and satellite overpasses. Measurements of all the plots at site 966 (2437-BBS) required 2 to 3 hours.

Temporal Coverage Map:

Not available.

Temporal Resolution:

The measurement time ranged from 1358 to 2219 GMT. Measurements were not continuously made over this range but were in discrete measurement periods depending on the number of plots in a site and coordination with aircraft and satellite overpasses. Data were obtained at only one site per day. A maximum of five (5) discrete measurement periods throughout the day was obtained. Measurements were made between June 15, 1989 and August 11, 1989. During this period measurements were made on the following 11 days:

OBS_DATE:

Data Characteristics:

The SQL definition for this table is found in the SE_UNL.TDF file located on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1.


Parameter/Variable Name
Parameter/Variable Description Range Units Source
SITEGRID_ID This is a FIS grid location code. Site grid codes (SSEE-III) give the south (SS) and east (EE) cell number in a 100 x 100 array of 200 m square cells. The last 3 characters (III) are an instrument identifier.
STATION_ID The station ID designating the location of the observations.
OBS_DATE The date of the observations, in the format (DD-MMM-YY).
OBS_TIME The start time of the observation [GMT] in GMT. The format is (HHMM).
VIEW_AZIM_ANG The view azimuth angle. With [degrees North=0, East=90 from North]
VIEW_ZEN_ANG The view zenith angle of the [degrees] observations. With a nadir view, view zenith angle=0
SOLAR_AZIM_ANG The solar azimuth angle. With [degrees North=0, East=90 from North]
SOLAR_ZEN_ANG The solar zenith angle. [degrees]
PLOT The identification number assigned to a specific plot within a site. Plots numbered 999 are bare soil.
SLOPE For the slope site this column contains measurements of the slope of the measured plot in degrees.
ASPECT For the slope site this column contains measurements of the aspect of the measured plot in degrees, with north=0 and east=90. With aspect defined as the direction a line perpendicular from the surface points.
WAVLEN The wavelength at which the [microns] observation was made.
REFL The average percent reflectance. [percent] Radiance values have been resampled using a cubic spline interpolation then ratioed with calibration panel data.
FIFE_DATA_CRTFCN_CODE The FIFE Certification Code for * the data, in the following format: CPI (Certified by PI), CPI-??? (CPI - questionable data).
LAST_REVISION_DATE data, in the format (DD-MMM-YY).

Footnote:

Valid levels

The primary certification codes are: EXM Example or Test data (not for release) PRE Preliminary (unchecked, use at your own risk) CPI Checked by Principal Investigator (reviewed for quality) CGR Checked by a group and reconciled (data comparisons and cross checks)

The certification code modifiers are: PRE-NFP Preliminary - Not for publication, at the request of investigator. CPI-MRG PAMS data that is "merged" from two separate receiving stations to eliminate transmission errors. CPI-??? Investigator thinks data item may be questionable.

Sample Data Record:

     SITEGRID_ID  STATION_ID  OBS_DATE     OBS_TIME      PLOT       SLOPE 
-----------  ----------  ---------   ----------  ----------  ---------- 
4439-BBS        916      04-AUG-89      1730          1
4439-BBS        916      04-AUG-89      1730          1
4439-BBS        916      04-AUG-89      1730          1
4439-BBS        916      04-AUG-89      1730          1
       ASPECT    VIEW_AZIM_ANG   VIEW_ZEN_ANG  SOLAR_AZIM_ANG  SOLAR_ZEN_ANG
----------  -------------   ------------  --------------  -------------
325            0            146.9           25.2
325            0            146.9           25.2
325            0            146.9           25.2
325            0            146.9           25.2
       WAVLEN       REFL     FIFE_DATA_CRTFCN_CODE  LAST_REVISION_DATE
----------  ----------  ---------------------  ------------------
.4          2.23              CPI                11-JAN-91
.405        2.21              CPI                11-JAN-91
.41         2.25              CPI                11-JAN-91
.415         2.34              CPI                11-JAN-91

8. Data Organization:

Data Granularity:

Measurements were not continuously made but were in discrete measurement periods depending on the number of plots in a site and coordination with aircraft and satellite overpasses. Data were obtained at only one site per day. A maximum of five (5) discrete measurement periods throughout the day was obtained.

A general description of data granularity as it applies to the IMS appears in the EOSDIS Glossary.

Data Format:

The CD-ROM file format consists of numerical and character fields of varying length separated by commas. The character fields are enclosed with a single apostrophe. There are no spaces between the fields. Each file begins with five header records. Header records contain the following information: Record 1 Name of this file, its table name, number of records in this file, path and name of the document that describes the data in this file, and name of principal investigator for these data. Record 2 Path and filename of the previous data set, and path and filename of the next data set. (Path and filenames for files that contain another set of data taken at the same site on the same day.) Record 3 Path and filename of the previous site, and path and filename of the next site. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken on the same day for the previous and next sites (sequentially numbered by SITEGRID_ID)). Record 4 Path and filename of the previous date, and path and filename of the next date. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken at the same site for the previous and next date.) Record 5 Column names for the data within the file, delimited by commas. Record 6 Data records begin.

Each field represents one of the attributes listed in the chart in the Data Characteristics Section and described in detail in the TDF file. These fields are in the same order as in the chart.

9. Data Manipulations:

Formulae:

Ls(t,j) or Lp(t1,j) or Lp(t2,j) = Vc(t,j) / [G(j)] [1]

where:

G(j) = wavelength gain (mW/cm**2/sr/um)
Ls(t,j) or Lp(t1,j) or Lp(t2,j) = wavelength spectral radiance for surface or reference panel (W/m**2/sr/um)
j = wavelength (400-1000 nm in 5 nm increments
t, t1, t2 = time of measurement

Lp(t,j) = Lp(t1,j) + {[(t - t1) / (t2 - t1)] * [Lp(t2,j) - Lp(t1,j)]} [2]

where: Lp(t1,j) and Lp(t2,j) = wavelength reference panel radiance bracketing the surface radiances at times t1 and t2 (W/m**2/sr/um)
Lp(t,j) = wavelength radiance of the reference panel at the surface radiance time t (W/m**2/sr/um)

Lp(t,j) = Lp(t1,j) * [sin(sea(t1)) / sin(sea(t))] [3]

where:

sea(t1) = solar elevation angle at time t1
sea(t) = solar elevation angle at time t

RF(t,j) = Ls(t,j) / (Lp(t,j) / RFp(t,j)) [4]

where:

Ls(t,j) = wavelength surface radiance at time t(W/m**2/sr/um)
RF(t,j) = wavelength surface reflectance factor at time t (%)
RFp(t,j) = wavelength reflectance factor for the reference panel at time t (%)

Derivation Techniques and Algorithms:

A Lapsphere molded halon reference panel was used. This panel was calibrated in September 1989 by the University of Nebraska following the procedure of Jackson et al. (1987).

The calibration yields the coefficients to a third order polynomial of the form:

RFp(t,j) = C0(j) + C1(j) * ZEN + C2(j) * ZEN**2 + C3(j) * ZEN**3

where:

C0, C1, C2, and C3 = the calibration coefficients for wavelength j
ZEN = solar zenith angle at time t of the surface measurement (degrees)

The result of this equation RFp(t,j) is used in equation [4].

                                    Panel coefficients
-----------------------------
             Wave-
Length       C0            C1              C2            C3
------  -------------  ------------- --------------  -------------
400    0.1020691E+01   0.2307796E-02  -0.7176625E-04   0.2028643E-06
405    0.1023635E+01   0.2348937E-02  -0.7409656E-04   0.2168063E-06
410    0.1027976E+01   0.1691810E-02  -0.5849818E-04   0.1115234E-06
415    0.1026675E+01   0.1986200E-02  -0.6609871E-04   0.1656263E-06
420    0.1028462E+01   0.1928542E-02  -0.6473542E-04   0.1522611E-06
425    0.1030961E+01   0.1599423E-02  -0.5722518E-04   0.1032186E-06
430    0.1032524E+01   0.1483927E-02  -0.5489080E-04   0.9058423E-07
435    0.1031159E+01   0.1572472E-02  -0.5582624E-04   0.8927227E-07
440    0.1033558E+01   0.1498712E-02  -0.5456564E-04   0.8286727E-07
445    0.1033324E+01   0.1569419E-02  -0.5690657E-04   0.1039715E-06
450    0.1036139E+01   0.1305071E-02  -0.5105510E-04   0.6360571E-07
455    0.1038211E+01   0.1159643E-02  -0.4794833E-04   0.4357352E-07
460    0.1036826E+01   0.1354819E-02  -0.5326012E-04   0.8434483E-07
465    0.1038920E+01   0.1132739E-02  -0.4769623E-04   0.4260698E-07
470    0.1039643E+01   0.1113157E-02  -0.4713262E-04   0.3869216E-07
475    0.1039233E+01   0.1153365E-02  -0.4839558E-04   0.4917332E-07
480    0.1040030E+01   0.1155133E-02  -0.4909308E-04   0.5609697E-07
485    0.1041885E+01   0.1005832E-02  -0.4571612E-04   0.3395124E-07
490    0.1039826E+01   0.1166439E-02  -0.4888924E-04   0.5190591E-07
495    0.1040985E+01   0.1065573E-02  -0.4634565E-04   0.3235320E-07
500    0.1042588E+01   0.9224978E-03  -0.4325799E-04   0.1215631E-07
505    0.1044681E+01   0.7519039E-03  -0.3927152E-04  -0.1493404E-07
510    0.1043211E+01   0.8573297E-03  -0.4200791E-04   0.4340810E-08
515    0.1042012E+01   0.9367443E-03  -0.4354084E-04   0.1444452E-07
520    0.1041645E+01   0.9941544E-03  -0.4520349E-04   0.2767669E-07
525    0.1042760E+01   0.8751338E-03  -0.4183103E-04  -0.2532645E-09
530    0.1044702E+01   0.6598454E-03  -0.3724032E-04  -0.2877237E-07
535    0.1042191E+01   0.9069606E-03  -0.4292930E-04   0.8617134E-08
540    0.1043134E+01   0.8160212E-03  -0.4042930E-04  -0.1107292E-07
545    0.1041051E+01   0.9394131E-03  -0.4364209E-04   0.1395316E-07
550    0.1043180E+01   0.7566459E-03  -0.3943769E-04  -0.1579043E-07
555    0.1044188E+01   0.7296551E-03  -0.3916740E-04  -0.1698103E-07
560    0.1043210E+01   0.7575643E-03  -0.3901382E-04  -0.2262007E-07
565    0.1042763E+01   0.8187740E-03  -0.4061343E-04  -0.8930165E-08
570    0.1044980E+01   0.6854801E-03  -0.3789858E-04  -0.2640262E-07
575    0.1043569E+01   0.7628911E-03  -0.3926709E-04  -0.1867208E-07
580    0.1042724E+01   0.8381633E-03  -0.4131085E-04  -0.4006738E-08
585    0.1042959E+01   0.7833779E-03  -0.4003083E-04  -0.1313729E-07
590    0.1042308E+01   0.8542608E-03  -0.4146493E-04  -0.4291500E-08
595    0.1043040E+01   0.7772386E-03  -0.3944546E-04  -0.2026909E-07
600    0.1044935E+01   0.6830641E-03  -0.3784099E-04  -0.2870515E-07
605    0.1045260E+01   0.6352458E-03  -0.3627764E-04  -0.4183683E-07
610    0.1044507E+01   0.7371207E-03  -0.3916481E-04  -0.1862948E-07
615    0.1044152E+01   0.7730190E-03  -0.3948137E-04  -0.1895644E-07
620    0.1043966E+01   0.7937066E-03  -0.4021111E-04  -0.1255158E-07
625    0.1044246E+01   0.7586920E-03  -0.3928547E-04  -0.1985262E-07
630    0.1045597E+01   0.6534198E-03  -0.3650992E-04  -0.4194394E-07
635    0.1044604E+01   0.8030013E-03  -0.4020498E-04  -0.1586309E-07
640    0.1044003E+01   0.8092978E-03  -0.4004213E-04  -0.1822999E-07
645    0.1044257E+01   0.7523490E-03  -0.3898273E-04  -0.2239451E-07
650    0.1045403E+01   0.6644642E-03  -0.3657396E-04  -0.4320698E-07
655    0.1046331E+01   0.6109984E-03  -0.3529197E-04  -0.5168750E-07
660    0.1044507E+01   0.8011676E-03  -0.3970652E-04  -0.2104697E-07
665    0.1046092E+01   0.5774825E-03  -0.3407302E-04  -0.6149129E-07
670    0.1046652E+01   0.6211065E-03  -0.3607046E-04  -0.4385477E-07
675    0.1043847E+01   0.7546030E-03  -0.3838479E-04  -0.3292595E-07
680    0.1044203E+01   0.7235191E-03  -0.3768374E-04  -0.3605060E-07
685    0.1042028E+01   0.8885071E-03  -0.4118552E-04  -0.1339236E-07
690    0.1041722E+01   0.8982174E-03  -0.4130272E-04  -0.1182499E-07
695    0.1043119E+01   0.7811239E-03  -0.3854480E-04  -0.3111853E-07
700    0.1044344E+01   0.6963478E-03  -0.3671847E-04  -0.4454136E-07
705    0.1044987E+01   0.6712667E-03  -0.3628980E-04  -0.4698841E-07
710    0.1041283E+01   0.9727916E-03  -0.4312553E-04  -0.2159273E-08
715    0.1040946E+01   0.9864625E-03  -0.4347726E-04   0.1658801E-08
720    0.1040259E+01   0.1072143E-02  -0.4537162E-04   0.1533203E-07
725    0.1040856E+01   0.1005566E-02  -0.4269822E-04  -0.1164932E-07
730    0.1041606E+01   0.8903170E-03  -0.4111425E-04  -0.1515658E-07
735    0.1043015E+01   0.8589865E-03  -0.4066363E-04  -0.2088457E-07
740    0.1046650E+01   0.5306230E-03  -0.3325386E-04  -0.7159644E-07
745    0.1044990E+01   0.7686343E-03  -0.3913624E-04  -0.3107813E-07
750    0.1046234E+01   0.6327561E-03  -0.3658425E-04  -0.4737320E-07
755    0.1047823E+01   0.6211554E-03  -0.3718316E-04  -0.4056453E-07
760    0.1042600E+01   0.9254874E-03  -0.4231824E-04  -0.1316337E-07
765    0.1044418E+01   0.8084020E-03  -0.3931320E-04  -0.3034765E-07
770    0.1043483E+01   0.7766855E-03  -0.3781739E-04  -0.4062813E-07
775    0.1044584E+01   0.7153847E-03  -0.3646227E-04  -0.5397206E-07
780    0.1043379E+01   0.7074788E-03  -0.3665062E-04  -0.5043588E-07
785    0.1043978E+01   0.7381677E-03  -0.3829550E-04  -0.3632283E-07
790    0.1043675E+01   0.7494834E-03  -0.3794876E-04  -0.4191600E-07
795    0.1039806E+01   0.1037861E-02  -0.4525806E-04   0.1293397E-07
800    0.1043500E+01   0.9185881E-03  -0.4322741E-04  -0.1163219E-08
805    0.1042646E+01   0.8156832E-03  -0.3998216E-04  -0.2506371E-07
810    0.1046820E+01   0.4941361E-03  -0.3317775E-04  -0.6669556E-07
815    0.1040511E+01   0.1039870E-02  -0.4522509E-04   0.1189255E-07
820    0.1038469E+01   0.1295986E-02  -0.5196943E-04   0.6058429E-07
825    0.1042260E+01   0.9458050E-03  -0.4312630E-04  -0.3836924E-08
830    0.1045250E+01   0.7185282E-03  -0.3877058E-04  -0.2936804E-07
835    0.1045535E+01   0.6508042E-03  -0.3633434E-04  -0.4933092E-07
840    0.1037599E+01   0.1296161E-02  -0.5030810E-04   0.3964285E-07
845    0.1046608E+01   0.6270441E-03  -0.3644990E-04  -0.4800667E-07
850    0.1045323E+01   0.7754005E-03  -0.3969374E-04  -0.2803267E-07
855    0.1042171E+01   0.7959635E-03  -0.3869225E-04  -0.3927269E-07
860    0.1043839E+01   0.8561251E-03  -0.4141981E-04  -0.1528441E-07
865    0.1042140E+01   0.9965700E-03  -0.4448181E-04   0.4938349E-08
870    0.1050822E+01   0.1312364E-03  -0.2362573E-04  -0.1425405E-06
875    0.1043396E+01   0.7739614E-03  -0.3876894E-04  -0.3688082E-07
880    0.1045459E+01   0.8417810E-03  -0.4006278E-04  -0.3309392E-07
885    0.1045308E+01   0.8914825E-03  -0.4168651E-04  -0.2233586E-07
890    0.1041503E+01   0.1087362E-02  -0.4440085E-04  -0.1277023E-07
895    0.1044998E+01   0.9936822E-03  -0.4378704E-04  -0.8000492E-08
900    0.1044516E+01   0.9439814E-03  -0.4285062E-04  -0.1423759E-07
905    0.1051446E+01   0.2078550E-03  -0.2469360E-04  -0.1449934E-06
910    0.1039938E+01   0.1304500E-02  -0.5042315E-04   0.3517433E-07
915    0.1037042E+01   0.1588295E-02  -0.5866167E-04   0.1018471E-06
920    0.1049954E+01   0.5902972E-03  -0.3580553E-04  -0.5499579E-07
925    0.1049048E+01   0.7595964E-03  -0.4067645E-04  -0.2342711E-07
930    0.1050720E+01   0.7863740E-03  -0.4294367E-04   0.2288731E-08
935    0.1046086E+01   0.9521864E-03  -0.4349145E-04  -0.1004916E-07
940    0.1024226E+01   0.3142879E-02  -0.9418973E-04   0.3319447E-06
945    0.1034131E+01   0.1843622E-02  -0.6248886E-04   0.1157058E-06
950    0.1030182E+01   0.2473955E-02  -0.7645961E-04   0.1948248E-06
955    0.1031775E+01   0.2705489E-02  -0.8893934E-04   0.3228065E-06
960    0.1027560E+01   0.2148790E-02  -0.6621033E-04   0.1178804E-06
965    0.1034866E+01   0.2427981E-02  -0.7996300E-04   0.2375677E-06
970    0.1038287E+01   0.1697609E-02  -0.6165585E-04   0.1109473E-06
975    0.1035191E+01   0.1719718E-02  -0.5832063E-04   0.7156511E-07
980    0.1032137E+01   0.2116019E-02  -0.7136896E-04   0.1721857E-06
985    0.1019492E+01   0.3677361E-02  -0.1085873E-03   0.4309212E-06
990    0.1035775E+01   0.1490417E-02  -0.5273831E-04   0.1846581E-07
995    0.1031226E+01   0.2336911E-02  -0.7589278E-04   0.1936309E-06
1000    0.1022056E+01   0.3207516E-02  -0.9718610E-04   0.3552770E-06

Data Processing Sequence:

Processing Steps:

Each SE590 has a unique wavelength associated with each of its 252 bands. So that wavelength to wavelength comparisons could be made among SE-590s used at FIFE a cubic spline interpolation was applied to the 252 bands to standardize the wavelengths to every 5 nm from 400 to 1000 nm.

Equation 1 was then used to change the corrected voltages to radiances. The gains and offsets for each MMR are listed in 5.2.3 (Kim 1990). Usage of Equations 2 and 3 is dependent on the measurement time interval of the reference panel. These equations interpolate the reference panel radiance output for the time of surface reflectance measurements. If measurements of the reference panel are made less then every 30 minutes equation 2 is then applied (Bauer et al., 1981). If the measurements of the reference panel are greater then 30 minutes apart then equation 3 is used. The reference panel reflectance factor for each surface measurement time is determined as explained in the Derivation Techniques and Algorithms Section. This provides a correction for the reference panel's non-Lambertian properties and the dependence on solar zenith angle. Equation 4 is then used to calculate the surface reflectance factor using surface and reference panel radiances and the reference panel reflectance factor.

Processing Changes:

None known at this revision.

Calculations:

Special Corrections/Adjustments:

None reported at this revision.

Calculated Variables:

Graphs and Plots:

None.

10. Errors:

Sources of Error:

Errors associated with the measurements can occur due to orientation of the SE590. The view zenith angle could only be measured to +/- 2 degrees and the view azimuth angle could only be measured to + or - 10 degrees.

The shadowing caused by the SE590 and other instruments on the portable mast is another source of error when measuring the "hot spot" area.

Variable cloud cover could be an error source with reflectance factors since the incoming radiation measurements were not made simultaneously with the surface measurements but are interpolated assuming clear sky conditions.

Quality Assessment:

Data Validation by Source:

Comparison's have been made with PARABOLA, helicopter mounted radiometers and MMR measurements.

Confidence Level/Accuracy Judgment:

On days with variable cloud conditions the data should be used with caution. The AMS incoming solar radiation data at the site or nearby site should be consulted.

On clear days the measurements fall within the precision of the instrument and errors that were discussed in previous sections.

Measurement Error for Parameters:

Not available at this revision.

Additional Quality Assessments:

Not available at this revision.

Data Verification by Data Center:

The data verification performed by the ORNL DAAC deals with the quality of the data format, media, and readability. The ORNL DAAC does not make an assessment of the quality of the data itself except during the course of performing other QA procedures as described below.

The FIFE data were transferred to the ORNL DAAC via CD-ROM. These CD-ROMs are distributed by the ORNL DAAC unmodified as a set or in individual volumes, as requested. In addition, the DAAC has incorporated each of the 98 FIFE tabular datasets from the CD-ROMs into its online data holdings. Incorporation of these data involved the following steps:

Each distinct type of data (i.e. "data set" on the CD-ROM), is accompanied by a documentation file (i.e., .doc file) and a data format/structure definition file (i.e., .tdf file). The data format files on the CD-ROM are Oracle SQL commands (e.g., "create table") that can be used to set up a relational database table structure. This file provides column/variable names, character/numeric type, length, and format, and labels/comments. These SQL commands were converted to SAS code and were used to create SAS data sets and subsequently to input data files directly from the CD-ROM into a SAS dataset. During this process, file names and directory paths were captured and metadata was extracted to the extent possible electronically. No files were found to be corrupted or unreadable during the conversion process.

Additional Quality Assurance procedures were performed as follows:

As errors are discovered in the online tabular data by investigators, users, or DAAC staff, corrections are made in cooperation with the principal investigators. These corrections are then distributed to users. CD-ROM data are corrected when re-mastering occurs for replenishment of CD-ROM stock.

11. Notes:

Limitations of the Data:

Not available.

Known Problems with the Data:

Usage Guidance:

Before using reflectance factors the incoming radiation from the AMS station at the site or nearby site should be checked for possible cloud-induced error in reflectance factors.

Any Other Relevant Information about the Study:

Not available at this revision.

12. Application of the Data Set:

This data set can be used to characterize bi-directional reflectance factor distributions in the solar principal plane for a tall grass prairie; estimate surface albedo from bi-directional reflectance factor and radiance data; determine the variability of reflected and emitted fluxes in selected spectral wavebands as a function of topography, vegetative community and management practice; determine the influence of plant water status on surface reflectance factors; and determine sun angle affects on radiation fluxes.

13. Future Modifications and Plans:

The FIFE field campaigns were held in 1987 and 1989 and there are no plans for new data collection. Field work continues near the FIFE site at the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Konza research site (i.e., LTER continues to monitor the site). The FIFE investigators are continuing to analyze and model the data from the field campaigns to produce new data products.

14. Software:

Software to access the data set is available on the all volumes of the FIFE CD-ROM set. For a detailed description of the available software see the Software Description Document.

15. Data Access:

Contact Information:

ORNL DAAC User Services
Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665

Email: ornldaac@ornl.gov

Data Center Identification:

ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
USA

Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665

Email: ornldaac@ornl.gov

Procedures for Obtaining Data:

Users may place requests by telephone, electronic mail, or FAX. Data is also available via the World Wide Web at http://daac.ornl.gov.

Data Center Status/Plans:

FIFE data are available from the ORNL DAAC. Please contact the ORNL DAAC User Services Office for the most current information about these data.

16. Output Products and Availability:

The SE-590 Reflectance Factors and Radiances from UNL are available on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1. The CD-ROM filename is as follows:

\DATA\SUR_REFL\SE5_UNL\GRIDxxxx\yyddd\ydddgrid.Unn

Where xxxx is the four digit code for the location within the FIFE site grid, yy is the last two digits of the year (e.g., 87 = 1987), and ddd is the day of the year, (e.g., 061 = sixty-first day in the year). Note: capital letters indicate fixed values that appear on the CD-ROM exactly as shown here, lower case indicates characters (values) that change for each path and file.

The format used for the filenames is: ydddgrid.Unn, where grid is the four-number code for the location within the FIFE site grid, y is the last digit of the year (e.g., 7 = 1987, and 9 = 1989), ddd is the day of the year, and nn is the number of spectra during a day, when all the spectra are ordered chronologically and all spectra for a minute are in the same file. The content of each file is described in the Data Characteristics Section.

17. References:

Satellite/Instrument/Data Processing Documentation.

Spectron Engineering, Inc. Operating Manual: SE590 field-portable data-logging spectroradiometer. Spectron Engineering. Denver, CO 80223.

Journal Articles and Study Reports.

Bauer, M.E., B.F. Robinson, C. Daughtry, and L.L. Biehl. 1981. Field Measurement Workshop. Oct. 14-16, Laboratory for application of Remote Sensing. Purdue University. Lafayette, Indiana.

Blad, B.L., E.A. Walter Shea, C.J. Hays, and M.A. Mesarch. 1990. Calibration of field reference panel and radiometers used in FIFE 1989. AgMet Progress Report 90-3. Department of Agricultural Meteorology. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0728.

Brakke, T.W., J.A. Smith, and J. M. 1989. Bi-directional scattering of light from tree leaves. Remote Sensing of Environment. 29:175-183.

Breece, H.T. III and R.A. Holmes. 1971. Bi-directional scattering characteristics of healthy green soybean and corn leaves in vivo. Applied Optics. 10:119-127.

Irons, J.R., R.A. Weismiller, and G.W. Peterson. 1989. Soil reflectance In G. Asrar (ed.). Theory and Applications of Optical Remote Sensing. John Wiley & Sons. New York. p.66-106.

Jackson, R.D., S.M. Moran, P.N. Slater, and S.F. Biggar. 1987. Field calibration of reference reflectance panels. Remote Sensing of Environment. 17:103-108.

Kim, M. 1990. personal communication. GSFC/NASA. Greenbelt, MD 20771.

Norman, J.M. and C.L.Walthall. 1985. Analysis of an empirical model for hemispherical albedo computation. Final Report for Contract. #S-19583-D.

Sellers, P.J. and F.G. Hall. 1989. FIFE-89 Experiment Plan. GSFC/NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

Walter-Shea, E.A., J.M. Norman, and B.L. Blad. 1989. Bi-directional reflectance and transmittance in corn and soybean. Remote Sensing of Environment. 29:161-174.

Walter-Shea, E.A. and L.L. Biehl. 1990. Measuring vegetation spectral properties. Remote Sensing Review. 5:179-205.

Archive/DBMS Usage Documentation.

Contact the EOS Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (see the Data Center Identification Section). Documentation about using the archive and/or online access to the data at the ORNL DAAC is not available at this revision.

18. Glossary of Terms:

A general glossary for the DAAC is located at Glossary.

19. List of Acronyms:

APAR Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System FIFE First ISLSCP Field Experiment FIS FIFE Information System IPAR Intercepted Photosynthetically Active Radiation ISLSCP International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project LAI Leaf Area Index MMR Modular Multiband Radiometer ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory UNL University of Nebraska-Lincoln URL Uniform Resource Locator WAB Wind Aligned Blob

A general list of acronyms for the DAAC is available at Acronyms.

20. Document Information:

April 24, 1994 (citation revised on October 16, 2002).

Warning: This document has not been checked for technical or editorial accuracy by the FIFE Information Scientist. There may be inconsistencies with other documents, technical or editorial errors that were inadvertently introduced when the document was compiled or references to preliminary data that were not included on the final CD-ROM.

Previous versions of this document have been reviewed by the Principal Investigator, the person who transmitted the data to FIS, a FIS staff member, or a FIFE scientist generally familiar with the data.

Document Review Date:

August 15, 1996.

Document ID:

ORNL-FIFE_SE_UNL.

Citation:

Cite this data set as follows:

Blad, B. L., and E. A. Walter-Shea. 1994. SE-590 Ground Data: UNL (FIFE). Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/82.

Also published in D. E. Strebel, D. R. Landis, K. F. Huemmrich, and B. W. Meeson (eds.), Collected Data of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, Vol. 1: Surface Observations and Non-Image Data Sets. CD-ROM. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, U.S.A. (available from http://www.daac.ornl.gov).

Document Curator:

DAAC Staff

Document URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov