As part of the FIFE staff science data collection effort, the FIFE Information System (FIS) processed and archived 5 minute, near-surface radiometric and meteorological information collected by the Automated Meteorological Stations (AMS) distributed over the FIFE study area. The FIFE AMS Data Set contains the two output products created. The level-1 product contains unpacked 5 minute data. The level-1a product contains 30 minute averages of these data.
All AMS stations were equipped to measure air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil temperature, reflected solar radiation, net radiation, surface temperature, and precipitation. Two stations were augmented with extra radiation sensors to become super-AMS (SAMS). These stations measured total radiation, direct solar radiation, diffuse solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and downward longwave radiation.
AMS (Automated Met Station) Data (FIFE).
(Automated Micrometeorological Observations).
The FIFE AMS Data Set contains air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil temperature, reflected solar radiation, net radiation, surface temperature, and precipitation. Two stations were augmented with extra radiation sensors to become super-AMS (SAMS). These stations measured total radiation, direct solar radiation, diffuse solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and downward longwave radiation. The level-1 product contains unpacked 5 minute data. The level-1a product contains 30 minute averages of these data.
The micrometeorological data from the automated meteorological stations were collected to: (a) measure the microclimatic variability across the FIFE study area; (b) provide input data for numerical simulation models; and © collect broad-band reflected and emitted radiation to help with evaluating satellite imagery. The simulation models are required to help extrapolate observations made at the intensive sites to other areas within the FIFE study area, and to provide estimates of radiation, energy, and mass fluxes during non-Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) periods.
Surface temperature, pressure, rainfall, wind direction and speed, soil temperature at two depths, and radiation (shortwave, longwave, net, PAR, total).
As part of the FIFE staff science data collection effort, the FIFE Information System (FIS) processed and archived 5 minute, near-surface radiometric and meteorological information collected by the Automated Meteorological Stations (AMS) distributed over the FIFE study area. Two output products were created. The level-1 product contains unpacked 5 minute data. The level-1a product contains 30 minute averages of these data.
Ten PAMS were installed within the FIFE study area prior to Intensive Field Campaign 1 (IFC-1). All stations were equipped to measure air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil temperature, reflected solar radiation, net radiation, surface temperature, and precipitation. Two PAMs were augmented with extra radiation sensors to become super-AMS (SAMS). These stations measured total radiation, direct solar radiation, diffuse solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and downward longwave radiation. These SAMS operated during IFCs 1-4 in the northeast and northwest quadrants of the FIFE study area. During IFC-4 two more SAMS were added and placed in the southwest and southeast quadrants of the FIFE study area. Extended periods of 'down' time for PAMs were usually associated with electrical problems following heavy rainfall.
AMS_DATA_87, AMS_DATA_88, AMS_DATA_89.
Dr. Walter F. Dabberdt
Head, Boundary Layer Sensing Group
Staff Science Long-term Monitoring Program.
The Automated Micrometeorological Observations were provided to FIFE under a contract between NASA and NCAR.
Standard PAM sensors fall into two categories: Integrated type and event type. The so-called integrated sensors currently include the barometer and psychrometer. These self-contained devices include the sensing element, conditioning electronics, and microprocessor, which controls parameter sampling, scaling, and communication with the master remote station computer. Because these devices are calibrated as a single unit, the environmental characteristics of the composite can be accounted for in the transfer function coefficients, which are subsequently loaded into the sensor's programmable read only memory. By calculating and communicating ASCII engineering values via an RS232 link to the host computer rather than transmitting analog signals directly, noise injection is greatly reduced. These sensors are programmed to provide serial number and sensor status parameters, enabling improved long-term performance monitoring. More information are contained in Integrated Sensors for PAMII as described by Pike et al. (1983).
Event sensors include the rain gauge and anemometers. An external dc signal allows them to produce electrical pulses that are counted inside the remote station electronics box by the wind/rain board. The pulse rate is proportional to the parameter being measured. The wind/rain board is a digital assembly that includes signal conditioning, counters, and a microprocessor similar to the integrated sensors. It accumulates raw counts from each of the sensors and communicates them to the master remote station computer. It also performs a correction on wind data due to the non-cosine response of the propeller anemometers. In a sense, the wind/ rain board mimics an integrated sensor except that it has no knowledge of sensor ID or status, and it is housed inside the electronics box rather than as a part of the sensors.
The micrometeorological stations installed for FIFE were of three types, Portable Automated Mesonet Stations (PAMS), Super Portable Automated Mesonet Stations (SAMS) and Super Data Collection Platform (SDCP). The PAMS consist of transportable computerized weather observing stations that routinely measure wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, and rain at all stations. The SAMS are identical to the PAMS except that they are augmented with instrumentation to measure soil temperature; surface radiative temperature; and solar, net, and infrared radiation. Data are averaged over selected intervals of 1 min or longer. Stations were powered by solar panels, thereby enabling them to be located remotely without the need for commercial power. The SDCP was instrumented with radiation equipment which was identical to that installed on the SAMS.
Standard instruments include propeller anemometers, a tipping bucket rain gauge, a psychrometer, and an aneroid pressure sensor.
The Portable Automated Mesonet Station II (PAMS) 5.4 meter tower includes a folding mast assembly and a collapsible supporting tripod. The base of the station is formed by the tripod, anchored to the ground by six steel stakes holding three plates that tie onto the tripod with three trailer hitches. All three legs of the tripod are adjustable for leveling on up to a 20 degree slope. Components mounted on the tripod include two solar panels, a battery box, the electronics box and the mast. The mast includes a crossarm at a height of 2 meters used for mounting the psychrometer and static pressure port. A lightning spike attached to the top of the wind sensor mounting uses fine wire "whiskers" to help discharge static electricity. The structure is grounded by the mast itself, as well as guy wires.
Long-term monitoring of the micrometeorological parameters of the FIFE study area.
The psychrometer and barometer are self-contained devices whose sensing elements, conditioning electronics, and micro-processors control parameter sampling and scaling. The rain gauge and wind anemometers operate by counting electrical pulses produced from modulation of an external direct current signal.
The psychrometer and barometer were built by NCAR.
The Anemometers were built by the R.M. Young Company.
The final calibration report from NCAR for all the instruments on the PAMS and SAMS has been scanned and is in the scanned document section on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1. NOTE: The calibration numbers in the scanned document are in different units than those reported below.
PAM Instrument Calibration Factors Applied By FIFE.
The formulas below use generic output variables C (for calibrated) and K (for calibration coefficient). Other variables are specified in the table of coefficients which follows. The measured variables are specified by name given by NCAR (i.e., PAR_TOT is used instead of TOT_INCIDENT_PAR).
TSFC-A IN DEGREES CENTIGRADE
TSFC IN DEGREES CENTIGRADE
CE IN [WATTS][METER^-2][COUNT^-1]
A IN [WATTS][METER^-2][COUNT^-1]
Note: Refer to the table in the Usage Guidance Section to translate the original NCAR variable names, to the old FIFE names or the new FIFE names (as listed in the Data Characteristics Section of this document).
Calibration factors in the formulas above are given in the left most columns in the table below. Alternate calibration factors, as explained in the end notes following the table, are given to the right. Changes in instrumentation are also noted.
STN SITEGRID VARIABLE FACTOR NOTES --- -------- -------- ------- ------------------------------------ 3 2428-PAM <INSTALLED 4/27/87; LOWERED 5/21/87> <REMOVED TO 13 (6735-PAM) 4/14/88> TSFC-A 0.430896 TSFC-B 0.948076 SOL_RF 1.1325 RNET 0.222 DELTA NEB 0.0396 5 2123-SAM <INSTALLED 4/24/87; LOWERED 5/21/87> <ACTIVE> TSFC-A 1.131684 TSFC-B 0.931765 SOL_RF 1.1325 1.1351 FROM 8/1/88 (ORIG. DEST. 6/88) RNET 0.251 DELTA NEB 0.0677 SOL_DN 1.4630 DELTA 88 0.0265 SOL_DF 1.3605 DELTA 88 0.0288 PAR_T 3.4066 3.4492 FROM 5/12/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0125 PAR_D 3.5914 3.6548 FROM 5/12/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0154 IRDN-CE 2.5510 IRDN-B 1.003 IRDN-A -9.265 6 2133-PA M <MOVED FROM 27 (1563-PAM);> <INSTALLED LOWERED 11/15/88 ACTIVE> TSFC-A -2.458126 TSFC-B 1.054297 SOL_RF 1.1455 RNET 0.218 DELTA NEB 0.0440 7 3221-PA M <INSTALLED 4/25/87; LOWERED 5/21/87;> <REMOVED 11/14/88> TSFC-A 0.968083 TSFC-B 0.942630 SOL_RF 1.0989 RNET 0.212 DELTA NEB 0.0675 11 4439-PA M <INSTALLED 4/23/87; LOWERED 5/23/87;> <ACTIVE> TSFC-A 0.552709 TSFC-B 0.930438 SOL_RF 1.0834 RNET 0.240 DELTA NEB 0.0595 13 6735-PAM <MOVED FROM 3 (2428-PAM);> <INSTALLED LOWERED 5/11/88;> <REMOVED 11/14/88> TSFC-A 0.430896 TSFC-B 0.948076 SOL_RF 1.1325 <NCAR REPORTS AS "GIB5" AFTER 8/5/88;> <FIS RESTORES TO ORIGINAL NAME & FIELD> RNET 0.222 DELTA NEB 0.0396 17 4609-PAM <INSTALLED LOWERED 5/22/87;> <REMOVED 11/12/88> TSFC-A 1.418656 TSFC-B 0.920957 SOL_RF 1.0650 RNET 0.238 DELTA NEB 0.0529 19 6912-PAM <INSTALLED 4/29/87; LOWERED 5/22/87> <ACTIVE> TSFC-A -0.651969 TSFC-B 1.001195 SOL_RF 1.1429 RNET 0.231 DELTA NEB 0.0645 21 8639-SAM <INSTALLED 4/28/87; LOWERED 5/21/87> <ACTIVE> TSFC-A 0.214845 TSFC-B 0.960183 SOL_RF 1.1364 RNET 0.222 DELTA NEB 0.0581 SOL_DN 1.3578 DELTA 88 -0.0099 SOL_DF 1.2062 DELTA 88 0.0386 PAR_T 3.5529 3.5992 FROM 5/11/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0310 PAR_D 3.5914 3.5914 FROM 5/11/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0087 IRDN-CE 2.0121 IRDN-B 1.002 IRDN-A -9.145 23 6469-PAM <INSTALLED 4/28/87; LOWERED 5/23/87> <ACTIVE> TSFC-A 0.596314 TSFC-B 0.942461 SOL_RF 1.1614 1.0650 FROM 11/23/88 RNET 0.2277 DELTA NEB 0.0562 25 4168-PAM <INSTALLED LOWERED 9/28/87 ACTIVE> TSFC-A 0.478341 -0.560538 FROM 9/20/88 TSFC-B 0.936877 0.987374 FROM 9/20/88 <TSFC INSTRUMENT REPLACED> <9/20/88> SOL_RF 1.1587 RNET 0.246 0.238 FROM 11/30/88 DELTA NEB 0.0780 0.0529 FROM 11/30/88 SOL_DN 1.2279 DELTA 88 0.0394 SOL_RF 1.3997 DELTA 88 0.0542 PAR_T 3.9608 3.9991 FROM 5/10/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0145 PAR_D 3.3720 3.3380 FROM 5/10/88 DRIFTO 488 -0.0061 IRDN-CE 2.2522 IRDN-B 1.005 IRDN-A -10.318 27 1563-PAM <INSTALLED 4/25/87; LOWERED 5/23/87> <REMOVED TO 6 (2133-PAM) 11/12/88> TSFC-A -2.458126 TSFC-B 1.054297 SOL_RF 1.1455 RNET 0.218 DELTA NEB 0.0440 29 0847-SAM <INSTALLED 9/30/87 ACTIVE> TSFC-A 1.198588 TSFC-B 0.929230 SOL_RF 1.2516 RNET 0.223 DELTA NEB 0.0350 SOL_DN 1.1589 1.0354 FROM 11/15/88 DELTA 88 0.0810 <INSTRUMENT REPLACED> NO DELTA 88 <11/15/88> FROM 11/15/88 SOL_DF 1.3209 DELTA 88 0.0597 PAR_T 4.3228 4.3916 FROM 5/12/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0318 PAR_D 3.3113 3.3246 FROM 5/12/88 DRIFTO 488 0.0 120 IRDN-CE 2.7027 IRDN-B 1.002 IRDN-A -12.996 31 2139-PAM <INSTALLED 4/22/87; LOWERED 5/23/87;> <REMOVED 11/12/88> TSFC-A -0.214398 TSFC-B 0.948997 SOL_RF 1.2755 RNET 0.240 DELTA NEB 0.0 475
NOTES: TSFC: The calibration was checked by Dr. Blaine Blad in May, 1988 and applied to all of the TSFC data in this data set (i.e., 1987, 1988 and 1989 data).
RNET: For RNET, we have used the coefficients determined by the manufacturer (actual date unknown). Calibration coefficients were independently determined by the University of Nebraska, May, 1988. These are systematically higher by 5.59 +/- 1.27 %. The exact values of these deviations ((N-M)/M) are listed as "DELTA NEB" in the table. The Nebraska results can be used by multiplying the calibrated values reported by FIS by (1 + DELTA NEB). It is not known if either of these calibrations are affected by or result from the "double dome" problem.
SOL_DN, SOL_DIF: The pyranometers show a calibration drift (indicated as DELTA 88, I.E. ((1988 VAL - MANF VAL)/(MANF VAL)). The largest drift is about 8%, for the SOL_DN instrument at station 29 (0847-SAM). This instrument was replaced 11/15/88. We have applied the coefficients determined at the time of manufacture (MANF VAL) in all cases, except for this replacement. The May 88 equivalents can be recovered by multiplying the calibrated values by (1 + DELTA 88).
An additional SOL_DN instrument was placed at station 29 (0847-SAM) on 4/8/89. The reports from this instrument ("GIB12") were not processed by FIS, but may be available from the NCAR archive in the original level 0, packed format. The calibration factor is 1.6082.
PAR_TOT, PAR_DIF: The LICOR quantum sensors show a small calibration drift, indicated as DRIFTO 488, as described for DELTA 88 above. The drift is 1-3%. The April 88 equivalents can be recovered by multiplying the calibrated values by (1 + DELTA 88). The instruments were adjusted and recalibrated by LICOR in May, 1988.
IR_DN: The IR_DN, T_DOME, and T_INST data values before 5/22/87 do not appear to be correct or usable. Normal reporting occurs after that date. The EPPLEY PIR calibration is somewhat involved. We have used values provided by Blaine Blad, which are approximate due to a possible drift in blackbody reference values. It is felt that the accuracy is within 1 to 2 percent.
Starting May, 1988, direct thermopile voltages (vs. NCAR "corrected" voltages) were also reported. These can be used for a more direct calibration, but the same approximate constants are required. The direct voltages ("IR_RAW") were not processed by FIS, but may be available from the NCAR archive in the original Level 0, packed format.
WIND: The wind variables (U_WIND, V_WIND, W_WIND, WIND_MAX, WIND_STD) should be treated with caution prior to the "lowered" dates indicated in the table above. The original installations were at the standard PAMS configuration height of 10 m above ground level. At the request of the FIFE Science Steering Committee, the top 2 mast sections were removed in mid-May, 1987, before the start of IFC-1. The wind sensors were later reinstalled at a height of 5.4 m above ground level. Subsequently, units 6 (2133-PAM), 13 (6735-PAM), 17 (4609-PAM), 25 (4168-PAM), 29 (0847-SAM) were installed with this same configuration (wind sensor at 5.4 m).
Specifications for the Psychrometer:
Specifications for the Barometer:
Rain Gauge Specifications:
Not available at this revision.
Not available at this revision.
Not available at this revision.
The data collected by the sensors pass through Radio Frequency transmitter modules and then to the GOES satellite. There was a downlink for these data from this satellite to NCAR in Boulder, Colorado. NCAR checked the quality of the data (screened for glitchs), reformatted it and then sent it to FIS on 9-track magnetic tapes.
See comments on calibration of PAMS data (5.2). Some of the instruments were either moved from their original positions, replaced, reinstalled at a different height, or removed before the end of the project.
The FIFE site, with areal extent of 15 km by 15 km, is located south of the Tuttle Reservoir and Kansas River, and about 10 km from Manhattan, Kansas, USA. The northwest corner of the area has UTM coordinates of 4,334,000 Northing and 705,000 Easting in UTM Zone 14.
The micrometeorological stations were placed at the following locations at some point during the period from 1987 through 1989. The micrometeorological stations were not located at all these stations during the entire 3 year period.
SITEGRID STN_ID NORTHING EASTING LATITUDE LONGITUDE ELEV (ft) -------- ------ -------- -------- -------- --------- ----- 0847-SDC 29 4332344 714439 39 06 57 -96 31 11 418 0847-SAM 52 4332377 714419 39 06 58 -96 31 12 415 0847-SAM 929 4332344 714439 39 06 57 -96 31 11 418 0847-SAM 829 4332344 714439 39 06 57 -96 31 11 418 1563-PAM 27 4331067 717658 39 06 12 -96 28 59 350 1563-PAM 827 4331100 717610 39 06 14 -96 29 01 366 2123-SAM 5 4329866 709506 39 05 41 -96 34 39 405 2123-SAM 905 4329866 709506 39 05 41 -96 34 39 405 2123-SAM 805 4329866 709506 39 05 41 -96 34 39 405 2139-PAM 31 4329843 712789 39 05 37 -96 32 23 385 2428-PAM 3 4329265 710635 39 05 20 -96 33 53 415 3221-PAM 7 4327682 709112 39 04 30 -96 34 58 410 4168-SDC 25 4325704 718646 39 03 18 -96 28 24 438 4168-SAM 51 4325783 718675 39 03 20 -96 28 22 445 4168-SAM 925 4325704 718646 39 03 18 -96 28 24 438 4168-PAM 825 4325704 718646 39 03 18 -96 28 24 438 4439-PAM 11 4325219 712795 39 03 07 -96 32 27 445 4439-PAM 911 4325219 712795 39 03 07 -96 32 27 445 4439-PAM 811 4325219 712795 39 03 07 -96 32 27 445 4609-PAM 17 4324766 706700 39 02 58 -96 36 41 398 6469-PAM 23 4321189 718752 39 00 51 -96 28 25 440 6469-PAM 923 4321189 718752 39 00 51 -96 28 25 440 6469-PAM 823 4321189 718752 39 00 51 -96 28 25 440 6912-PAM 19 4320178 707307 39 00 29 -96 36 21 385 6912-PAM 919 4320178 707307 39 00 29 -96 36 21 385 6912-PAM 819 4320178 707307 39 00 29 -96 36 21 385 8639-SAM 21 4316771 712827 38 58 33 -96 32 36 440 8639-SAM 921 4316771 712827 38 58 33 -96 32 36 440 8639-SAM 821 4316771 712827 38 58 33 -96 32 36 440 3021-PAM 807 4328000 709250 39 04 40 -96 34 52 410 4139-PAM 831 4325850 712780 39 03 28 -96 32 27 385 4509-PAM 817 4324960 706850 39 03 04 -96 36 35 390 6735-PAM 813 4320652 712073 39 00 40 -96 33 03 385 SITEGRID STN_ID SLOPE ASPECT (deg) -------- ------ ----- ------ 0847-SDC 29 0847-SAM 52 0847-SAM 929 1 TOP 0847-SAM 829 1 TOP 1563-PAM 27 1563-PAM 827 18 W 2123-SAM 5 2123-SAM 905 1 TOP 2123-SAM 805 1 TOP 2139-PAM 31 2428-PAM 3 3221-PAM 7 4168-SDC 25 4168-SAM 51 4168-SAM 925 1 TOP 4168-PAM 825 1 TOP 4439-PAM 11 4439-PAM 911 2 N 4439-PAM 811 2 N 4609-PAM 17 6469-PAM 23 6469-PAM 923 3 NE 6469-PAM 823 3 NE 6912-PAM 19 6912-PAM 919 2 N 6912-PAM 819 2 N 8639-SAM 21 8639-SAM 921 1 TOP 8639-SAM 821 1 TOP 3021-PAM 807 11 NW 4139-PAM 831 3 W 4509-PAM 817 3 SE 6735-PAM 813 1 BOT
The distribution of these stations during the data collection period is listed below. Only 12 sitegrids were instrumented with the AMS equipment in 1987. At two of these sitegrids additional instruments measuring radiation were also installed. During 1988, 17 sitegrids were instrumented with the AMS equipment. It should be noted that not all sitegrids were instrumented for the entire year. Finally, in 1989, 8 sitegrids were instrumented.
SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID -------- ---------- -------- ---------- -------- ---------- 0847-SAM 52 2428-PAM 3 4609-PAM 17 0847-SDC 29 3221-PAM 7 6469-PAM 23 1563-PAM 27 4168-SAM 51 6912-PAM 19 2123-SAM 5 4168-SDC 25 8639-SAM 21 2139-PAM 31 4439-PAM 11 1988 SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID -------- ---------- -------- ---------- -------- ---------- 0847-SAM 52 3021-PAM 807 6469-PAM 23 0847-SAM 829 3221-PAM 7 6469-PAM 823 0847-SAM 929 4139-PAM 831 6469-PAM 923 1563-PAM 27 4168-SAM 51 6735-PAM 813 1563-PAM 827 4168-SAM 825 6912-PAM 19 2123-SAM 5 4168-SAM 925 6912-PAM 819 2123-SAM 805 4439-PAM 11 6912-PAM 919 2123-SAM 905 4439-PAM 811 8639-SAM 21 2133-PAM 931 4439-PAM 911 8639-SAM 821 2139-PAM 31 4509-PAM 817 8639-SAM 921 2428-PAM 3 4609-PAM 17 1989 SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID SITEGRID STATION_ID -------- ---------- -------- ---------- -------- ---------- 0847-SAM 929 4168-SAM 925 6912-PAM 919 2123-SAM 905 4439-PAM 911 8639-SAM 921 2133-PAM 931 6469-PAM 923
These are point data.
The overall time period for the data collection is from May 1, 1987 through November 10, 1989. During this period there are no extended gaps (months or more) in the measurements. However, there are stations that were moved during this period, as mentioned in the Spatial Coverage Section above, and there are days when particular sensors were not functioning at specific locations.
The original data collected by the AMS has a sampling interval of 5 minutes. These 5 minute data have been averaged to produce 30 minute averages. Both the 5 minute and the 30 minute data are available. See the Output Products and Availability Section below for a listing of these two data sets.
The SQL definition for this table is found in the AMS_DATA.TDF file located on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1.
Parameter/Variable Description Range Units Source
SITEGRID_ID This is a FIS grid location code. FIS Site grid codes (SSEE-III) give the south (SS) and east (EE) cell number in a 100 x 100 array of 200 m square cells. The last 3 characters (III) are an instrument identifier.
STATION_ID The three-digit FIFE site min = 3, FIS identification number for this site. max = 52
OBS_DATE The date on which the data were min = 01-MAY-87, NCAR collected. max = 31-DEC-87
OBS_TIME The time of day that the data were min = 15, [GMT] NCAR collected, given as the midpoint of max = 2345 30 minute average.
DRY_BULB_TEMP Dry bulb temperature (ambient air min = -15.47, [degrees THERMISTOR temperature), at 2 meters above max = 39.44, Celsius] ground level. missing = -99
WET_BULB_TEMP Wet bulb temperature at 2 meters min = -15.38, [degrees THERMISTOR above ground level. max = 48.62, Celsius] missing = -99
ATMOSPHERIC_PRESS Atmospheric pressure. min = 692.52, [millibars] max = 1124.96, missing = -99
ACCUM_RAINFALL Accumulated rainfall is the total min = 0, [mm] RAIN GAUGE rainfall over the 30 minute period max = 1040.13, added to the previous rainfall amount. missing = -99
RAINFALL_RATE The rainfall rate given as mm of min = 0, [mm] RAIN GAUGE rain per 30 minutes. max = 12.4, [30 minutes^-1 missing = -99
U_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The U (westward) component of wind min = -30.93, [meters] ANEMOMETER velocity at 5.4 meters above ground max = 35.71, [sec^-1] level. missing = -99
V_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The V (northward) component of wind min = -35.25, [meters] ANEMOMETER velocity at 5.4 meters above ground max = 38.22, [sec^-1] level. missing = -99
W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The W (vertical) component of wind min = -32.74, [meters] ANEMOMETER velocity at 5.4 meters above ground max = 27.93, [sec^-1] level. missing = -99
MAX_WIND_VELOC Maximum wind speed during the 30 min = -81.84, [meters] ANEMOMETER minute period at 5.4 meters above max = 81.88, [sec^-1] ground level. missing = -99
SDEV_W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC The standard deviation of the W min = 0, [meters] ANEMOMETER (vertical) component of the wind max = 16.57 [sec^-1] velocity over the 30 minute period.
SURF_TEMP The surface temperature measured min = -178.63, [degrees THERMISTOR by an IR thermometer. max = 144.76 Celsius]
SOIL_TEMP_10CM The soil temperature at 10 cm min = -251.66, [degrees THERMISTOR depth. max = 324.65 Celsius]
SOIL_TEMP_50CM The soil temperature at 50 cm min = -179.56, [degrees THERMISTOR depth. For the PAMs stations at max = 316.4 Celsius] FIFE site grid locations 1563-PAM and 4609-PAM this is the soil temperature at 10 cm depth.
SHORTWAVE_SOLAR_REFL The shortwave reflected irradiance. min = -301.46, [Watts] PYRANOMETER max = 7838.96 [meter^-2]
NET_RADTN The net radiation, including both min = -147.7, [Watts] NET downward and upward energy. max = 1396.02 [meter^-2] RADIOMETER
INCIDENT_LONGWAVE_RADTN The incident longwave radiation. min = -382.26, [Watts] THERMISTOR max = 4778.28 [meter^-2]
DOME_TEMP The temperature of the dome. It min = -184.95, [degrees THERMISTOR is used to calculate incident max = 251.98 Celsius] longwave radiation.
INSTR_TEMP The instrument temperature. It is min = -179.97, [degrees THERMISTOR used to calculate incident longwave max = 210.11 Celsius] radiation.
TOT_INCIDENT_RADTN The total (direct and diffuse) min = -144.84, [Watts] PYRANOMETER incident solar radiation. max = 5363.78 [meter^-2]
TOT_INCIDENT_PAR The total (direct and diffuse) min = -427.96, [microEinst] QUANTUM incoming photosynthetically max = 5426.56 [meter^- 2] SENSOR active radiation. [sec^-1]
DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_RADTN The diffuse incident solar min = -268.02, [Watts] PYRANOMETER radiation. max = 7969.87 [meter^-2]
DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_PAR The diffuse incident photo- min = -400.44, [microEinst] QUANTUM synthetically active radiation. max = 6878.12 [meter^-2] SENSOR [sec^-1]
DATA_QUAL_CODE + The data quality information code. G=good, NCAR C=corrected+good, *=glitch, &=corrected+glitch, ?=suspect, #=suspect+glitch, $=corrected+suspect, !=corrected+glitch+suspect, R=reserved, _=missing
LAST_REVISION_DATE data, in the format (DD-MMM-YY). max = 11-FEB-91
FIFE_DATA_CRTFCN_CODE The FIFE Certification Code for * CPI=checked by FIS data, in the following format: CPI the principal (Certified by PI), CPI-??? (CPI - investigator, questionable data). CPI-MRG=merged data.
+ Each digit in the DATA_QUAL_CODE indicates the quality for a specific parameter as listed below.
RANGE PARAMETER ----- ------------------------ 1 OBS_DATE 2 OBS_TIME 3 DRY_BULB_TEMP 4 WET_BULB_TEMP 5 ATMOSPHERIC_PRESS 6 ACCUM_RAINFALL 7 RAINFALL_RATE 8 U_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC 9 V_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC 10 W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC 11 MAX_WIND_VELOC 12 SDEV_W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC 13 SURF_TEMP 14 SOIL_TEMP_10CM 15 SOIL_TEMP_50CM 16 SHORTWAVE_SOLAR_REFL 17 NET_RADTN 18 INCIDENT_LONGWAVE_RADTN 19 DOME_TEMP 20 INSTR_TEMP 21 TOT_INCIDENT_RADTN 22 TOT_INCIDENT_PAR 23 DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_RADTN 24 DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_PAR
The valid values for each digit are given in the range column in the chart above.
* Valid levels
The primary certification codes are:
EXM Example or Test data (not for release). PRE Preliminary (unchecked, use at your own risk). CPI Checked by Principal Investigator (reviewed for quality). CGR Checked by a group and reconciled (data comparisons and cross-checks).
The certification code modifiers are:
PRE-NFP Preliminary - Not for publication, at the request of investigator. CPI-MRG PAMS data that are "merged" from two separate receiving stations to eliminate transmission errors. CPI-??? Investigator thinks data item may be questionable.
SITEGRID_ID STATION_ID OBS_DATE OBS_TIME DRY_BULB_TEMP WET_BULB_TEMP ----------- ---------- ---------- -------- ------------- ------------- 2123-SAM 5 1987-05-01 15 24.35 16.26 2139-PAM 31 1987-05-01 15 -99.00 -99.00 2428-PAM 3 1987-05-01 15 24.45 16.46 3221-PAM 7 1987-05-01 15 24.43 16.52
A Digit Parameter
ATMOSIC_PRESS ACCUM_RAINFALL RAINFALL_RATE U_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC ------------- -------------- ------------- ------------------- 962.25 .00 .00 -6.01 962.01 .00 .00 -4.71 961.47 .00 .00 -5.67 963.30 .00 .00 -1.51 V_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC MAX_WIND_SPEED ------------------- ------------------- -------------- 3.01 .20 10.16 2.71 -.27 8.72 2.21 .03 9.76 .74 -.43 6.20 W_COMPNT_WIND_VELOC_SDEV SURF_TEMP SOIL_TEMP_10CM SOIL_TEMP_50CM ------------------------ --------- -------------- -------------- .41 21.67 18.72 13.08 .62 22.23 19.18 18.83 .43 21.73 -99.00 12.89 1.04 22.09 21.01 18.48 SHORTWAVE_SOLAR_REFL NET_RADTN INCIDENT_LONGWAVE_RADTN DOME_TEMP -------------------- --------- ----------------------- --------- 36.99 24.89 -5.43 210.08 37.41 15.64 32.84 29.08 37.00 10.18 INSTR_TEMP TOTAL_INCIDENT_RADTN TOTAL_INCIDENT_PAR ---------- -------------------- ------------------ 210.08 146.30 287.29 DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_RADTN DIFFUSE_INCIDENT_PAR DATA_QUAL_CODE ---------------------- -------------------- ------------------------- 136.28 274.74 GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG*GGGC*** __GGGGGGGG__GGGG*_______ GGGGGGGGGGGGG_GG*_______ GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG**_______ LAST_REVISION_DATE FIFE_DATA_CRTFCN_CODE ------------------ --------------------- 1989-05-23 CPI-MRG 1989-05-23 CPI-MRG 1989-05-23 CPI-MRG 1989-05-23 CPI-MRG
These are point data. The original data collected by the AMS has a sampling interval of 5 minutes. These 5 minute data have been averaged to produce 30 minute averages.
A general description of data granularity as it applies to the IMS appears in the EOSDIS Glossary.
The CD-ROM file format consists of numerical and character fields of varying length separated by commas. The character fields are enclosed with a single apostrophe. There are no spaces between the fields. Each file begins with five header records. Header records contain the following information:
Record 1 Name of this file, its table name, number of records in this file, path and name of the document that describes the data in this file, and name of principal investigator for these data. Record 2 Path and filename of the previous data set, and path and filename of the next data set. (Path and filenames for files that contain another set of data taken at the same site on the same day.) Record 3 Path and filename of the previous site, and path and filename of the next site. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken on the same day for the previous and next sites (sequentially numbered by SITEGRID_ID)). Record 4 Path and filename of the previous date, and path and filename of the next date. (Path and filenames for files of the same data set taken at the same site for the previous and next date.) Record 5 Column names for the data within the file, delimited by commas. Record 6 Data records begin.
Each field represents one of the attributes listed in the chart in the Data Characteristics Section and described in detail in the TDF file. These fields are in the same order as in the chart.
Formulas Used for Deriving 30 minute Values:
Voltage readings of the Precision Spectral Pyranometer were converted to energy units ([Watts][m^-2]) by a simple linear transformation:where:
Albedo was calculated as the ratio of RSW and ISW. Voltage readings of the Net radiometer were converted to energy units using the following formula:where:
FIS created the level-1 AMS data product by:
FIS creates the level-1a AMS data product by :
Not available at this revision.
Not available at this revision.
Not available at this revision.
See scanned figure of PAM Supplemented Instrument Stand.
Most remote station problems are detected at the base by direct observation of data being received and displayed. Determining the nature of most problems is generally straightforward. Typical problems experienced in the field, which introduce errors in the data, include a variety of modes. Psychrometer water bottles dry out or fail to wick properly, or their fans may freeze-up. Rain gauges can become clogged. Batteries can lose one or more cells. Water may invade components or cabling, causing failure or sporadic operation. Wind sensors may become choked with dust. Electronic boxes may experience component failures. Communication quality or timing may degrade.
In the glitch screening process, no alteration of these data was performed. Any variable values, which require rectification, were indicated in the flag field for the respective variable. In the data set, a glitch value is indicated by an '*' in the QUALITY field. Good and missing values are indicated by the characters 'G' and '', respectively. Other NCAR flag values which were a combination of the glitch flag and other conditions were not used for FIFE. The glitch screening process was performed by NCAR on every variable during generation of the data in the Common Mesonet Format (CMF) for FIFE.
The AMS data are forwarded to FIS at three processing stages: preliminary, merged (two or more receivers), and final (includes glitch screening). The data distributed by the FIS are the latest received and processed.
The glitch screening process uses an algorithm based upon median filtering with adaptive selection criteria (see. F.V. Brock 1986 for details). The adaptive selection process means that the algorithm is capable of treating each variable differently based upon the time-local noisiness of the data itself. The median filter is fifth-order for all sensors except accumulated precipitation, which is subject to only a first-order filter. The glitch screening process flags data values that are beyond 4 standard deviations of the median value of a population of 11 values (3 values for precipitation) centered in time around the data value of concern.
Not available at this revision.
Not available at this revision.
FIS staff applied a general Quality Assessment (QA) procedure to these data to identify inconsistencies and problems for potential users. As a general procedure, the FIS QA consisted of examining the maximum, minimum, average, and standard deviation for each numerical field in the data table. An attempt was made to find an explanation for unexpected high or low values, values outside of the normal physical range for a variable, or standard deviations that appeared inconsistent with the mean. In some cases, histograms were examined to determine whether outliers were consistent with the shape of the data distribution.
The discrepancies, which were identified, are reported as problems in the Known Problems with the Data Section.
In addition, FIS generated yearly station reports for each of the PAMS and SAMS. These reports list, by month, the number of readings in the month, and by parameter the number of unserviceable or missing, and questionable data for the month. These reports are available for 1987 and 1989. There is an abbreviated form of this report available for the 1988 data. They are found in the GRABBAG directory in the AMS_QUAL subdirectory on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1.
The data verification performed by the ORNL DAAC deals with the quality of the data format, media, and readability. The ORNL DAAC does not make an assessment of the quality of the data itself except during the course of performing other QA procedures as described below.
The FIFE data were transferred to the ORNL DAAC via CD-ROM. These CD-ROMs are distributed by the ORNL DAAC unmodified as a set or in individual volumes, as requested. In addition, the DAAC has incorporated each of the 98 FIFE tabular datasets from the CD-ROMs into its online data holdings. Incorporation of these data involved the following steps:
Each distinct type of data (i.e. "data set" on the CD-ROM), is accompanied by a documentation file (i.e., .doc file) and a data format/structure definition file (i.e., .tdf file). The data format files on the CD-ROM are Oracle SQL commands (e.g., "create table") that can be used to set up a relational database table structure. This file provides column/variable names, character/numeric type, length, and format, and labels/comments. These SQL commands were converted to SAS code and were used to create SAS data sets and subsequently to input data files directly from the CD-ROM into a SAS dataset. During this process, file names and directory paths were captured and metadata was extracted to the extent possible electronically. No files were found to be corrupted or unreadable during the conversion process.
Additional Quality Assurance procedures were performed as follows:
As errors are discovered in the online tabular data by investigators, users, or DAAC staff, corrections are made in cooperation with the principal investigators. These corrections are then distributed to users. CD-ROM data are corrected when re-mastering occurs for replenishment of CD-ROM stock.
The PRELIMINARY data reported all variables for the 2355 time as missing. Thus, the last 30 minute average period (2345) was always missing. This problem was corrected with the merged data sent from NCAR, and does not occur in distribution product created by FIS after May 22, 1989.
Some of the FIFE installed instruments (i.e., on the 'SUPER'-PAMS) did not have the calibration factors applied when the PRELIMINARY data was sent. The values reported were raw counts instead of physical units. A complete conversion was applied to the merged data (see the Formulae Section), and is present in distribution products created by FIS after May 22, 1989.
The values reported for the IR_DN, T_DOME, and T_INST variables are not correct prior to May 22, 1987.
The parameter PAR_DIF does not appear on the documentation file list. However, it is present in the data files as the last variable before the quality flags, and the noted formats are correct.
The preliminary data reported the parameter PAR_DIR. This in fact is the total PAR, and was renamed to PAR_TOT in all NCAR merged data. FIS uses the name PAR_DN, to be consistent with the other radiation instruments, in distribution products created after May 22, 1989. These names are for reference only - there is no difference in collecting or processing these data.
See the Formulae Section for documentation of all instrumentation changes and calibration efforts for the FIFE installed instruments.
These standard meteorological data for sites within the FIFE area could be used to compare with imagery-derived meteorological data of the area, and perhaps ground meteorological data from other prairie regions.
The variables contained in this data set have at various times had different names. The table below provides a lexicon to these names.
Original Previous Current
NCAR Name FIFE Name FIFE Name ____________ _________________ _____________ Temp_Dry Dry_Bulb_Temp Temp_Wet Wet_Bulb_Temp Pressure Atmospheric_Press Rain_Amt Accum_Rainfall Rain_Rate Rainfall_Rate U_Wind U_Compnt_Wind_Veloc V_Wind V_Compnt_Wind_Veloc W_Wind W_Compnt_vind_Veloc Wind_Max Max_Wind_Veloc Wind_Std Sdev_W_Compnt_Wind_Veloc TSFC TSFC Surf_Temp TSOL Tsoil_1 Soil_Temp_10cm Tsoil_2 Soil_Temp_50cm SOL_REFL/SOL_RF Sol_Refl Shortwave_Solar_Refl RNET Rnet Net_Radtn IRDN IR_DN Incident_Longwave_Radtn T_Dome Dome_Temp T_Inst Instr_Temp SOL_DN Sol_Dn Tot_Incident_Radtn PAR_DIR/PAR_T/PAR_TOT PAR_Dn Tot_Incident_PAR Sol_Dif Diffuse_Incident_Radtn PAR_D PAR_FIN Diffuse_Incident_PAR
Materials inside enclosures in grazed areas, including wires between sensing and recording units of the AMS, were occasionally considered culinary treats by grazing cattle. Some data gaps and glitches may have resulted.
The following FORTRAN program should serve as a guide to read the original level-1 and level-1A data that are stored on magnetic tape.
This data set can be used to provide input data for numerical simulation models. The simulation models are required to help extrapolate observations made at the intensive sites to other areas within the FIFE study area, and to provide estimates of radiation, energy, and mass fluxes during non-Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) periods.
The FIFE field campaigns were held in 1987 and 1989 and there are no plans for new data collection. Field work continues near the FIFE site at the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Konza research site (i.e., LTER continues to monitor the site). The FIFE investigators are continuing to analyze and model the data from the field campaigns to produce new data products.
Software to access the data set is available on the all volumes of the FIFE CD-ROM set. For a detailed description of the available software see the Software Description Document.
ORNL DAAC User Services
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665
ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Telephone: (865) 241-3952
FAX: (865) 574-4665
Users may place requests by telephone, electronic mail, or FAX. Data is also available via the World Wide Web at http://daac.ornl.gov.
FIFE data are available from the ORNL DAAC. Please contact the ORNL DAAC User Services Office for the most current information about these data.
The Level-1, 5 minute calibrated and unpacked data and the Level-1A, 30 minute averages are available on 4 mm, 8 mm, 6250, or 1600 BPI computer compatible tapes (CCTs).
The 30 minute, Level-1A Automated Micrometeorological Observations are available on FIFE CD-ROM Volume 1. The CD-ROM filename is as follows:
Where xxxx is the four digit code for the location within the FIFE site grid, yy is the last two digits of the year (e.g. Y87 = 1987), mm is the month of the year (e.g. M12 = December), and ddd is the day of the year, (e.g. 061 = sixty-first day in the year). Note: capital letters indicate fixed values that appear on the CD-ROM exactly as shown here, lower case indicates characters (values) that change for each path and file.
The format used for the filenames is: ydddgrid.sfx, where grid is the four-number code for the location within the FIFE site grid, y is the last digit of the year (e.g. 7 = 1987, and 9 = 1989), and ddd is the day of the year. The filename extension (.sfx), identifies the data set content for the file (see the Data Characteristics Section) and is equal to .AMS for this data set.
Militzer, J.W. 1987. User's Manual 001-44PAMII-001, Version 1.0, Portable Automated Mesonet II (PAMII). In: Nicolaidis, C. (ed.), Field Observing Facility, Atmospheric Technology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307-3000.
Brock, F.V., G.H. Saum, and S.R. Semmer. 1986. Portable automated mesonet II. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 3(4).
Burghart, C. 1987. Performing network analysis using ROBOT. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Field Observing Facility, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, available through the FOF office, 303-497-8813.
Corbet, J.M., and C. Burghart. 1987. A User's Manual for ROBOT. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Field Observing Facility, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, available through the FOF office, 303-497-8813.
Cronin, D.H. 1986. The rectangular GRID (RGRID) Analysis and Plotting Software. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Field Observing Facility, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, available through the FOF office, 303-497-8813.
Dabberdt, W.F., and J.A. Moore. 1987. Pluviometer evaluation. Preprint Vol, Sixth symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA., 12-16 January. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, MA, pp. 452-454.
Fujita, T.T., and R.M. Wakamoto. 1982. Effects of micro- and mesoscale obstructions on PAM winds obtained during project NIMROD. J. Appl. Meteorol. 21:840-858.
Hall, F.G., P.J. Sellers, I. MacPherson, R.D. Kelly, S. Verma, B. Markham, B. Blad, J. Wang, and D.E. Strebel. 1989. FIFE: Analysis and Results - A Review. Adv. Space Res. 9(7):275-293.
Pike, J.M., F.V. Brock, and S.R. Semmer. 1983. Integrated sensors for PAMII. Preprint Vol., Fifth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 11-15. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, MA, pp. 326-333.
Pike, J.M., and R.E. Rinehart. 1983. Calibration of a pressure sensor and a radar receiver using behavioral modeling. J. Climate Appl. Meteorol., 22:1462-1467.
Pike, J.M. 1984. Realistic uncertainties in pressure and temperature calibration reference values. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 1(2):115-119.
Pike, J.M. 1985. Field calibration of humidity instruments in the natural atmosphere. Proceedings of International Symposium on moisture and humidity, Washington, DC, April 15-18. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, pp. 111-119.
Pike, J.M. 1986. An advanced measurement concept: The integrated sensor. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 3(1):179-119.
Wade, C.G. 1987. A quality control program for surface mesometeorological data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 4:435-453.
Contact the EOS Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (see the Data Center Identification Section). Documentation about using the archive and/or online access to the data at the ORNL DAAC is not available at this revision.
A general glossary for the DAAC is located at Gov/glossary.
A general list of acronyms for the DAAC is available at Acronyms.
April 27, 1994 (citation revised on October 16, 2002).
Warning: This document has not been checked for technical or editorial accuracy by the FIFE Information Scientist. There may be inconsistencies with other documents, technical or editorial errors that were inadvertently introduced when the document was compiled, or references to preliminary data that were not included on the final CD-ROM.
Previous versions of this document have been reviewed by the Principal Investigator, the person who transmitted the data to FIS, a FIS staff member, or a FIFE scientist generally familiar with the data.
January 13, 1997.
Dabberdt, W. F. 1994. AMS (Automated Met Station) Data (FIFE). Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/12. Also published in D. E. Strebel, D. R. Landis, K. F. Huemmrich, and B. W. Meeson (eds.), Collected Data of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, Vol. 1: Surface Observations and Non-Image Data Sets. CD-ROM. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, U.S.A. (available from http://www.daac.ornl.gov).